Cultural Bias controversy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Cultural Bias controversy


1
Cultural Bias controversy
  • You need to be able to say why this issue is
    controversial
  • You should be able to give examples of where
    cultural bias occurs in Psychology
  • You should be able to suggest ways of dealing
    with cultural bias.

2
Cultural Bias in Psychology
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Psychology is predominantly a white,
    Euro-American enterprise
  • 64 of psychological researchers from US
  • In some texts, gt90 of studies have US PPs
  • Samples predominantly white middle class
  • But psychology purports to tell us about human
    nature can this really be true?

3
Cultural Bias in Psychology
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Try the Chiltern Test.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vWcEfzHB08QEfeature
    player_embedded
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vcM1qfhyocKw
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vXxmccYBXJLgfeature
    related

4
Cultural Bias Examples
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • IQ testing and research (e.g. Eysenck)
  • IQ tests developed in the West contain embedded
    assumptions about intelligence, but what counts
    as intelligent behaviour varies from culture to
    culture
  • Non-Westerners may be disadvantaged by such tests
    and then viewed as inferior when then dont
    perform as Westerners do
  • See the Chiltern Test.

5
Cultural Bias Examples
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Ainsworths SSC for attachment
  • Not appropriate for assessing children from
    non-US or UK populations
  • Cultural differences in child-rearing styles make
    results liable to misinterpretation e.g. German
    or Japanese samples

6
Cultural Bias Examples
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Moral development (Kohlberg)
  • Based on a hierarchy of developmental stages,
    strongly influenced by Western individualism
    tradition of abstract moral reasoning
  • Not an accurate reflection of moral reasoning in
    some other (e.g. collectivist) cultures
  • Consequently, some cultures score lower on
    moral development when they are actually just
    different

7
Small Group Task
  • Read through textbook pg 74 and answer the
    following questions.
  • Why is cultural bias a problem?
  • What is the difference between Alph and Beta
    bias?
  • Give some examples of Alpha and Beta biases in
    research.
  • What is the difference between ethnocentrism and
    cultural relativism?
  • Why might the biological approach be culturally
    biased?

8
Plenary
  • Post-its game choice of terms
  • Alpha bias
  • Beta Bias
  • Enthocentrism
  • Cultural relativism
  • Cultural neuropsychology
  • Collectivist
  • Individualist

9
Ways to deal with cultural bias
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Emics and etics
  • Emics are the constructs particular to a specific
    culture
  • Etics are constructs that are universal to all
    people
  • Bias can occur when emics and etics get mistaken
    for each other

10
Emics
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Emic constructs are specific to particular
    cultures, so they vary from place to place
  • Likely to be ignored or misinterpreted
  • Researchers from one culture may not be sensitive
    to local emics
  • Their own cultural filters may prevent them
    from detecting them or appreciating their
    significance

11
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Emic Approach
  • Emphasize every culture is unique
  • Study behaviour within a culture
  • Produce findings significant for that culture
    only
  • Examples ?
  • See Handout

12
Etics
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Etic constructs are assumed to be universal, but
    may not be
  • This can lead to imposed etics, where a
    construct from one culture is applied
    inappropriately to another

13
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Etic Approach
  • DERIVED ETICS
  • Done by cross-cultural psychologists
  • Assumes most behaviour is common to all humans
    but cultural factors affect this behaviour
  • Explanations are DERIVED (worked out) from
    cross-cultural studies of a behaviour
  • Examples?
  • See handout

14
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Etic Approach
  • IMPOSED ETICS
  • Done by cross-cultural psychologists
  • Assumes most behaviour is not affected by
    culture.
  • Study behaviour from outside a culture
  • Study many cultures
  • Produce findings they believe they can apply to
    all cultures
  • Examples ?

15
Ethnocentrism
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • This occurs when a researcher assumes that their
    own culturally specific practices or ideas are
    natural or right
  • When other cultures are observed to differ from
    the researchers own, they may be regarded in a
    negative light
  • E.g. primitive, degenerate,
    unsophisticated, undeveloped etc.
  • Becomes racism when other cultures are denigrated
    or their traditions regarded as irrelevant etc.

16
Can We Avoid Cultural Bias?
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Remember that all cultures are not the same
  • The individualist-collectivist dimension reminds
    us of this, but is still a gross simplification
  • Greater use should be made of research conducted
    from within each culture, by members of that
    culture
  • Cross cultural research should be encouraged

17
Conducting Cross Cultural Research
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Two possible approaches
  • Cross cultural approach study many different
    cultures to identify the variations
  • Transcultural approach study many different
    cultures to identify the similarities
  • When doing this, need to be aware of the pitfalls!

18
Conducting Cross-Cultural Research
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Identify the challenges of cross-cultural
    research on pg75 of textbook.
  • Apply them to Buss AS Core study.

19
Essay Plan
  • Intro What is cultural bias and why is it a
    problem.
  • Give examples of cultural bias in existing
    research and say why the studies were biased.
  • Explain types of bias, Alpha, beta and
    ethnocentrism using examples and analysis (Saying
    what is suggests)
  • Explain ways of dealing the bias. Include
    indigenous psychologies and distinction between
    emics and etics. Provide examples and analysis.
  • Explain challenges of conducting cross-cultural
    research successfully and why it is important for
    psychology.
  • Write a conclusion which summarises and suggests
    actions for the future.
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Cultural Bias controversy

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Title: Cultural Bias controversy


1
Cultural Bias controversy
  • You need to be able to say why this issue is
    controversial
  • You should be able to give examples of where
    cultural bias occurs in Psychology
  • You should be able to suggest ways of dealing
    with cultural bias.

2
Cultural Bias in Psychology
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Psychology is predominantly a white,
    Euro-American enterprise
  • 64 of psychological researchers from US
  • In some texts, gt90 of studies have US PPs
  • Samples predominantly white middle class
  • But psychology purports to tell us about human
    nature can this really be true?

3
Cultural Bias in Psychology
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Try the Chiltern Test.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vWcEfzHB08QEfeature
    player_embedded
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vcM1qfhyocKw
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vXxmccYBXJLgfeature
    related

4
Cultural Bias Examples
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • IQ testing and research (e.g. Eysenck)
  • IQ tests developed in the West contain embedded
    assumptions about intelligence, but what counts
    as intelligent behaviour varies from culture to
    culture
  • Non-Westerners may be disadvantaged by such tests
    and then viewed as inferior when then dont
    perform as Westerners do
  • See the Chiltern Test.

5
Cultural Bias Examples
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Ainsworths SSC for attachment
  • Not appropriate for assessing children from
    non-US or UK populations
  • Cultural differences in child-rearing styles make
    results liable to misinterpretation e.g. German
    or Japanese samples

6
Cultural Bias Examples
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Moral development (Kohlberg)
  • Based on a hierarchy of developmental stages,
    strongly influenced by Western individualism
    tradition of abstract moral reasoning
  • Not an accurate reflection of moral reasoning in
    some other (e.g. collectivist) cultures
  • Consequently, some cultures score lower on
    moral development when they are actually just
    different

7
Small Group Task
  • Read through textbook pg 74 and answer the
    following questions.
  • Why is cultural bias a problem?
  • What is the difference between Alph and Beta
    bias?
  • Give some examples of Alpha and Beta biases in
    research.
  • What is the difference between ethnocentrism and
    cultural relativism?
  • Why might the biological approach be culturally
    biased?

8
Plenary
  • Post-its game choice of terms
  • Alpha bias
  • Beta Bias
  • Enthocentrism
  • Cultural relativism
  • Cultural neuropsychology
  • Collectivist
  • Individualist

9
Ways to deal with cultural bias
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Emics and etics
  • Emics are the constructs particular to a specific
    culture
  • Etics are constructs that are universal to all
    people
  • Bias can occur when emics and etics get mistaken
    for each other

10
Emics
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Emic constructs are specific to particular
    cultures, so they vary from place to place
  • Likely to be ignored or misinterpreted
  • Researchers from one culture may not be sensitive
    to local emics
  • Their own cultural filters may prevent them
    from detecting them or appreciating their
    significance

11
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Emic Approach
  • Emphasize every culture is unique
  • Study behaviour within a culture
  • Produce findings significant for that culture
    only
  • Examples ?
  • See Handout

12
Etics
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Etic constructs are assumed to be universal, but
    may not be
  • This can lead to imposed etics, where a
    construct from one culture is applied
    inappropriately to another

13
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Etic Approach
  • DERIVED ETICS
  • Done by cross-cultural psychologists
  • Assumes most behaviour is common to all humans
    but cultural factors affect this behaviour
  • Explanations are DERIVED (worked out) from
    cross-cultural studies of a behaviour
  • Examples?
  • See handout

14
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Etic Approach
  • IMPOSED ETICS
  • Done by cross-cultural psychologists
  • Assumes most behaviour is not affected by
    culture.
  • Study behaviour from outside a culture
  • Study many cultures
  • Produce findings they believe they can apply to
    all cultures
  • Examples ?

15
Ethnocentrism
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • This occurs when a researcher assumes that their
    own culturally specific practices or ideas are
    natural or right
  • When other cultures are observed to differ from
    the researchers own, they may be regarded in a
    negative light
  • E.g. primitive, degenerate,
    unsophisticated, undeveloped etc.
  • Becomes racism when other cultures are denigrated
    or their traditions regarded as irrelevant etc.

16
Can We Avoid Cultural Bias?
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Remember that all cultures are not the same
  • The individualist-collectivist dimension reminds
    us of this, but is still a gross simplification
  • Greater use should be made of research conducted
    from within each culture, by members of that
    culture
  • Cross cultural research should be encouraged

17
Conducting Cross Cultural Research
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Two possible approaches
  • Cross cultural approach study many different
    cultures to identify the variations
  • Transcultural approach study many different
    cultures to identify the similarities
  • When doing this, need to be aware of the pitfalls!

18
Conducting Cross-Cultural Research
www.psychlotron.org.uk
  • Identify the challenges of cross-cultural
    research on pg75 of textbook.
  • Apply them to Buss AS Core study.

19
Essay Plan
  • Intro What is cultural bias and why is it a
    problem.
  • Give examples of cultural bias in existing
    research and say why the studies were biased.
  • Explain types of bias, Alpha, beta and
    ethnocentrism using examples and analysis (Saying
    what is suggests)
  • Explain ways of dealing the bias. Include
    indigenous psychologies and distinction between
    emics and etics. Provide examples and analysis.
  • Explain challenges of conducting cross-cultural
    research successfully and why it is important for
    psychology.
  • Write a conclusion which summarises and suggests
    actions for the future.
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