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Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

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Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine So if growth factors and hormones affect stem cell functions, then our lifestyles . our experiences and behaviors . are also ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine


1
Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
2
Glow-in-the-dark dogs!
3
What is stem cell research?
  • Understand more about development, aging, disease
  • Experimental model systems
  • Prevent or treat diseases and injuries
  • Cell-based therapies
  • Pharmaceutical development
  • Includes testing and drug delivery

4
Trachea transplantationExample of adult stem
cell-based tissue regeneration
5
Outline of Presentation
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

6
Conception in a dish
Day 1
In the IVF procedure, sperm and eggs interact
in a dish leading to insemination. They literally
swim up to the egg and burrow toward the
nucleus. The first one to get there wins, and all
others are blocked out. Male fertility issue
Sometimes sperm cannot latch onto and penetrate
the egg. They may choose to have
Intra(within)-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
7
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
8
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
9
Day 1
10
Day 2
11
Day 2
12
Day 3
13
Day 4
14
Day 5
15
At what point is this a fetus?
  • Days 7-14 Uterine implantation
  • Day 14 Three distinct layers begin to
    form (no more pluripotent stem cells)
  • Days 14-21 Beginning of future nervous system
  • Days 21-24 Beginning of future face, neck,
    mouth, and nose
  • Weeks 3-8 Beginning of organ formation
  • This picture is Week 5
  • Week 5-8 Now its called a fetus
  • (no consensus on a single timepoint)

16
Embryonic Development Fish embryo
Keller et al. 2008
17
Outline of Presentation
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

18
Symmetric cell division
19
Asymmetric cell division
  1. Self-renews
  2. Differentiates

Progenitor cell
Stem cell
Stem cell
20
DIFFERENTIATION
DIFFERENTIATION
? SELF RENEWAL ?
21
Outline of Presentation
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

22
Pluripotent
Multi- potent
Fully mature
23
Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) CellsGenetically
engineering new stem cells
Skin cells
iPS cells
24
Pros and Cons to iPS cell technology
  • Pros
  • Cells would be genetically identical to patient
    or donor of skin cells (no immune rejection!)
  • Do not need to use an embryo
  • Cons
  • Cells would still have genetic defects
  • One of the pluripotency genes is a cancer gene
  • Viruses might insert genes in places we dont
    want them (causing mutations)

25
How do cells know what to become?
  • All cells in a person have the same DNA
  • Yet eye cells differ from nose cells
  • Central dogma of biology

26
Signals to Stem Cells
Little, et al. Chemical Reviews (2008).
27
Factors known to affect stem cells
  • Low stress levels
  • Regular exercise
  • Enriching experiences
  • Learning new information
  • Healthy diets rich in antioxidants
  • Avoid excessive drinking

Helping you help yourself
28
Outline of Presentation
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

29
Experimental model systemHeart muscle cells
beating in a petri dish!
Videos by The Exploratorium
30
Bone marrow transplantExample of adult stem
cell-based therapy
31
Spinal cord injuryExample of embryonic stem
cell-based therapy
  • Geron video http//www.geron.com/grnopc1clearance
    /

32
Outline of Presentation
  • Fertilization and embryonic development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

33
Why do researchers want to use embryonic stem
cells along with other technologies?
  • Pluripotent
  • Expanded developmental potential allows them
  • to be used in ways that adult stem cells cannot
  • Can proliferate indefinitely in culture
  • Easier to obtain than adult stem cells

34
Science is discovering the unknown
  • Stem cell field is still in its infancy
  • Human embryonic stem cell research is a decade
    old, adult stem cell research has 30-year head
    start
  • Holds hope for curing or improving treatments for
  • 70 diseases
  • How can you help to shape the direction of this
    field?

35
Take our survey please!
Students  https//www.surveymonkey.com/s/stemcell
2010   Teacher  https//www.surveymonkey.com/s/s
temcellteach2010
36
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Cloning of
embryonic stem cells
Udder cell
Egg cell
37
Types of Cloning
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