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Soil Fertility

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Soil Fertility Terms and ... Important to germinating seedlings Contributes to early maturing crops Necessary for seed and fruit formation ... Factors that Influence ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Soil Fertility


1
Soil Fertility
2
Terms and definitions
  • Essential Nutrient- Element necessary for plant
    growth and reproduction, for example nitrogen,
    phosphorus, and potassium.
  • Deficiency- Plant condition where an essential
    nutrient is not sufficiently available.
  • Symptom- A visual sign or condition that results
    from a deficiency symptoms aids in diagnosing a
    deficiency.

3
More Terms and Definitions
  • Fertilizer- Natural, manufactured, or processed
    material or mixture of materials that contains
    one or more of the essential nutrients availible
    in
  • dry form
  • liquid form
  • gaseous form

4
Fertilizer Terms
  • Analysis- Percentage water soluble content of
    nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) expressed as P2O5,
    and potassium (K) expressed as K2O in the
    fertilizer.
  • Brand- Trademark of the company which produced
    the fertilizer.
  • Complete Fertilizer- Fertilizer which supplies
    all three primary nutrients, (N,P,K)

5
Chemical Elements Essential To Plant Growth
  • Non-mineral- air and water
  • Carbon (C)
  • Hydrogen (H)
  • Oxygen (O)
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Mineral- from the soil
  • Primary
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Secondary
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Micronutrients
  • Iron (Fe), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Copper
    (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Molybdenum (Mo), Clorine (Cl)

6
10 Essential Elements
  • Essential Elements
  • Carbon (C)
  • Hydrogen (H)
  • Oxygen (O)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Potash (K)
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Magnesium (Mg)

C. HOPKINS CAFÉ Mighty Good
7
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8
Functions of Nutrients for plant growth
  • Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen are needed in the
    plant processes of photosynthesis of
    photosynthesis and respiration.
  • Approximately 95 of weight of plants comes from
    products of photosynthesis

9
Primary Nutrient Functions
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Gives green color to plant
  • Induces vigorous , rapid growth in plants
  • Increases protein and yield
  • Aids and promotes seed and fruit development
  • Nitrogen constitutes 80 of the atmosphere, yet
    it is one of the most critical elements for plant
    growth.
  • Plants cannot utilize N as a gas, it must be
    combined with other elements.

10
More Primary Nutrient Functions
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Important to germinating seedlings
  • Contributes to early maturing crops
  • Necessary for seed and fruit formation
  • Stimulates root growth

11
Primary Nutrient Functions Cont.
  • Potassium (K)
  • Necessary for production and translocation of
    carbohydrates
  • Produces plumper seeds
  • Controls Water intake and respiration
  • Stiffens straw and stalks

12
Secondary Nutrient Functions
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Necessary for nodule formation on legumes
  • Associated with plant enzyme systems
  • Stimulates seed production
  • Affects protein and crop quality

13
Secondary Nutrient Functions
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Speeds decay of organic matter
  • Stimulates formation of nitrates
  • Promotes root and leaf growth
  • Necessary for nodulation of legumes

14
Secondary Nutrient Functions
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Necessary for chlorophyll or green plant color
  • Increases adsorption of phosphorus
  • Aids in the formations of fats and oils
  • Important in plant enzyme system

15
Symptoms of nutrient deficiencies
  • Review
  • Deficiency- Plant condition where an essential
    nutrient is not sufficiently available.
  • Symptom- A visual sign or condition that results
    from a deficiency symptoms aids in diagnosing a
    deficiency.

16
Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Stunted and Spindly
  • Yellow, yellowish green or light green in color
    in foliage (chlorosis)
  • Older leaves affected first, starting at the tip
    and moves along the middle of the leaf.

17
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18
Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Stunted Growth
  • Very dark green color
  • Purple leaves or portions of leaves in advanced
    stages
  • Older leaves affected first

19
Phosphorus Deficiency
20
Primary nutrient deficiency symptoms
  • Potassium (K)
  • Shorter plants
  • Bronzing or browning of leaf color
  • Lodging (bending of the stem) occurs
  • Leaves show yellow to brown coloring along leaf
    margins followed by complete browning.

21
Potassium Deficiency
22
Secondary nutrient deficiency symptoms
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Young plants have stunted appearance
  • Leaves have a light-green to yellow coloring
  • Stems are thin and spindly
  • Sulfur deficiency symptoms are similar in
    appearance to nitrogen deficiency symptoms.

23
Secondary nutrient deficiency symptoms
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Leaf parts between veins show a whitish color
  • Leaf tissue becomes yellow, veins remain green
    (interveinal chlorosis)
  • Leaves curl upward along the margins

24
Deficiency Continued
  • Other conditions besides deficiencies may cause
    abnormal plant growth.
  • Cold, wet weather, lack of sunlight, disease,
    insect damage, and improperly applied chemicals
    are examples.

25
Factors that Influence Fertilizer Use
  • Chemical and physical condition of the soil
  • Crop to be grown
  • Climatic Conditions
  • Time
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