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Fire Management Approaches


Fire Management Approaches F/SUPT HERBERT B CEZAR Although it has been widely reported that the lights remained on during the attacks on Sept. 11, there have been ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fire Management Approaches

Fire Management Approaches

Fire Management Approaches from Other Countries
In the United States Of America
  • Types of Organization
  • Public Fire Department. A department of municipal
    government, with the head of the department
    directly responsible to the chief administrative
    officer of the municipality.
  • Less Common is a Fire Bureau which is usually a
    division of a department of public safety. In
    this type of organization of public safety
    department, head must divide his or her time
    between several important functions, including
    Police and Fire Service.

  • The County Fire Department. Frequently, this Fire
    Department begins with a county fire prevention
    office and a fire communication system. The
    smaller (often volunteer) department initially
    remains autonomous for fire suppression purposes,
    but gradually more functions, including
    suppression, are assumed by the county
  • Fire District. It is organized under provisions
    of state or provincial law. It is in effect, a
    separate unit of government having its own
    government body composed of commissioners or
    trustees, and is commonly supported by a tax
    levied through the District. The fire district
    may include portion of one or more township or
    other government subdivision.

personnel Career firefighters Combination of
career / on call or volunteer personnel
During the evacuation of the World Trade Center
as a result of the 1993 bombing, the loss of
normal and emergency power left the stairways in
total darkness, a darkness that far exceeded what
will typically be encountered at night in a home.
A survey by the National Fire Protection
Association after the attack revealed that, for
those who made the decision to exit, more than 60
percent needed more than an hour to get out.
Prevention Fire Investigation Incident
Command EMS Delivery Hazmats Mutual Aid or
Automatic Aid MIS ?FIDO Disaster Management
  • Refer to those activities directly unvalued with
    Fire Suppression Operations.
  • Fire Suppression Officer is primarily considered
    to be line officer.
  • Fire Prevention
  • Training
  • Maintenance
  • Communication
  • Research and Planning
  • Community Relation
  • Financial Management
  • Personal Management
  • Fire Protection Engineering

  • Fire Department Structured on the Basics
  • of Four Management Principles
  • Unity of Command
  • Span of Control
  • Division of Labor
  • Discipline

Other Views of Organization Functions- Fire
Department can be organized along Functional
Lines, example, training division is responsible
for leading and coordinating department training
activities. Engine Company/ truck companies have
certain defined functions responsibilities at a
fire. Geography- Each company is responsible
for specific geographic area. Fire stations are
located throughout the community to ensure a
rapid response time to every area and each
station is responsible for a specific geographic
area. Staffing- Staffing issues affect all fire
department- career fire department, combination
department and volunteer department. It is
particularly impatient to ensure that there are
enough responders available at all times.
Function of Management Planning - means
developing a scheme, program or method the worked
out before hand to accomplish an
objective Organizing - means putting together
into an orderly functional structured
whole Leading - means guiding or directing in a
course of action Controlling - means
restraining, regulating, governing,
counteracting, or overpowering
  • Rules Regulations and SOPs
  • This is essential to ensure a safe and harmonious
    working environment.
  • Rules and Regulations are developed by various
    governments a government authorized organization
    to implement a law that has been passed by a
    government body.
  • Policies- service develop to provide definite
    guidelines for present and future actions
  • SOP are written organizational directives that
    establish or prescribed specific operational or
    administrative methods top be followed routinely
    for performance designated operations or actions.

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  • Advanced Fire Administration
  • A presentation of modern management and planning
    techniques that apply to organizing a fire
    department. Procedures explored include those for
    evaluation and control of budgeting, personnel,
    communications, and planning. The traditional and
    evolving roles of the fire department in
    protection, prevention, and community service are
  • Analytic Approaches to Public Fire Protection A
    presentation of techniques of operations research
    and systems analysis as they apply to problems in
    fire protection. Discussion covers techniques
    such as cost/benefit analysis, methods for
    locating fire stations, and the use of
    statistical analysis.

Fire-Personnel Management An examination of
personnel practices, management procedures,
collective bargaining, binding arbitration, and
applicable legislative and administrative
procedures. Topics include promotion, personnel
development, career and incentive systems,
validation of physical requirements, and
managerial and supervisory procedures.
  • Fire-Prevention Organization and Management An
    examination of prevention as the primary
    community-based strategy for fire protection.
    Topics include community risk reduction, codes
    and standards, inspections and plans review,
    incident investigation, fire-prevention research,
    and the relationship of master planning to fire
    prevention. The cultural, economic, governmental,
    nongovernmental, and departmental influences on
    fire prevention are also explored. Emphasis is on
    applying the principles studied to anticipate
    problems and develop strategies for fire

Incendiary-Fire Analysis and Investigation A
presentation of procedures and techniques for
determining, collecting, comparing, and analyzing
data on incendiary fires. Topics include
principles of ignition phenomena and propagation
variables, the role of insurance and governmental
programs in combating arson, and techniques of
analyzing and predicting data, such as pattern
analysis. Discussion deals with the legislative,
economic, psychological, sociological, and legal
aspects of incendiarism.
  • Disaster and Fire Defense Planning A study of
    the concept and principles of assessing community
    risk and then developing regional and cooperative
    procedures and plans of response. The
    relationship of structural, climatic, and
    topological variables to group fires,
    conflagrations, and natural disasters is
    analyzed. Other aspects introduced include pre-
    and post occurrence factors, such as
    organization, communications, planning,
    coordination, and command and logistics.

  • Fire-Related Human Behavior
  • Explanation of the dynamics of human behavior in
    fire incidents. Emphasis is on the functions and
    implementation of prevention practices, programs,
    codes, and ordinances. The concepts of risk,
    personal invulnerability, role, and group
    dynamics are examined in relation to design
    aspects of buildings and mitigation of the
    effects of fire on modern society. Discussion
    deals with proper ways of conducting post fire
    interviews, and emphasizes the psychological
    effects of communications during emergencies.

  • Managerial Issues in Hazardous Materials The
    development of the knowledge and skills necessary
    to safely and effectively manage a hazardous
    materials emergency. Topics include health and
    safety concerns, political issues, regulations,
    site management and control, hazard and risk
    evaluation, information management, response
    objectives, special tactical problems,
    decontamination, and termination activities.
    Federal regulations such as OSHA 1910.120 and
    NFPA 472 (Standard on Professional Competency of
    Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents) are

Fire-Protection Structure and Systems Design
Presentation of design principles involved in
protecting buildings and other structures from
fire. Empirical tests and prediction procedures
are explained. Practices in designing systems for
detecting, controlling, and suppressing fires, as
well as the basic hydraulic design of sprinkler
and water-spray systems are presented. Recent
innovations in the field are reviewed.
Political and Legal Foundations of Fire
Protection A consideration of the legal basis
for the police powers of the government in
connection with public safety. The
responsibility, legal limitations, and liability
of fire-prevention organizations and personnel
are examined. Judicial decisions are reviewed,
with a focus on the implications of
product-liability cases in the field of fire
  • The Community and Fire Threat An analysis of
    the sociological, economic, and political
    characteristics of communities and their
    influence on the fire problem. Discussion covers
    methods of studying community profiles and
    structures, and the economic, geographic, and
    sociological variables of fire threat. The
    functional basis of the community is examined,
    with attention to the diverse social roles of
    community agencies and the roles of fire service
    as a complex organization within the community.
  • Fire Dynamics
  • An investigation into the phenomena of fire
    propagation in the air regulated phase and the
    fuel-regulated phase. Variables in the
    development of pre- and post flashover fire are
    analyzed. Topics include geometric material
    gaseous, fluid-flow, and thermodynamic
    parameters and fire models of compartments and

  • Application of Fire Research A practical,
    up-to-date review of fire research and its
    application. The transfer of research and its
    implications for fire prevention and protection
    programs are addressed. The focus is on both
    national and international studies, and on
    maintaining awareness of ongoing research

  • Internship in Fire Science Through Co-op
    (3) Prerequisite Formal admission to the Co-op
    program. An opportunity to combine academic
    theory with new, career-related experience in
    fire science. At least 12 hours per week must be
    devoted to new tasks for a minimum of 180 hours
    during the Co-op session four new tasks must be
    delineated in the Learning Proposal and the
    course requirements must be completed. May be
    repeated upon approval of a new Learning Proposal
    that demonstrates new tasks and objectives
    related to fire science and that continues to
    advance application of academic theory in the
    workplace. Students may earn up to 15 credits in
    all internship coursework through Co-op toward a
    first bachelors degree and up to 9 credits
    toward a second bachelors degree. Co-op credits
    may not be used for general education
    requirements and, unless otherwise specified, no
    more than 6 Co-op credits may be used in the
    academic major and minor (combined).

Internship in Fire Science Through Co-op
(6) Prerequisite Formal admission to the Co-op
program. An opportunity to combine academic
theory with new, career-related experience in
fire science. At least 20 hours per week must be
devoted to new tasks for a total of 300 hours
during the Co-op session five to eight new tasks
must be delineated in the Learning Proposal and
the course requirements must be completed. May be
repeated upon approval of a new Learning Proposal
that demonstrates new tasks and objectives
related to fire science and that continues to
advance application of academic theory in the
workplace. Students may earn up to 15 credits in
all internship coursework through Co-op toward a
first bachelors degree and up to 9 credits
toward a second bachelors degree. Co-op credits
may not be used for general education
requirements and, unless otherwise specified, no
more than 6 Co-op credits may be used in the
academic major and minor (combined).
Other Examples from United Kingdom giving
emphasis on 9/11
  • Pathway Marking Can Speed Evacuation Signage and
    markings can play crucial role if a building
    loses power

Samples of photo luminescent materials
  • It is essential for facility executives to
    realize how poor conditions can be during an
    emergency, and how important it is that every
    reasonable effort be made to ensure that
    occupants can move through passageways and stairs
    as rapidly as possible. Walking in darkness is
    not something that many people do with
    confidence. Even at home, movement is slower in
    the middle of the night how can rapid movement
    through darkness be expected in an unfamiliar
    environment during an emergency? The answer, of
    course, is that it cannot.

  • As a result of those problems, the Port
    Authority of New York installed a photo
    luminescent pathway marking system to highlight
    the locations of treads, landings, handrails and
    exits. Photo luminescent safety markings glow in
    the dark after being charged by normal ambient
    lighting. They are non-electrical and
    non-radioactive, and the glow is very bright in
    the first 90 minutes but can be visible for
    several days.

  • Although it has been widely reported that the
    lights remained on during the attacks on Sept.
    11, there have been some reports of lights having
    been off in parts of some stairways. At least one
    survivor of the South Tower relied on the pathway
    marking system to descend from the 84th Floor,
    using it to navigate past a darkened,
    smoke-filled section of the stair in the impact
    zone. Further investigation should reveal what
    role the photo luminescent pathway marking played
    in egress.

Fire Management System of Japan
Fire services in Japan were started as autonomous
bodies with functions closely linked to local
communities, and these bodies have been playing
an important role in ensuring people's safety,
including such activities as fire prevention,
fire fighting, rescue operations, and disaster
control operations in earthquakes, storms and
floods, and have been undergoing a number of
reforms in system-, methodology-, facility-,
material- and equipment-related improvement and
strengthening resulting from various efforts made
throughout their history.
We are required to make efforts continually in
the future to further improve and strengthen the
present fire defense system, which is placed
mainly under the control of local autonomous
bodies and developed around regional fire defense
headquarters and Volunteer Fire Corps and on the
basis of cooperation with residents of the
communities. In addition, we are also required to
establish a comprehensive fire defense system
today from a national point of view because of
the need for emergency control in a large-scale,
extraordinary disaster such as the expected great
earthquake. Fire and Disaster Management Agency
intends to address these problems positively and
make an all-out effort to ensure people's
security and develop communities that promise a
peaceful life for people.
Fire and Disaster Management Agency formulates
various measures to prevent disasters, such as
fire, earthquake, storm, or flood damage, and to
develop the necessary legal basis and improve
armaments consisting of the materials and
equipment necessary to minimize damage when a
disaster occurs. It also functions as the contact
in the national government for local autonomous
bodies and fire defense-related organizations,
while promoting fire defense administration in a
manner comprehensible to the public in general.
It maintains the security of people's lives
through various fire defense and disaster
prevention measures including public relations
activities, fire defense organization reforms,
and education and training of fire service
personnel as well as members of Volunteer Fire
Utilizing the available facilities and human
resources, fire services must achieve the
following tasks (1) to protect people's lives
and property from fire, and (2) to take
precautions against disasters such as storms,
floods, fires and earthquakes and to mitigate the
damage resulting from these.
Disaster Japan's land area with high disaster risks Preparedness for an imminent crisis, a large-scale earthquake Emergency Fire Response Teams - to further enhance our emergency control system steadfast in any large-scale disaster - Disaster prevention through activation of community level efforts (voluntary disaster preventing organizations) Development of fire and disaster prevention communications network useful in disaster Protection Development of a legal system steadfast in handling national crisis and a system to mitigate damage from an armed attack (People Protection Law) Enhancement of autonomous body capabilities Under the mission of protecting people's lives from terrorism
Fire Fighting Over 1 million fire service personnel working on the fire fighting fronts in the country Timely, adequate action to control the 60,000 fires that occur in a year Volunteer Fire Corps activities taking root in the regions First Aid Quick action determines life or death. Present pre-hospital care conditions in Japan. Improvement of Emergency Life-Saving Technician program and its effect Lecture for further improvement of lifesaving efficiency Special rescue teams are reliable in an emergency Rescue
Prevention Prevent fire. In the worst case, minimize the damage Determined to Correct Violations and Sealing Off of Escape Routes Promoting Preparedness Against Home Fires Research and development of scientific technologies for fire prevention Utilizing the Power of Private Enterprise for Fire Prevention - Promotion Program for Scientific Fire and Disaster Prevention Technologies -
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Fire Management System of Singapore
Singapore Fire Department Civil defence in
Singapore the SCDF in profile from the
inception of Singapore's National Civil Defence
Plan in 1982, to an integration with the Fire
Services in 1989
  • The SCDF operates in unique circumstances. Dense
    urbanization and limited land space sees
    industries and the population packed in close
    proximity, presenting an abundance of challenges
    and operational pitfalls from high-rise
    buildings, road congestion and a constant process
    of urban renewal and development.

The SCDF's structure, mode of operations and
service policies are tailored to suit Singaporean
concerns and needs. In times of both war and
peace, the SCDF operates on a three-tier command
structure, with HQ SCDF commanding four
territorially-based land divisions composed of
the fire stations, fire posts and reserve units
such as rescue battalions. In addition, the Fire
Safety and Shelter Bureau serves to regulate fire
safety standards and oversees the Civil Defense
Shelter Programme in Singapore.
Community involvement in Singapore's Civil
Defense efforts is recognized as critical in
successfully preparing the nation for
emergencies. The SCDF is continually developing
meaningful and interactive ways to reach out and
engage the local community. Aside from the
deployment of hi-tech gadgetry and multimedia, a
philosophy of developing partnerships with
stakeholders and fostering a sense of ownership
about local safety and security issues is central
to the SCDF's efforts. In a multi-racial society,
bringing communities together to seek solutions
to their own safety concerns has also served as
an invaluable opportunity to tighten communal
Singapore continuation
  • Every second is critical in the business of life
    saving, and the realities of heavy traffic and
    the dense maze of housing estates occupied by
    almost 80 per cent of the local population has
    seen the development and deployment of a whole
    generation of lighter' response units unique to
    the SCDF. These include fully equipped paramedics
    and firefighters mounted on motorcycles, and the
    SCDF's Light Fire Attack Vehicle (or Red Rhino),
    all of which are able to reach incident sites
    faster than the traditional ambulances and
    full-sized pumpers.

World events of the past two years have seen the
SCDF take major steps to reposition itself in an
altered security climate, considerably enhancing
its resources and response capabilities while
innovating to keep ahead of new threats.
Challenges posed by the threat of bio-terrorism
and chemical attacks, for instance, have been met
with the development of new customized hazmat
equipment and solutions to enhance existing
appliances, such as the incorporation of foaming
and immediate decontamination capabilities to all
pumpers and red rhinos. Like many agencies
playing a part in national safety and security,
the SCDF has had to re-assess itself in the face
of new risks posed to civilian populations.
Conventional concerns such as ensuring the
delivery of quality emergency services to the
public, and driving home messages on the
importance of preparedness and fire safety,
however, are far from diminished. In its pursuit
of organizational excellence, the SCDF is
currently gearing up to attain the most
prestigious of business excellence awards in
Singapore, the Singapore Quality Class.
Wild land Fire Leadership and Principles USA
  • Wild land Fire Leadership Values and Principles
    Values Principles
  • Duty Be proficient in your job, both technically
    and as a leader. Make sound and timely decisions.
    Ensure tasks are understood, supervised, and
    accomplished. Develop your subordinates for the
  • Respect Know your subordinates and look out for
    their well-being. Keep your subordinates
    informed. Build the team. Employ your
    subordinates in accordance with their
  • Integrity Know yourself and seek improvement.
    Seek responsibility and accept responsibility for
    your actions. Set the example.

Theories Principles on Fire Management /
Government Constitutional Requirement
A modern, efficient and responsive National Fire
Protection agency working towards a public safety
conscious society.
To protect life and properties through the
prevention and suppression of destructive fires
investigation of their causes and the provision
of emergency medical rescue service with the
active support of the public.
Countrys Fire Problem
Provincial HQs
Fire Service Organization
City / Mun Station
Countrys Fire Problem
Countrys Fire Problem
Example. Management Principle
A CASE STUDY by Tom Packard and Robin Reid
The Fire Officer of the future must look beyond
the physical attributes of individuals and match
strengths with the organizations need in order
for the organization, the individuals and the
officers to be successful.