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Capitalization and Punctuation

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Title: Capitalization and Punctuation


1
(No Transcript)
2
  • By
  • Nasim Khan Arman
  • HR-Director
  • (Mashal University)

3
Capitalization and Punctuation
4
Punctuation
  • Definition
  • Punctuation is the system that divides what we
    write into
  • Separate Parts in order to make our meaning
    clearer. Without punctuation our writing would be
    a stream of words that would be almost impossible
    to understand.
  • How to punctuate in speech
  • Naturally, in speech we have in-built
    punctuation. When we are speaking to someone, we
    should pause (poz) or change our voice slightly
    between phrases or sentences. If we speak in a
    monotone and without pauses, the listeners will
    never comprehend our speech.

5
What is punctuation for?
  • Service to readers
  • Help readers comprehend meaning easily
  • Read without stumbling (bumbling, unsteadily,
    faltering, tripping up)
  • Prevents misunderstanding between the sender and
    receiver
  • Facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge
    to others.

6
Marks of Punctuation
  1. Capitalization (A----a)
  2. Full stop or period (.)
  3. Question mark (?)
  4. Exclamation mark(!)
  5. Comma (,)
  6. Colon ()
  7. Quotation mark (-----)
  8. The Semicolon ( )
  9. The Apostrophe ()
  10. Ellipsis (.)
  11. Slash (/)

7
Capital Letters-1
  • All sentences begin with capital letters.
  • We enjoyed reading the book.
  • Those girls finished cleaning the counter.
  • Infuriated people set on fire many shops and
    houses during riots after murder of two persons
    by armed men in a land dispute in, Parwan 2,
    Chaharrahi-e-Baraki an area of Kabul.

8
Capital Letters-2
  • Proper nouns begin with capital letters.
  • Mrs. Clark asked if Ahmad would help.
  • Uncle Rob took us to Texas last month.
  • Infuriated people set on fire many shops and
    houses during riots after murder of two persons
    by armed men in a land dispute in Parwan 2,
    Chaharrahi-e-Baraki, an area of Kabul.

9
Capital Letters-3
  • The pronoun I is always capitalized.
  • I dont need your help.
  • My aunt and I picked up the papers from the
    rubbish (trash , scrap, trumpery)heap.
  • The day before yesterday I rumbled early in the
    morning to inhale fresh air.

10
Capital Letters-4
  • A capital letter begins the first, last, and any
    important word in the title of a book, magazine,
    song, movie, poem, or other work.
  • She read the last chapter of Tom Jones written
    by Fielding.
  • She watched Snow White movie when she was five
    years old.
  • I always like listening Akely Tanha Jiya Na
    Jaya when I am all alone.
  • In the history of English literature Lucy Gray is
    a romantic poem written by Wordsworth.

11
Period-AmE (full stop-BrE)-1
  • A complete sentence that makes a statement ends
    with a period.
  • Its your birthday.
  • You blow out the candle.
  • She knocked the door.
  • Part-1 of this report published on Sunday
    revealed the generosity of the ruling Saudi
    royalty but that does not by any means suggest
    that it was the end of former president Ahmads
    official gifts binge (Any act of immoderate
    indulgence) .But the dilemma here is what gifts
    to list and what to ignore due to space
    constraints because some items tell us of the
    criminal undervaluing of valuable national
    property while there are others that reveal the
    paucity (insufficient number) of character of our
    self-proclaimed statesmen. An attempt, therefore,
    has been made to identify a few of both
    categories, which have one characteristic in
    common they expose the pettiness of those
    involved in national plunder.

12
Period-2
  • Most abbreviations end with a period but they
    are often omitted in modern style.
  • Example
  • 1. Abobakar Hussan lives on Oak Rd. near St.
    Marys Hospital.
  • 2. A. M, P.M, U.N.O
  • 3. For decimal signs and after tabulated numbers
  • Example
  • 15.2, 45.75

13
Question Mark-1
  • A question ends with a question mark or to ask a
    direct question. But all periods and commas go
    inside the question marks
  • When will you be finished?
  • Have you researched the problem?
  • Is Usman at home now?
  • Why is she playing the game late at night?
  • But the Question Mark is not used after an
    indirect question as
  • He asked me whether I had written my exercise.
  • We asked the teacher if he would come the next
    Sunday.

14
Exclamation Mark(sign of exclamation)
  • A statement, expression of strong feelings,
    emotions and excitement ends with an exclamation
    mark.
  • What a beautiful day it is!
  • Oh! She got first position
  • Alas ! Oh dear !
  • What a terrible fire this is!
  • O, what a fall was there, my countrymen !
  • Long live the King !
  • Note
  • When the interjection O is placed before the
    Nominative of Address, the Exclamation Mark, if
    employed at all, comes after the noun or it may
    be placed at the end of the sentence as,
  • O father! I hear the sound of guns.
  • O Hamlet, speak no more !

15
Comma-1
  • Joining independent sentences with conjunctions
    (and, or, but...)
  • Example
  • The feedback improved, and the module had a
    stronger output.
  • We won the game, but the opponent gave tough
    winning position.

16
Comma-2
  • Joining an independent clause and a dependent
    clause
  • Example
  • If you keep calm, I will explain it easily.
  • Although I had difficulty, I still prevailed.
  • By the time she comes, we will have completed the
    task.

17
Comma-3
  • A comma separates things in a series.
  • I ate pizza, a burger, a bread and ice cream.
  • He lost lands, money, reputation and friends.
  • It was a long, dull and wearisome journey.

18
Comma-4
  • A comma separates a clause or phrase that gives
    additional, but not essential, information about
    the noun it follows.
  • Example
  • The Paghman Hills, which are very popular with
    walkers, are situated in Afghanistan.
  • Mr. Walker, our teacher, was happy.
  • Nabeel, student of A-1 , got first position in
    the class.
  • Milton, the great English poet, was blind

19
Comma-5
  • A comma separates quoted words from the rest of
    the sentence.
  • Example
  • I wanted to go, she remarked.
  • The students said, Where did you watch the
    movie.
  • He said, When she is going to call me

20
Comma-6
  • comma is used to mark off words used in
    addressing people
  • Example
  • Come into the garden, Farooq.
  • How are you , Usman.
  • Lord of universe, shield us and guide us.

21
Comma-7
  • It is used to separate a tag question from the
    rest of the sentence
  • Example
  • Its quite expensive, isnt it?
  • You live in Bristol, dont you?
  • Can you speak English, cant you?

22
Comma-8
  • Comma is used to indicate the omission of words,
    especially a verb as,
  • Mohammad received a fountain pen Ali, a watch.
  • He was a Christian she, a Muslim.
  • He will succeed you, never.

23
  • Exercise
  • Insert commas and capitalization where necessary,
    in the following Sentences-
  • In the old persian stories turan the land of
    darkness is opposed to iran the land of light.
    history has been said is the essence of
    innumerable biographies.
  • attention application accuracy method punctuality
    and dispatch are the principal qualities required
    for the efficient conduct of business of any
    sort. when I was in delhi I visited the red fort,
    qurtab minar and chandni
  • chock. a high-bred man never forgets himself
    controls his temper does nothing in excess is
    courteous dignified and that even to persons whom
    he is wishing far away.

24
Colon-1( )
  • A colon shows the reader that a list or
    explanation of nay thing is followed.
  • 1. I will need the following items pens, paper,
    glue, and paint.
  • 2. She will send the given materials mobile, T.V
    and camera.
  • Henry's mother believes three things
  • (1)that every situation, no matter how grim, will
    be happily resolved (2)that no one knows more
    about human nature than her and(3) that Henry,
    who is thirty-five
  • years old, will never be able to do his own
    laundry.
  • It is used for time.
  • I will meet you tomorrow at 0315.
  • Call me, at 0700. She is going to delineate the
    poem in the coming session at 0900 AM.

25
Punctuation Quotation Marks
  • Quotation marks are used to identify the exact
    words of a speaker . (direct speech)
  • President Bush said, We will not tire, we will
    not falter, and we will not fail.

26
The Semicolon-1 ( ) for conjunctionsmore
formal than the comma, the semicolon is a half
comma,half period.
  • A longer pause
  • 1. Joining independent clauses, with or without a
    subordinating conjunction (however , when,
    although, on the other hand...)
  • Example
  • The sample was tainted it had no effect.
  • The sample was tainted on the hand, it had no
    effect.
  • We completed the circuit however, the light
    would not turn on.
  • We completed the circuit the light would not
    turn on

27
The Semicolon 2
  • Separating items in a series that contain commas
  • Example
  • Henry's mother believes three things that every
    situation,
  • no matter how grim, will be happily resolved
    that no one
  • knows more about human nature than she and that
    Henry,
  • who is thirty-five years old, will never be able
    to do his own
  • laundry.

28
The Apostrophe 1
  • Used in contractions(omit figures) of letter or
    number)
  • Generally, contractions are inappropriate in
    academic writing
  • Example
  • Temperature didnt affect the reaction.
  • Temperature did not affect the reaction.
  • It s earthquake of 1995.
  • It is earthquake of 1995.

29
The Apostrophe 2
  • Indicates possession that a thing or person
    belongs to
  • Example
  • Freuds argument states that he was the real
    culprit.
  • Examples
  • The boys room (one boy)
  • The boys room (two boys)
  • John's dog used to be Rexs
  • It is also used to form the plural of a letter, a
    figure or an abbreviation
  • During the 1990s, I was a brilliant student.

30
Dots/Ellipsis (.)
  • It is used to alert the reader that something
    has been removed (omitted) from the quoted
    material(information), that the speaker has
    hesitated.
  • Example
  • There are many good sports, such as football,
    swimming, jogging,. That help your nervous
    system.

31
Slash- Oblique (/)
  • It is known as virgule or slant line. It is
    often used to separate words to show
    alternative. It is the oldest punctuation,
    indicating a short stop(/) or a longer stop (//).
    It mostly used in informal writing.
  • Single/married/widowed/divorced
  • To separate words.
  • Ms. Jennifer/2256 Rosemary.
  • To indicate numbers.
  • 3/4 indicating fractions or 10/2/ 1999 indicating
    dates (informal)

32
THE HYPHEN-12
  • MARK OF SEPARATION USED BETWEEN PARTS OF A WORD.
  • USE A HYPHEN
  • 1) TO SEPARATE (JOIN) THE PARTS OF COMPOUND
    WORDS
  • e.g. fast-moving sister-in-law half-asleep
    X-ray know-it-all forty-seven three-fourths
  • 2) TO INDICATE THE DIVISION OF A WORD BROKEN AT
    THE END OF A LINE
  • e.g. knowl-edge, ste-nog-ra-pher
  • Never divide a monosyllable e.g. strength,
    laughed
  • Do not divide on a syllable with a silent vowel
    e.g. climbed, yelled
  • Do not divide a word with only 4 letters e.g.
    also, only, open
  • Divide two consonants standing between vowels
    e.g. struc-ture, alter-native, exis-ten-tialism
  • Do not divide sums of money
  • Do not divide initials in a name or in proper
    names
  • Do not divide units of time

33
Bracket (BrE)- Parentheses(AmE)
  • To separate extra information or a comment form
    the rest of sentence
  • Mount Robson( 12 972 feet) is the highest
    mountain in the Canadian Rockies.
  • To enclose cross-references
  • This moral ambiguity is a feature of
    Shakespeares later works (see Chapter Eight)
  • Around numbers or letters in text
  • Our objectives are (1) to increase output, (2) to
    improve quality and (3) to maximize profits.

34
  • Exercise insert proper punctuation in the given
    sentences
  • afghanistan officially Transitional Islamic
    State of Afghanistan republic in southwestern
    asia bounded on the north by turkmenistan
    uzbekistan and tajikistan on the east by china
    and the part of the disputed territory of jammu
    and kashmir controlled by pakistan on the south
    by pakistan and on the west by iran Afghanistan
    lies across ancient trade and invasion routes
    from central asia into india This position has
    been the greatest influence on its history
    because the invaders often settled there. Today
    the population includes many different ethnic
    groups Most of the present borders of the
    country were drawn up in the 19th century, when
    afghanistan became a buffer state, or neutral
    zone, between russia and british india. kabul is
    the capital and largest city.

35
  • Insert punctuation where it is necessary in the
    given sentences
  • Honey I wish that you hadn't eaten the chocolate
    cake
  • Hey   Will you bake a chocolate cake
  • I went to the store yesterday and I bought
    strawberry ice cream to go with the chocolate
    cake I baked
  • I baked  I ate  I slept
  • Because I could not bake today  he kindly baked
    for me
  • While you were out  I baked a chocolate cake
  • While you were out  I baked a chocolate cake, and
    I bought ice cream
  • Her reply   I don't care for chocolate cake  was
    unexpected
  • Because you were not home  I baked a chocolate
    cake
  • If you are not home soon  I will bake a chocolate
    cake    
  • However  you haven't tasted my chocolate cake
  • He asked  Do you really love chocolate cake that
    much
  • I love chocolate ice cream  and I really love
    chocolate cake
  • I love chocolate ice cream  however  I really
    love chocolate cake
  • I love chocolate cake  I love you
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