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Voting

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Chapter 6 Voting SECTION 1 The Constitution and the Right to Vote The History of Voting Rights in the United States What were the original provisions for voting in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Voting


1
Chapter 6
  • Voting

2
SECTION 1
  • The Constitution and the Right to Vote

3
The History of Voting Rights in the United States
4
What were the original provisions for voting in
the United States?
  • framers of Constitution purposely left power to
    set up suffrage qualifications up to the states
  • the right to vote was restricted to white male
    adult property owners

5
What have been the trends in the history of
suffrage?
  • The gradual elimination of restrictions based on
    religion, property ownership, tax payment, race
    and, sex, and age
  • power over suffrage has been assumed by the
    federal government from the states

6
How has the American electorate grown over time?
  • early 1800's - religious tax, and property
    restrictions removed
  • post Civil war - 15th Amendment prohibited
    restriction based on race or color

7
  • In 1920, the 19th Amendment granted women
    suffrage
  • 1960's - enforcement of civil rights acts
    prohibited racial restriction in polling places

8
  • 23rd Amendment allowed residents of Washington
    D.C. to vote in Presidential election
  • 24th Amendment eliminated poll tax
  • 1971 - 26th Amendment- 18 year old vote

9
Power to set voting qualifications is reserved to
the states
10
What restrictions are placed on the States by the
Constitution?
  • allows the same voters to vote in all elections
  • states cannot deprive a person suffrage based on
    race, color, or previous condition of servitude

11
  • states cannot deprive a person suffrage based on
    sex
  • states cannot require a payment of tax as
    condition of voting
  • states cannot deprive a person 18 years old
    suffrage because of age

12
  • States may require prior registration and gives
    election officials a list of persons qualified to
    vote in an election

13
voter remains registered unless
  • moves or dies
  • is convicted of a serious crime
  • is committed to a mental institution
  • fails to vote for a certain number of years or
    elections

14
Congress required states to ease the registration
process by passing the Motor Voter Law, which
directs states to
15
  • allows citizens to register when renewing
    driver's license
  • most states require registration prior to
    election, 20-30 days

16
SECTION 2
  • VOTER QUALIFICATIONS AMONG STATES

17
Citizenship
  • aliens are generally denied right to vote, but
    states could allow them to vote

18
Residence
  • most states require a person live within the
    state a certain period of time in order to
    qualify to vote
  • to keep political organizations from importing
    voters

19
  • accepted view that the voter should be familiar
    with candidates and issues
  • originally as long as 60-90 days, today about 1/2
    of the states have 30 day requirements

20
  • a growing number of states are now only requiring
    legal residence
  • Congress has prohibited residency requirements
    over 30 days in federal elections (1970)
  • nearly every state prohibits transients from
    voting

21
Age
  • 26th Amendment sets 18 as cap for minimum age
  • some states allow 17 year olds to vote in primary
    elections

22
persons denied the right to vote
  • people found legally incompetent
  • convicted felons
  • dishonorably discharged veterans
  • the homeless

23
SECTION 3
  • SUFFRAGE AND CIVIL RIGHTS

24
African American suffrage
  • in the 1960's civil rights workers suffered
    violence in order to ensure others had the right
    to vote
  • 15th Amendmentintended to ensure
    African-American men the right to vote

25
  • for almost 90 years the federal govt. ignored the
    voting rights of African-Americans
  • during that period, they were kept away from the
    polls by use of violence, intimidation, and
    social pressure

26
  • literacy tests, poll taxes, and gerrymandering
    were used to keep them from voting
  • Congress was forced to act in response to civil
    rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King

27
What effect did Civil Rights Acts in the 1950s
and 1960s have on the right to vote?
28
Civil Rights Acts
  • 1957- set up Civil Rights Commission
  • inquired into voter discrimination claims
  • gave the Attorney General authority to seek
    injunctions to prevent voter interference

29
  • 1960 - provided for appointment of voting
    referees
  • had the power to help qualified persons to
    register and vote
  • 1964 - outlaws discrimination in several areas,
    especially job-related
  • forbids the use of any registration requirement
    in an unfair or discriminatory manner

30
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • suspended the use of literacy tests
  • authorized the appointment of voting examiners
  • gave federal authorities the power to register
    voters and oversee elections

31
Section 4
  • Nonvoting

32
The Size of the Problem
  • Only about half of eligible voters turn out in
    presidential elections
  • Only about a third of eligible voters turn out in
    off-year elections

33
Little-Recognized Aspects of the Problem
  • More people vote in federal than in State and
    local elections.
  • Turnout is lower in off-year elections,
    primaries, and special elections than it is in
    presidential-year elections.

34
  • In general, the farther down the ballot an office
    is, the fewer the number of votes that will be
    cast for it. This phenomenon is called "ballot
    fatigue."

35
Why People Do Not Vote
36
"Cannot-Voters"
  • Nearly 20 million Americans do not vote because
    they cannot.
  • Cannot-voters include aliens, the mentally or
    physically handicapped, and people in prison.

37
  • Some people cannot vote because their religious
    beliefs forbid them to participate in government.
  • Some are still prevented from voting because of
    discriminatory electoral practices.

38
Actual Nonvoters (choose not to or just do not
vote)
  • Many people do not vote because they are
    satisfied with the political system as it is and
    believe that the outcome of elections will not
    affect them.

39
  • Many others do not vote because they distrust the
    political process and do not think that they have
    any effective political power.
  • Bad weather, "time-zone fallout," and cumbersome
    election procedures keep some away from the
    polls.

40
Factors Affecting Turnout
  • Voters are most likely to be people at the higher
    end of the social, economic, and educational
    ladder, and those active in their communities

41
What are characteristics of non-voters?
42
  • Nonvoters are most likely to be under 35,
    unmarried and unskilled, and living in the South
    or in a rural area.
  • People with a high sense of political efficacy
    vote no matter what their personal background.

43
  • The greater the degree of candidate competition,
    the higher voter turnout is likely to be.

44
Section 5
  • The Study of Voting Behavior

45
  • How do observers learn about voter behavior?

46
  • They carefully study the results of particular
    elections
  • Voter totals
  • Changes in voting patterns
  • Changes in voter demographics

47
  • They conduct and study public opinion polls.
  • They ask voters why they voted on particular
    candidates and issues

48
  • They try to understand political socialization
  • all of the complex influences that go into how
    people see the political world and their role
    within it.

49
What sociological factors affect voting?
50
Income and Occupation
  • Business and professional people and those from
    higher income groups tend to support the
    Republican party while manual workers and those
    from lower income groups tend to support the
    Democratic party.

51
Education
  • The more education a voter has, the more likely
    he or she is to vote Republican.

52
Sex and Age
  • In recent years, men and younger voters have been
    more likely to vote Republican.

53
Religious Ethnic Background
  • Jews, Catholics, and non-whites tend to support
    the Democratic party.

54
Geography
  • Traditionally, Southerners and residents of large
    northeastern cities have been strongly
    Democratic.

55
Family Other Group Affiliations
  • People in the same family or circle of friends
    tend to vote alike.

56
What psychological factors affect voting?
57
Party Identification
  • A voter's loyalty to one political party is the
    single most important predictor of how that
    person will vote.

58
Candidates and Issues
  • Although many voters usually vote for one party
    or the other, they may switch allegiances in a
    given election based on the particular candidates
    or issues involved.
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