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Introduction to Human Anatomy

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Title: Introduction to Human Anatomy


1
Introduction to Human Anatomy Physiology
2
 
  •   ANATOMY - the study of the structure
    (morphology, form) of body parts.
  •  
  •        Histology - the microscopic study of
    tissues.
  •        Cytology - the microscopic study of
    cells.
  •  
  • PHYSIOLOGY - the study of the function of body
    parts.

3
  Life Processes Distinguish Living from
Non-Living Things.
  • Movement
  • Responsiveness
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Respiration
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • Circulation
  • Assimilation
  • Excretion

4
  Mental Mapping (use characteristics to
categorize the following)
  • I am walking to McDonalds
  • I stop at the traffic light
  • I am getting taller
  • I am breathing air
  • I get a hamburger and eat it
  • My body absorbs nutrients from hamburger
  • The nutrients I absorbed from hamburger is turned
    into things my body needs
  • Eventually I go to the restroom
  • Someday I may reproduce

Movement
Responsiveness
Growth
Respiration
Digestion
Absorption
Assimilation
Excretion
Reproduction
5
Environmental Needs
  • Nutrients for energy
  • Oxygen for cellular respiration
  • Water for most metabolic reactions,
    lubrication, etc
  • Heat to maintain 37?C body temperature,
    enzyme action
  • Pressure for breathing and filtering
    blood through kidneys

6
HOMEOSTASIS
  • The tendency of an organism to maintain a
    stable internal environment.
  • All life processes and metabolic reactions work
    to maintain homeostasis.
  • Most homeostatic mechanisms are regulated by
    negative feedback (system acts to oppose changes)
  • Example - maintenance of body temperature at
    98.6?F/37?C.

7
3 Components of homeostatic mechanism
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2. Hypothalamus
3 Components of homeostatic mechanism
3. Skin blood vessels, Sweat glands, Heart, Lungs.
1. Thermoreceptors
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11
Structural Levels of Organization
  • The atom (i.e. C, H, O) is the least complex
    level the smallest particle of an element.
  • Atoms combine with one another to form
  • Molecules (i.e. CO2, H2O)
  • Molecules combine with another to form

12
  • Macromolecules (i.e. carbohydrates, lipids,
    proteins, nucleic acids)
  • Macromolecules combine to form
  • Organelles (i.e. cell membrane, nucleus,
    ribosome) small organs of a cell, each with a
    particular function
  • Organelles collectively compose
  • Cells (i.e. skin cell, muscle cell, neuron) The
    cell is the basic unit of structure and function
    of living things!
  • Similar cells are arranged into

13
  • Tissues (i.e. epithelia, connective, muscle,
    nervous)
  • Two or more tissues combine to form
  •  
  • Organs (i.e. skin, heart, brain)
  • Two or more organs combine to form
  •  
  • Organ systems (i.e. integumentary,
    cardiovascular),
  • The eleven organ systems
    collectively form the
  • The human organism the most complex level
    of organization.

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Divisions of the Human Body
  • Axial Portion Appendicular Portion
  • Head Arms
  • Neck Legs
  • Trunk
  • Axial Portion is divided into 2 major cavities.
    (organs within these cavities are referred to as
    viscera.)

16

2 Divisions of Axial Portion of the Body
  • Dorsal Cavity Ventral Cavity
  • Subdivided into Subdivided int0 2
    parts 2 parts

 
Cranial Cavity
Vertebral Cavity
Thoracic cavity
Abdomino-pelvic Cavity
Separated by diaphragm
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Body Cavities
Figure 1.9a
19
Body Cavities
Figure 1.9b
20
  • Cranial Cavity
  • Brain
  • Vertebral Cavity
  • Spinal Cord
  • Thoracic Cavity
  • Lungs
  • Mediasitum - separates thorax into right and left
    sides
  • Heart
  • Esophagus
  • Trachea
  • Thymus gland

21
  • Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Spleen
  • Gall bladder
  • Small and large intestines
  • Rectum/Anus
  • Urinary bladder
  • Internal reproductive organs

Abdominal Region
Pelvic Region
22
1.
1
Ventral cavity
3.
4. Pleural cavity
2
Vertebral cavity
4.
3
2. Dorsal cavity
5.
5.
6.
7.
6.
9.
10. Ventral cavity
8.
7.
23
Serous Membranes of the Ventral Body Cavity
  • Membrane - a soft, thin pliable layer of
    tissue that either
  •    Covers a vital (visceral organ) Visceral
    membrane.
  •  Lines a body cavity Parietal Membrane.
  •  
  • There is a space between a visceral and
    parietal membrane into which SEROUS fluid is
    secreted for lubrication.

24
Serous Membranes of the Heart
Cardi Heart
  • The membrane on the surface of the heart is
    called visceral pericardium.
  • The membrane that lines the cavity in which
    the heart is located is called the parietal
    pericardium.
  • The space between these two membranes is
    called the pericardial cavity, and it is filled
    with serous fluid.

25
Serous Membranes
26
Serous Membranes of the Lungs
Pleur lung
The membrane on the surface of the lung is
called visceral pleura. The membrane that
lines the cavity in which the lungs are located
is called parietal pleura.  The space between
these two membranes is called the pleural cavity,
and it is filled with serous fluid.
27
Serous Membranes
28
Serous Membranes of the Abdominal Organs
  • The membrane on the surface of the liver,
    stomach, etc. is called visceral peritoneum.
  • The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
    is called parietal peritoneum.
  • The space between these two membranes is
    called the peritoneal cavity, and it is filled
    with serous fluid

29
Ventral Body Cavity Membranes
Comparable to parietal peritoneum
Comparable to visceral peritoneum
Figure 1.10a
30
Serous Membranes
31
Anatomical Terminology
  • Definition - a language used to describe the
    relative position of body parts needed for
    communication.
  •  
  • Anatomical position - standing erect, face
    forward, palms forward
  • It is helpful in as much as they allow medical
    staff to speak to each other and view images
    (X-ray or MRI) without having to continuously
    clarify meanings.

32
Terms Referring to Direction/Relative Position
  • 1. Superior above Inferior below
  • 2. Anterior front Posterior back 
  • 3. Medial Center Lateral side
  • 4. Cephalad head Caudal tail
  • 5. Ventral front Dorsal back
  • 6. Proximal closer to trunk of body or
    other point of reference (Elbow proximal to
    wrist)
  • Distal farther from trunk of the body
    or
  • other point of reference (Fingers are distal to
    the wrist)
  • 7. Superficial surface
  • Deep internal.

33
Directional Terms
Table 1.1
34
Directional Terms
Table 1.1
35
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36
Pop Quiz
  1. Label

Lung
11.
Heart
Diaphragm
37
12. Draw a picture to show the axial and
appendicular portions of the body. Give the
correct terms 13. Membrane that covers the
heart 14. The study of the function of the body
parts. 15. The membrane that lines the abdominal
cavity.
38
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Terms Referring to Body Sections (Cuts, Planes)
  • Sagittal cut divides the body into right and
    left portions.
  • Midsagittal equal right and left portions.
  • Frontal/Coronal Cut divides the body into
    anterior and posterior portions.
  • Transverse cut divides the body into
    superior and inferior portions.

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1.
2.
2
4.
3.
43
Midsaggital
Frontal/Coronal
Transverse
44
Abdominal Subdivisions
45
Regions in the abdominopelvic area
Right hypocondriac region



Epigastric region
Left
Left hypochondriac region
Right
Right lumbar region
Left lumbar region
Umbilical region
Hypogastric region
Left iliac region
Right iliac region
46


Right upper quadrant RUQ
Left upper quadrant LUQ
Right lower Quadrant RLQ
Left lower quadrant LLQ
47
Terms referring to surface anatomy (landmarks)
  •   Anterior landmarks
  • a. cranialskull b. facialface
  • c. cephalichead d.
    cervicalneck
  • e. axillary armpit
    f. brachial upper arm
  • g. antecubitalanterior elbow
  • h. antebrachial forearm
  • i. carpalwrist j. metacarpal hand
  • k. digitalfinger l. femoral
    thigh
  • m. patellar knee cap n. crural
    leg
  • o. frontal forehead p.
    orbitaleye
  • q. otic ear
    r. buccalcheek
  • s. nasal nose t. oral mouth
  • u. mental chin v. mammarybreast
  • w. umbilicalnaval x. coxal hip
  • y. inguinal groin aa. Pubic
    pelvic
  • bb. tarsalankle
  •  

48
Terms Referring to Surface Anatomy (Landmarks)
  • Posterior land marks
  • a. acromial shoulder
  • b. cubital elbow
  • c. gluteal buttocks
  • d. popliteal back of knee
  • e. pedal foot
  • f. plantar sole
  • g. dorsal back
  • h. lumbar loin
  • i. calcaneal heel

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29. Otic (Ear)
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Calcaneal
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