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Title: Middle%20East

Middle East
Ancient Empires of Fertile Crescent
  • Sumerians
  • Located in Mesopotamia (Iraq, Kuwait, etc..)
  • Fertile Crescent Land between Tigris and
  • Cuneiform Sumerian Writing
  • 3000 BC
  • Arch, Ziggurats (Temples), First to use Wheel
  • City States Ur, Erech, Kish
  • Polytheistic Numerous Gods

Ancient Empires of Fertile Crescent
  • Akkadians
  • 2300 BC, conquered the Sumerians
  • Sargon Powerful King
  • Babylonians
  • 2000 BC Invaded the area. Babylon Main City
  • Hammurabi King, wrote the Code of Hammurabi, a
    set of 282 laws (many are still used today)eye
    for an eye
  • Culture and Religion were similar to Sumerians
  • Hittites
  • Warlike people who invaded in 1600 BC
  • Smelt Iron, eventually withdrew closer to home

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Ancient Empires of the Fertile Crescent
  • Assyrians
  • Powerful from 900 BC-650 BC
  • Lives were similar to Babylonians and Sumerians
  • Calvary First to use soldiers on horseback
  • First Large Empire King Ruled All, Governors
    Report to King
  • Ashur Main God
  • Nineveh Main city (walled)
  • Epic of Gilgamesh Story of the Kings
  • Fell apart due to Civil War

Ancient Empires of the Fertile Crescent
  • Chaldeans
  • 605 BC-562 BC
  • Nebuchadnezzar King, rebuilt Babylon
  • Made the city and empire very powerful
  • Fell apart after Nebuchadnezzars death
  • Persians
  • Conquered area in 539 BC
  • Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes Kings that expanded
    the Persian Empire into the largest empire ever
    (at that time)
  • Treated conquered people well, led to more
  • Roads linked the massive empire
  • Zoroaster Prophet that claimed life was a
    struggle between good and evil. Also claimed an
  • Eventually lost out to the Greeks

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Ancient Empires Sea People
  • Phoenicians
  • Today Lebanon, Israel, Syria
  • Used the Mediterranean Sea to trade. Had many
    civilizations around the Mediterranean Sea
  • Peak of power around 1000 BC
  • Dyes (Purple), glass, lumber, etc
  • Phoenician Alphabet Became the model for the
    Alphabets used throughout Europe (due to trade)
  • Lydians
  • First people to use a money economy (gold and
    silver nuggets)
  • Before everything was off of a barter (trade)

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Origins of Judaism
  • Beginnings
  • Canaan Small strip of land occupied by many
    different groups of people. Today this area is
  • Hebrews Ancestors of Todays Jewsclaimed
    Canaan as their holy land.
  • Abraham Founder of the Hebrew people
  • Jacob Abrahams grandsonwho Jews trace
    heritage through
  • Exodus Hebrews left Canaan and went to Egypt.
    Peaceful at first, were made slaves later on
    (starting in 1200 BC..400 yrs)
  • Moses Led the Hebrews out of Egypt (Exodus)

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  • Creation of Israel
  • Yahweh Name for Hebrew God
  • Ten Commandments Covenant (agreement) between
    Moses and Yahweh. Follow the 10 moral laws and
    you will get promised land.
  • 12 tribes ruled the land, held together by Judges
    and the 10 Commandments. Conflict with
    Canaanites and Philistines.
  • Saul First king to unite all 12 tribescalled
    it Israel
  • David Occupied Jerusalem (capital and religious
  • Solomon Davids son..helped Israel reach its
    peak of power and wealth
  • After Solomons death.kingdom split in two (900
    BC)Israel and Judah. Conquered by Chaldeans and

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  • Religious Beliefs
  • Old Testament of Bible tells of the Hebrew
  • Torah First 5 books of Old Testament
  • Worshiped Yahweh as God. Eventually believed
    that Yahweh lived in hearts of worshipers.
  • Viewed Yahweh as a spiritual force..not a human
  • Monotheistic Only one God.
  • Different than Christianity Jews dont believe
    Jesus was the messiah (son of God).

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  • Arabia Peninsula
  • Full of traders and different groups of people
  • This area was the birthplace of Islam
  • Islam
  • Muhammad Trader who became the founder of
    Islam. 570 AD.
  • Mecca City where Islam was founded
  • Muslims Name given to the worshippers of Islam
  • Quran Holy Book
  • Jihad Holy War
  • Mosques Places of worship

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Islam Beginnings
  • How Islam got started
  • Muhammad had a dreamdecided to create a new
  • Began to unsuccessfully convert many
    businesspeople in Mecca.
  • Hijrah Muhammad and his followers moved out of
    Mecca to a neighboring city (Medina). 622 AD
  • Returned to Mecca in 630 AD and destroyed the
    Kaaba (Shrine to all the idols). Made that area
    the center of Islam.
  • Division Sunni, Shiah, Sufi

Islams Growth
  • Expansion of Islam
  • Abu Bakr and Umar became the next caliphs
  • Within 100 years, Islam had spread all throughout
    the Middle East, Northern Africa and part of
    Northern India.
  • Berbers People who converted from Northern
    Africa. Pushed Islam into Spain. (712 AD)
  • Moors Muslims that lived in and ruled Spain.
    Ruled parts of Spain form more than 700 years.
  • Turks Group of people from central Asia that
    began to conquer parts of the Middle East. Many
    converted to Islam
  • Sultan Political Leader of the Turks. Worked
    with Caliph
  • Turks expanded Islam until the middle parts of
    the 1200s.

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Islamic Daily Life
  • Trade
  • Very important because of geographic area. Many
    interactions with other religions/groups.
  • Lifestyle
  • Living by the Quran is very important.
  • Science/Arts
  • Al-Razi Created first hospital
  • Ibn Sina Wrote the first medical encyclopedia
    (Cannon of Medicine).
  • Astrolabe Use the starts to find directions
  • Algebra Origins began in the Muslim world
  • Calligraphy Art of fine handwriting..(no people
  • Thousand and One Nights Short stories (Aladdin,

Byzantine Empire
  • Byzantine Empire
  • The Eastern Part of the Roman Empire that stuck
  • Greece, Turkey, Middle East, Egypt
  • Justinian Emperor that tried to revive the old
    glory of the Roman Empire (527 AD)
  • Justinian Code Laws that covered all aspects of
    life. Used by Byzantine Empire and eventually
    most governments. Basic idea.people should be
    ruled by set laws.
  • Theodora Justinians wife.helped get women
    more rights.
  • Justinians troops put down a revolt.leading to
    the empire reaching its maximum level of strength
    and power

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Byzantine Empire
  • Strengths of the Empire
  • Constantinople Wealthy city on the Bosporus
  • Byzantines controlled sea routes between Asia and
  • Christian Church
  • Did not recognize the authority of Pope (b/c he
    was in the West). Also debated about icons on
    religious figures.
  • In 1054 AD, the two churches split for good. The
    West was called the Roman Catholic Church (Pope)
    while the East was called the Eastern Orthodox
    Church (Patriarch of Constantinople).

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Byzantine Culture
  • Growth
  • Informed many people about Christianity (Middle
    East, Eastern Europeans).
  • Great works of art still stand today (Hagia
  • Decline
  • Justinian died in 565 AD100 years of wars
    followed that shrunk the size of the Empire.
  • Constantinople Different groups fought to
    control the city for almost 600 years. (Seljug
    Turks, Western Europeans, etc)
  • Ottoman Turks Captured Constantinople in
    1453..officially the end of the Byzantines.

Ottoman Empire
  • Beginnings
  • Osman Leader of a group of people that were
    trying to escape the Mongols, originally from
    present day Turkey.
  • Ottoman Empire was in conflict with the
    neighboring Byzantine Empire
  • Sultans Political leader of the Ottomans
  • Early Ottoman Empires growth was slowed by being
    conquered by a Mongol leader named Timor.
  • Much early conflict about who should be in charge
    and who should control what land. Some members
    of the Ottoman Empire were not very loyal

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Ottoman Empire
  • Expansion
  • Mehmed II Became Sultan, captured
    Constantinople in 1453.
  • Suleyman Greatest Sultan (1520-1566).
    Nicknamed the magnificent or lawgiver.
    Expanded the Ottoman Empire all the way into
  • At the peak of expansion, Ottomans controlled
    Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern
  • All sorts of different people lived under the
    Ottoman Empire (Christians, Jews, Turks, Muslims,

Ottoman Empire
  • Decline
  • After Suleymans death, Ottomans were defeated by
    European Armies
  • Government lost control of the spice and silk
    trade that used to go through the area.
  • Lost control of North Africa to France (1798)
  • Revolts were common throughout much of the 1800s
  • Treaty of San Stefano Turks had to give
    independence to Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
  • Lasted until 1923 when the Empire fell and became
    the Republic of Turkey.

  • Mustafa Kemal
  • Took control of the government following WWI
  • Became the first president of Turkey
  • Goal was to modernize and westernize Turkey (saw
    what the west had during WWI)
  • Tried to separate Islam from the government
  • Focus more on education, forced modernization,
    womens rights, and socialism.
  • Eventually, Turkey started to prosper.

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  • Ismet Inonu (I nuh noo)
  • Took over after Kemal
  • Remained neutral for much of WWII
  • Soviet Threat
  • After WWII, the USSR began to threaten Turkey
  • Turkey responded by aligning with USA and joined
    NATO in 1952.
  • Modernization of Government
  • Turkey vowed to remain democratic and move away
    from a one-party system

Safavid Empire
  • Basics
  • Empire that began during the time of the Ottomans
  • Occurred mostly in the present day country of
  • Beginning and End
  • Began as a Sunni Branch of Islam
  • Esmail Powerful Shah (King of Kings)changed
    the area to Shi-ah.
  • Empire eventually faded by the 1700s.

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  • Post Safavid
  • Never apart of the Ottoman Empire
  • Great Britain and USSR started to show great
    interest around 1900 (oil????)
  • Reza Shah
  • Took control of government in 1921
  • Modernized area, just like Kemal in Turkey
  • Renamed the country Iran
  • Ran a very strict government, put down all

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  • Iran
  • Post WWII, GB and USSR occupied Iran. USSR
    eventually was forced to leave Iran, GB remained.
  • GB controlled most of the oil companies in Iran,
    really made the people of Iran mad.
  • Mohammad Mosaddeq
  • Became Irans first prime minister (1951)
  • Wanted a constitution and to get rid of outside
  • Limited the power of Shah (monarchy) and
    nationalized the oil industry (took charge of it)
  • Response
  • GB organized a worldwide boycott of Iranian oil
  • USA did not want Mosaddeq siding with USSR,
    helped organize a military coup in 1953.
    Restored power of Reza Pahlavi.
  • Pahlavi Modernized and ran Iran as a

Iranian Revolution
  • Iran
  • Most powerful Middle East country after GB left
    in 1971.
  • USA and others hoped the Shah would continue to
    lead Iran as a powerful ally to the West.
  • Problems
  • Socialist and Islamic fundamentalists in Iran did
    not like to close relationship with the West.
  • Economic troubles of the 1970s caused people to
    become poor and more upset.
  • The Shah tried to use violence to stop the

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Iranian Revolution
  • Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Leader of the conservative Islamic movement,
    opposed the Shah.
  • Been exiled by the Shah since 1964.
  • Returned in 1979 when the Shah was forced out of
    Iran by the people.
  • Made Iran into a Islamic Republic
  • Iranian Hostage Situation
  • Islamic militants stormed the US embassy in
    Tehran and took 60 Americans hostage. Held them
    for 444 days. (FARGO)
  • Bad relationship with USA since
  • War with Iraq
  • Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded Iran in 1980.
  • Wanted control of a waterway to Persian Gulf.
  • Bloody War ended in 1988 with no real clear
  • Today
  • USA and Iran dont have great relationsmostly
    due to Israel and threat of nuclear weapons

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Post WWII Middle East
  • British Control
  • During WWII, GB had a large number of troops
    stationed in the Middle East to protect their
  • Gained control of Iran, forced Reza Shah to step
  • Replaced him with his son (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi)
  • Controlled Syria, Iraq, Palestine
  • However, economic and religious strains would
    lead to problems in the Middle East

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  • Balfour Declaration
  • Pledge to secure a Jewish Homeland
  • Ignored by Great Britain in 1939
  • Problem
  • Hundreds of thousand Jewish European refugees
    were looking for a place to live (Holocaust)
  • Palestine Arab country in the Middle
    Eastlocated where Israel was and is today.
  • Zionist Jews that wanted a homeland began to
    use violence against Great Britain

  • United Nations
  • Decided to divide Palestine into separate Jewish
    and Arab states.
  • Arabs unanimously rejected this Jews accepted it
    and Israel was recreated in 1948.
  • Conflict
  • Once British troops left Israel, armies from
    neighboring Arab countries moved to attack
  • Israel won (US help) and gained more land in the
  • Over a million Palestinians had lost their land
    and were refugeesbasically they had nowhere to

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Middle East Political and Social Change
  • Post WWII Middle East
  • Most Middle Eastern States became independent
    under more traditional, upper class rulers
    (handpicked by GB)
  • Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia all became Arab
  • Syria and Lebanon were ruled by wealthy elite
    ruling class
  • Socialist Reforms
  • Old Way Wealthy landowners lived in city while
    poor tenants farmed the land
  • Egypt changed this Government took control of
    most industries and business. Government also
    began controlling working conditions, minimum
    wage, education, etc
  • Baath Party Embraced these changes, spread
    throughout Middle East. (Iraq, Lebanon, Syria)
  • Pan-Arabism Middle Eastern countries uniting
    together not overly successfultoo much fear of
    Egypts dominance

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  • Independence
  • Gamal Nasser Political leader that won Egypts
    independence from GB
  • Nasser wanted to modernize Egypt (like
    Turkey)..played both the USA and USSR for money.
  • Suez Canal Connected Mediterranean Sea to Red
    Sea. Critical to shippingwhy both countries
  • Suez Crisis
  • Weapons agreement with USSRUS responded by
    funding a project to create a giant dam on the
  • Nasser hesitated, finally went with the US offer
    but the offer no longer existed.
  • Nasser became mad nationalized the Suez
    Canalthis made him a hero amongst the Arab world
    because he stood up to the Europeans/Americans.
  • GB, France and Israel felt threatened by Egypt
    taking control of the canal (no Israeli ships

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  • Conflict
  • Israel, GB, France wanted to overthrow Nasser.
  • Israel declared war and advanced into Egypt. GB
    and France joined the fight against Egypt.
  • USA did not like what GB was doing b/c it feared
    the USSR would get involved on the side of Egypt.
    GB decided to stop.
  • Results
  • Egypt and Israel continued to make each other mad
    over shipping and other issues
  • Nasser became the dominant leader in the Arab
    worldsomeone had finally stood up to European

Six-Days War
  • Start
  • Syria and Jordan were mad at Israel, asked Egypt
    to help.
  • Egypt demanded the UN troops leave Egypt/Israel
    border and they blocked Israels direct route to
  • Six Days War
  • Realizing that they were at danger, Israel
    launched a attack
  • In 6 days, Israel captured Golan Heights from
    Syria, West Bank of Jordan River from Jordan and
    East Jerusalem.
  • Results
  • Many Palestinians began to lose faith in Arab
    ability to fight against Israel and recapture
    their lost land, Palestine.
  • PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)
    Guerilla fighters, led by Yasir Arafat.group of
    Palestinians fighting to regain lost land

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Post Six Days War
  • Both countries wanted a peace in the Middle East
  • Egypt
  • Anwar Sadat replaced Nasser after his death.
  • Egypt and Syria secretly planned a war against
    Israel in 1973 (starting on the Jewish Holiday of
    Yon Kippur)
  • Yon Kippur War
  • Egypt had caught Israel by surprise.
  • Golda Meir Israeli Prime Minister
  • Eventually Israeli troops pushed Egyptians back
    across the Suez Cana.

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Lasting Peace??
  • Egyptian/Israeli Peace Negotiations
  • November of 1977, Sadat went to Israel to talk
    peace with new Israeli Prime Minister Menachem
  • Camp David Accords
  • Negotiated by US President Jimmy Carter in Sept
  • Sadat and Begin agreed on a framework for peace
  • Continued Problems
  • Sadat was assassinated in 1981
  • Palestinians felt like Egypt and the rest of the
    Arab world had sold them out.

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Israel/Palestine Problems
  • Israel/Palestine Problems
  • Palestinians began to attack Israel more
  • Israel continued to resist a Palestinian State
    and invaded Lebanon in 1982 (home to the PLO)
  • Caused much suffering which only strengthened
    the PLO
  • Intifada
  • Violent uprising by Palestinians living in the
    restricted areas towards Israelis in those
    areas. Began in 1987
  • Israel responded with violence towards the
    protestors, which caused debate. Some Israels
    thought that the Palestinians should be able to
    control the lands they lived in, others did not.

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Israel/Palestine Problems
  • Yitzhak Rabin
  • Elected Prime Minister in 1992
  • Peace Attempts
  • Rabin and Arafat met to discuss peace
  • Settled on allowing Palestinians to self govern
    themselves in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
  • Extremists on both sides fought this peace
    agreement, eventually Rabin was assassinated
  • Ariel Sharon Elected Prime Minister of Israel
    in 2001, noted for being anti-Palestinian
  • Today Attempts at peace between Hamas (violent
    Palestinians), Israel and Palestinian Authority
    have slowed

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Middle East Oil
  • Discovery
  • Oil was discovered by US and GB prospectors in
    the early 1900s.
  • Important because of the increase in machines,
    ships, cars, etc
  • Post WWII
  • Many countries and rules became very wealthy off
    of oil money.
  • Many countries wanted to nationalize oil
    production, meaning they would control more of
    it, not foreign countries.
  • OPEC
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • Arab countries worked together to control oil
    production and price
  • 1973 Decided to cut off supplies to USA for
    helping Israel in wars against Arab countries
  • Result Gas shortages and quadrupled price of
    oil per barrel

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  • Syria
  • General Hafiz Assad took power in 1970
  • Began to help the Palestinians and took a
    powerful position in the Arab world.
  • Against Iraq in Persian Gulf Wars
  • Bashar Al-Assad
  • Syrian President today.
  • Terrible Civil Waraccused of using chemical
    weapons on his own people.
  • USA and Russia have been trying to get a peace

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  • Saddam Hussein
  • Took complete control of government in 1979
  • Used chemical weapons against the Kurds, people
    who lived in Northern Iraq and wanted freedom.
  • Post Iran/Iraq War
  • Iraq had the most powerful army among Arab
  • Also had a ton of debt
  • Iraq invaded oil rich Kuwait to get more
    production of oil in 1990.

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  • Operation Desert Storm
  • About 30 countries, led by the USA were against
    Iraq invading Kuwait.
  • After Iraq ignored demands to leave Kuwait.
  • US forces were quickly able to get Iraq out of
    Kuwait but did not force Saddam Hussein to step
  • Post September 11th
  • Iraq was accused of having weapons of mass
  • US invaded Iraq in March of 2003.able to gain
    control of country in 21 days.
  • Saddam was captured and eventually executed on
    Dec 30, 2006.
  • US withdrawal from Iraq began in 2009 and
    complete in 2011.

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