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NON-NATIVE SPECIES

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non-native species a modern-day cause of competition and extinction – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NON-NATIVE SPECIES


1
NON-NATIVE SPECIES
  • A MODERN-DAY CAUSE OF COMPETITION AND EXTINCTION

2
What Are Native Species?
  • Native species are those that normally live and
    thrive in a particular community. They occupy
    specific habitats and have specific niches in
    their native environment. They have natural
    predators that help to keep their populations in
    check.

3
What Are Non-Native Species?
  • Species that migrate into an ecosystem or are
    deliberately or accidentally introduced into an
    ecosystem by humans.

4
Africanized Honeybee (Killer Bees)
  • 1957 African honey be crossed with native honey
    bee to produce an overly aggressive bee in Brazil
    which escaped.
  • Displaced the native honeybee through competitive
    exclusion and migrated northward at a rate of 200
    miles per year.
  • Northward migratory rate slowing down due to
    climate (frost).
  • Will global warming allow their migration to move
    northward over time?
  • Problems They are so aggressive, they not only
    out-compete native bee populations, but pose
    great health threats to humans.

5
Geographic Distribution of Africanized Honey Bees
in USA
6
Fire Ants
  • Late 1930s introduced by accident in Alabama in
    shiploads of lumber and cargo.
  • Interspecific competition reduced native ant
    species by 90!
  • Fire ants are very aggressive and through direct
    combat reduced native species.
  • Since there are no natural predators, they
    produced more colonies than native ants and
    increased their population density significantly
    in south.

7
Fire Ants
  • Interference Competition fire ants consumed
    food and invaded habitat of native ant species
    (competitive exclusion principle).
  • They release sulfuric acid when they bite and can
    kill deer fawn, lizards, birds, livestock, pets,
    and human babies.
  • Fire ants have invaded trucks and caused roadside
    accidents when drivers have been attacked.
  • Chew through underground cables and disrupt
    electric and phone service and have started
    electrical fires in the south.

8
Fire Ants
  • They are pesticide resistant (Directional Natural
    Selection of r-strategists)
  • USDA (US Department of Agriculture) has
    introduced a non-native parasitic fly that
    deposits eggs on the fire ants. When the larvae
    develop, they eat the heads of the fire ant.
    CHAOS!

9
Fire Ant Distribution in the USA
(Degrees Celsius)
10
Kudzu Vine
  • 1930s - imported from Japan and planted in the
    southeastern USA to help combat soil erosion
    following the Dust Bowl.
  • 1940s US Soil Conservation Service (federal
    agency) paid farmers a subsidy to grow kudzu
    vine.
  • Problems No natural predators, very prolific
    reproduction. Costs USA government 500
    million/year to eradicate!
  • Possible Commercial Uses Chemicals produced in
    the vine are used in Japan to combat diseases.
  • USA found chemicals in vine may reduce alcoholic
    cravings.
  • May be a source for paper products!

11
(No Transcript)
12
Kudzu Vine Distribution in USA
13
Bamboo
14
Wooly Adelgid
15
Wooly Adelgid
  • Native to East Asia
  • First found in VA in 1950s
  • Decimating Hemlock population
  • No natural predators
  • Hemlock has no defense against

16
What Are Indicator Species?
  • Indicator species serve as early warnings of
    damage to a community.
  • Birds and butterflies are migratory and are
    excellent indicators of the environment. They do
    not return to areas along their migratory routes
    where deforestation has occurred or where broad
    spectrum pesticides have been applied.
  • Amphibians are also a universal indicator of
    environmental degradation as they respire through
    their skin.

17
Why Are Amphibians Vanishing?
  • Appeared in the fossil record about 350 million
    years ago.
  • Frogs and toads have been around for 150 million
    years (indicates adaptability)
  • Last 20 years nearly 3,000 species of frogs and
    toads have disappeared.

18
Reasons for Global Amphibian Declines
  • Global climate change (Costa Rican golden toads)
  • Dehydration weakens amphibians, susceptible to
    fatal diseases.
  • Introduction of non-native predatory fish into
    aquatic habitats.
  • Pollution (air, water, soil) respire through
    skin.
  • Consume insects that take up pesticides
    (bioacumulation/biomagnification).
  • Eggs sensitive to increases in UV radiation
    endocrine blockers)
  • Consumption of frog legs (delicacy).
  • Loss of habitat.

19
Indicator Species
  • As indicator species, amphibians may be sending
    us an important message about the health of the
    global environment.
  • They dont need us, but we and other species need
    them.

Golden toads once prevalent in Costa Ricas
cloud forest have disappeared.
20
Indicator Species on Long Island
21
Why Should We Care About Indicator Species?
  • They give clues that the environmental health is
    deteriorating in parts of the world such as
    habitat loss and degradation, pollution, UV
    exposure, and climate change.
  • They provide ecological services (niche) in
    biological communities. ie. Amphibians eat more
    insects including mosquitoes than birds. They
    provide a food source for higher trophic levels.
  • Amphibians especially provide a storehouse of
    pharmaceutical products waiting to be discivered
    (economic goods and services).

22
What Are Keystone Species?
  • A keystone species holds a community together,
    when it disappears, so does the biological
    community. Elimination of a keystone species
    dramatically alters the structure and function of
    a community.

23
American Alligator a Keystone Species
  • Largest North American reptile only humans are
    their predator.
  • Hunted nearly to extinction for exotic meat, and
    leather to make shoes and pocketbooks, and for
    sport.

24
Ecological Niche of American Alligator
  • Dig gator holes that collect freshwater during
    the dry season which serve as refuges for aquatic
    life, and supply freshwater and food for many
    animals.

25
Ecological Niche of American Alligator
  • Alligator nesting mounds serve as nesting and
    feeding sites for herons and egrets

26
Ecological Niche of American Alligator
  • Alligator eat large numbers of predatory gar fish
    and help maintain healthy numbers of game fish
    such as bass and bream.

27
Ecological Niche of American Alligator
  • As alligators move from gator holes to nesting
    sites, they keep areas of open water free of
    invading vegetation. This helps to maintain
    healthy ecosystems with flowing water.

28
American Alligator Protection
  • In 1967, the US Government placed the American
    alligator on the Endangered Species List, which
    protected it from hunting.
  • By 1975, the American alligator populations
    rebounded successfully.

29
Status of the American Alligator.
  • In 1977, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (DOI),
    down-listed the American alligator to a
    threatened species in Florida, Louisiana, and
    Texas.
  • Limited kills with a license are permitted.
    Recreational lotteries are held in the Florida
    Everglades each year by FWS.
  • Alligator farms established to fulfill the market
    for alligator goods.

30
Why Should We Protect keystone Species?
  • They play critical roles in the cross pollination
    of angiosperms (bees, hummingbirds, bats).
  • Top predator keystone species help regulate the
    population numbers of other species.
  • The loss of keystone species can lead to
    population crashes and extinctions of other
    species that depend on it for ecological
    services.

31
E.O. Wilson
  • The loss of a keystone species is like a drill
    accidentally striking a power line. It causes
    lights to go out all over

32
The Good News Is
  • Conservation Efforts on the rise
  • President Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) the
    Golden Age of Conservation
  • 1903 he established the first federal refuge at
    Pelican Island off the east coast of Florida to
    protect the endangered brown pelican.

33
What Is Our Future?
  • By reducing and degrading lifes support
    systems (Earth Capital), we could make our own
    species more vulnerable to extinction, or at
    least to a massive population crash.
  • If we are the most intelligent species on
    Earth, why cant we follow the simple laws of
    nature?

34
What Can You Do?
  • Education
  • Participate in local groups to conserve the
    biological integrity of ecosystems
  • Promote local economic growth while thinking
    globally
  • Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
  • Shop locally, think globally (be an educated
    consumer)
  • GET INVOLVED AND TELL A FRIEND
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