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Urban Sensor Security Challenge


Urban Sensor Security Challenge By Cindy Nguyen H University Central of Florida Class: EEL6788 Date: April 21, 2010 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urban Sensor Security Challenge

Urban Sensor Security Challenge
By Cindy Nguyen H
University Central of Florida Class
EEL6788 Date April 21, 2010
  1. Introduction
  2. Case Study
  3. Security Issues
  4. Conclusion

  • Science and technology comes into almost every
    aspect of our lives, helping us to solve problems
    and create opportunities.
  • Despite the achievements, we face very real
    economic and environmental challenges that
    require a new level of effort and success.
  • While today, much security research is about
    defending against the attacks on security and
    privacy, there has been theoretical work in
    computer security, along with the beginnings of a
    science base for security.

  • Urban sensing wireless network systems that
    utilize mobile phones which enable individuals
    and communities to collect and share data with
    unprecedented speed, accuracy and granularity.
  • In the work place, home or nursing-homes,
    pervasive networks may assist residents and their
    caregivers by providing continuous medical
    monitoring, memory enhancement, control of home
    appliances, medical data access, and emergency
  • Employing mobile handsets as sensor nodes poses
    new challenges for privacy, data security, and

Case Study
  • M-Commerce
  • Health monitoring 2004
  • Health Care Application
  • Emergency Medical Response 2005

  • Case 1
  • M-Commerce

The emergence of mobile devices and wireless
networks has created a new path in the field of
E-commerce M-commerce. Significant research
is needed in the field of service discovery to
support M-commerce applications.
M-Commerce - (WAP)
  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
  • Created by WAP Forum
  • Founded June 1997 by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia,
  • 500 member companies
  • Goal Bring Internet content to wireless devices
  • Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
  • Control WAP Gap
  • Data in the clear at gateway while re-encryption
    takes place
  • Link Layer LAN 802.11, Bluetooth, WAN Analog /
  • Devices Cell phone, Palm, WinCE, Blackberry

Basic WAP Architecture
Web Server
SSL Secure Socket Layer
WTLS Wireless Transport Layer Security
Security Challenges
  • Less processing power on devices
  • Slow Modular exponentiation and Primality
    Checking (i.e., RSA)
  • Crypto operations drain batteries (CPU
  • Less memory (keys, certs, etc. require storage)
  • Few devices have crypto accelerators, or support
    for biometric authentication
  • No tamper resistance (memory can be tampered
    with, no secure storage)
  • Primitive operating systems w/ no support for
    access control (Palm OS)

Privacy and Authenticity
  • The intermediate entity can potentially attack
    communications between two parties. Typically
    attacks involve altering the content or the order
    of messages and replaying messages sent earlier.
  • In applications based on cell phones, by
    definition, the cell phone will know the physical
    location of client device. This creates privacy

Wireless Security Approaches
  • Link Layer Security
  • GSM A3/A5/A8 (auth, key agree, encrypt)
  • CDMA spread spectrum code seq
  • CDPD RSA symmetric encryption
  • Application Layer Security
  • iMode N/A
  • SMS N/A

GSM Global System for Mobile
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDPD - Cellular Digital Packet Data
SSL Secure Socket Layer
WML Wireless Markup Language
WTLS Wireless Transport Layer Security
  • Case 2
  • Health Monitoring System

Health Monitoring Application (HMA)
  • Developing network architecture for smart
    healthcare will provide new opportunities for
    continuous monitoring for assisted and
    independent-living. This will preserve resident
    comfort, security and privacy for individuals
    while also providing a managing network for
    medical history records.
  • Integration with existing medical practice and
    technology, real-time and long term monitoring,
    wearable sensors and assistance to chronic
    patients, elders or handicapped people

Example Smart Health Home
Current configuration of the medical test-bed
Layout of the experimental smart health home
Example Smart Health Home
Portability and unobtrusiveness Ease of
deployment and scalability Real-time and
always-on Reconfiguration and self-organization
This architecture is multi-tiered, with
heterogeneous devices ranging from lightweight
sensors, to mobile components, and more powerful
stationary devices. MicaZ with MTS310 sensor
Experimental Smart Health Home
  • These system is single hop, as the radio range
    covers all of the facility. A multi-hop protocol
    will be necessary for access of multiple floors,
    or if transmission power is reduced.
  • Data communication is bi-directional between
    the motes and the Star gate. Time-stamping is
    done by the PC when motion events are received.

Data Integrity - HMA
  • When the data association mechanisms are not
    sufficient, or integrity is considered critically
    important, some functionalities of the system can
    be disabled.
  • This preserves only the data which can claim a
    high degree of confidence.
  • In an environment where false alarms cannot be
    tolerated, there is a tradeoff between accuracy
    and availability.

Security and privacy - HMA
  • The system is monitoring and collecting patient
    data that is subject to privacy policies.
  • For example, the patient may decide not to reveal
    the monitored data of certain sensors until it is
    vital to determine a diagnosis and therefore,
    authorized by the patient at the time of a doctor
    visit. Security and privacy mechanisms must be
    throughout the system.

  • Case 3
  • Health Care Application

Health Care Application (HCA)
  • The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in
    healthcare applications is growing at a fast
    pace. Numerous applications such as
  • Heart rate monitor,
  • Blood pressure monitor and
  • Endoscopic capsule are already in use.
  • To address the growing use of sensor technology
    in this area, a new field known as Wireless Body
    Area Networks (WBAN or simply BAN) has emerged.

Architecture in Healthcare Application
Architecture of Wireless Sensor Networks in
Healthcare Applications
Security Issues - HCA
  • Many sensor networks applications used in
    healthcare are heavily relied on technologies
    that can pose security threats like eavesdropping
    and denial of services.
  • There are concerns of health hazards for the
    implanted sensor devices. The concerns have far
    reaching social implications.
  • The social implications and issues that are
    directly related to the above mentioned
    application scenarios can be categorized into
    three major areas security, privacy and legal
    issues. Besides these, there can be more issues
    such as economic and political issues.

  • Case 4
  • Emergency Medical Response

Emergency Medical Response (EMR)
  • Systems need to communicate with hospitals from
    the field and exchange information about
  • Patient condition,
  • Expected time of patient arrival, and
  • Occasionally inquire about the ability to
    accept more patients.
  • An ideal EMS system should provide real-time
    information and tracking of patients, staff and
    emergency vehicles.

Architecture Emergency Medical Response
A wireless infrastructure for real-time data
transport between motes and local PDAs and tablet
Patient sensors (a pulse oximetry sensor
integrated with a GPS receiver, micro-processor,
data storage transmitter) for patient vital
sign and location monitoring
A local command site for field coordination
Cellular/Satellite wireless links for real time
communication between local and remote sites
A web services architecture to process,
interpret, aggregate and present information
A central command site for global resource
Security Issues - HCA
  • While web services provide powerful and flexible
    service oriented architectures, they also
    introduce overheads such as the extraction of the
    SOAP envelope and parsing of the contained XML
  • These are the issues known over a wired internet.
    It is possible that these problems increase
    exponentially over a wireless internet, where
    there are bandwidth and connectivity issues.
  • There are in the process of conducting
    quantitative empirical studies to test web
    services over a wireless internet.
  • The latency and through-put will be tested while
    the vehicle is standing still and at varying
  • The data types and lengths will also be varied.

Security Issues - Lost or Stolen Device
  • It must be possible to erase data stored on a
    device that is stolen or lost?... If not, that
    data may fall into the wrong hands.
  • Look for centralized management features that
    allow administrators to purge data remotely from
    a missing device.

Security Issues - Authentication
  • Authentication service consists of association
    processing among nodes. It is an efficient method
    against impersonation attacks.
  • How effective is the solutions approach to
    authenticating individuals using the device and
    guarding against fraud?
  • Strong password protection, two-factor
    authentication, and best-practice password
    policies are all elements of an effective data
    security plan.

Security Issues - Protection
  • This security service prevents the attacker from
    replaying the old frames that it eavesdropped by
    using nonce or time token.
  • Wireless networking is revolutionizing the way
    people work and play. By removing physical
    constraints commonly associated with high-speed
    networking, individuals are able to use networks
    in ways never possible in the past.

Security Issues
  • Wireless Users have many more opportunity in
    front of them, but those opportunities open up
    the user to greater risk.
  • The risk model of network security has been
    firmly entrenched, in the concept that the
    physical layer is at least somewhat secure.
  • There is no physical security. The radio waves
    that make wireless networking possible are also
    what make wireless networking so dangerous.
  • An attacker can be anywhere nearby listening to
    all the traffic from your network in your yard,
    in the parking lot across the street, or on the
    hill outside of town. By properly engineering and
    using your wireless network, you can keep
    attackers at bay.

Privacy and Integrity Issues
  • One of the bigg??t threats to security, may be
    technological progress itself, as organizations
    embrace new technologies without taking the
    associated risk into account.
  • To maintain and improve security, you need more
    than just the right blend of technology, policy
    and procedure.
  • Distinctions between
  • Speech and action,
  • Traditional concept of property,
  • Definitions of jurisdictional authority, and
  • Enforcement powers are poorly understood in the
    new-networked world.
  • To the extent that laws are the embodiment of
    ethical beliefs, the lack of agreement on what is
    ethical makes developing legal codes extremely

  • Industry best practices and regulatory mandates
    place a high premium on securing electronic data
    and protecting it against theft or unauthorized
  • To be effective, data security needs to be
    integrated into the solution, becoming an
    integral part of each communication channel, data
    storage medium and network link.
  • To meet privacy and data integrity concerns,
    security should provide an umbrella of protection
    that extends end-to-end, from the handheld
    computing device across the Internet to the
    back-end data servers.

1 A. Perrig, J. Stankovic, and D. Wagner,
invited paper, Security in Wireless Sensor
Networks, Communications of the ACM, Volume 47,
Number 6, pages 53-57, June 2004 2 G. Virone,
A. Wood, L. Selavo, Q. Cao, L. Fang, T. Doan, Z.
He, R. Stoleru, S. Lin, and J.A. Stankovic, An
Advanced Wireless Sensor Network for Health
Monitoring, Department of Computer Science,
University of Virginia, 2005 3 Katie Shilton,
Jeff Burke, Deborah Estrin, Mark Hansen, Mani B.
Srivastava, Achieving Participatory Privacy
Regulation Guidelines for CENS Urban Sensing,
Center for Embedded Networked Sensing, University
of California Los Angeles. June 25, 2008 4
Mani Srivastava, Mark Hansen, Jeff Burke, Andrew
Parker, Sasank Reddy, Ganeriwal Saurabh, Mark
Allman, Vern Paxson, Deborah Estrin, Wireless
Urban Sensing Systems, Center for Embedded
Networked Sensing Systems, UCLA, April 2006 5
By Deep a Kundur, Senior Member IEEE, William
Luh, Student Member IEEE,- Unoma Ndili Okorafor,
Student Member IEEE, and Takis Zourntos, Member
IEEE, Security and Privacy for Distributed
Multimedia Sensor Networks - Vol. 96, No. 1,
January 2008 6 Laurent Eschenauer, Virgil D.
Gligor A key-management scheme for distributed
sensor networks. ACM Conference on Computer and
Communications Security, pages 41-47, November
18-22, 2002  
7 Shilton Katie, Burke Jeffrey A, Estrin D,
Hansen Mark, Srivastava Mani. Participatory
Privacy in Urban Sensing, UC Los Angeles Center
for Embedded Network Sensing. 04-21-2008.   8
An Liu, Peng Ning, "TinyECC A Configurable
Library for Elliptic Curve Cryptography in
Wireless Sensor Networks, in Proceedings of the
7th International Conference on Information
Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2008), SPOTS
Track, pages 245-256, April 2008.   9 Apu
Kapadia, Nikos Triandopoulos, Cory Cornelius, Dan
Peebles and David Klotz. AnonySense,
Opportunistic and Privacy-Preserving Context
Collection. In Proceedings of the Sixth
International Conference on Pervasive Computing
(Pervasive), pages 280-297, May 2008   10 Baik
Hoh, Marco Gruteser, Ryan Herring, Jeff Ban, Dan
Work, Juan-Carlos Herrera, Alexandre Bayen,
Murali Annavaram, Quinn Jacobson. Virtual Trip
Lines for Distributed Privacy-Preserving Traffic
Monitoring, ACM Mobisys, 2008   11 Peter
Johnson, Apu Kapadia, David Kotz and Nikos
Triandopoulos People-Centric Urban Sensing
Security Challenges for the New Paradigm -
Institute for Security Technology Studies,
Dartmouth College, Dartmouth Computer Science
Technical Report TR2007-586, February 2007. 12
Moshaddique Al Ameen, Jingwei Liu and Kyungsup
Kwak Security and Privacy Issues in Wireless
Sensor Networks for Healthcare Applications - 18
December 2009 / Accepted 16 February 2010
13 John Crum Pay for Performance The Answer
to the Human Capital Crisis? - The Public
Manager, Vol. 32, 2003 14 Prepared Statement
on the National Security Personnel System U.S.
Department of Defense Speeches - June 4,
2003   15 Dipanjan Chakraborty, Filip Perich,
Sasikanth Avancha, Anupam Joshi Semantic
Service Discovery for M-Commerce Applications -
University of Maryland, Baltimore
County 16 Nada Hashmi, Dan Myung, Mark
Gaynor, Steve Moulton A Sensor-based,Web
Service-enabled, Emergency Medical Response
System - Boston University - 2005   17
Eun-Kyeong Kwon1, Yong-Gu Cho2, and Ki-Joon Chae
Security Enhancement on Mobile Commerce - W.
Kim et al. (Eds.) Human.Society_at_Internet 2001,
LNCS 2105, pp. 164-176, 2001. Springer-Verlag
Berlin Heidelberg 2001
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