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Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe

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Title: Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe


1
Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe
  • Preview
  • Multiple Choice
  • Short Response
  • Reading Skills
  • Interpreting Graphics

2
Multiple Choice
  • 1. What accounts for different stars being seen
    in the sky during different seasons of the year?
  • A. stellar motion around Polaris
  • B. Earths rotation on its axis
  • C. Earths revolution around the sun
  • D. position north or south of the equator

3
Multiple Choice
  • 1. What accounts for different stars being seen
    in the sky during different seasons of the year?
  • A. stellar motion around Polaris
  • B. Earths rotation on its axis
  • C. Earths revolution around the sun
  • D. position north or south of the equator

4
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 2. How do stellar spectra provide evidence that
    stars are actually moving?
  • F. Dark-line spectra reveal a stars
    composition.
  • G. Long-exposure photos show curved trails.
  • H. Light separates into different wavelengths.
  • I. Doppler shifts occur in the stars spectrum.

5
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 2. How do stellar spectra provide evidence that
    stars are actually moving?
  • F. Dark-line spectra reveal a stars
    composition.
  • G. Long-exposure photos show curved trails.
  • H. Light separates into different wavelengths.
  • I. Doppler shifts occur in the stars spectrum.

6
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 3. What happens to main-sequence stars like the
    sun when energy from fusion is no longer
    available?
  • A. They expand and become supergiants.
  • B. They collapse and become white dwarfs.
  • C. They switch to fission reactions.
  • D. They contract and turn into neutron stars.

7
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 3. What happens to main-sequence stars like the
    sun when energy from fusion is no longer
    available?
  • A. They expand and become supergiants.
  • B. They collapse and become white dwarfs.
  • C. They switch to fission reactions.
  • D. They contract and turn into neutron stars.

8
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 4. Which type of star is most likely to be found
    on the main sequence?
  • F. a white dwarf
  • G. a red supergiant
  • H. a yellow star
  • I. a neutron star

9
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 4. Which type of star is most likely to be found
    on the main sequence?
  • F. a white dwarf
  • G. a red supergiant
  • H. a yellow star
  • I. a neutron star

10
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 5. Evidence for the big bang theory is provided
    by
  • A. cosmic background radiation.
  • B. apparent parallax shifts.
  • C. differences in stellar luminosity.
  • D. star patterns called constellations.

11
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 5. Evidence for the big bang theory is provided
    by
  • A. cosmic background radiation.
  • B. apparent parallax shifts.
  • C. differences in stellar luminosity.
  • D. star patterns called constellations.

12
Short Response
  • 6. What type of galaxy has no identifiable
    shape?
  • irregular galaxy

13
Short Response, continued
  • What is the collective name for the Milky Way
    galaxy and a cluster of approximately 30 other
    galaxies located nearby?
  • the local group

14
Short Response, continued
  • 8. What is the name for stars that seem to circle
    around Polaris and never dip below the horizon?
  • circumpolar stars

15
Reading Skills
  • Read the passage below. Then, answer questions
    911.
  • Geomagnetic Poles
  • Today, we know that Copernicus was right the
    stars are very far from Earth. In fact, stars are
    so distant that a new unit of lengththe
    light-yearwas created to measure their distance.
    A light-year is a unit of length equal to the
    distance that light travels through space in 1
    year. Because the speed of light through space is
    about 300,000 km/ s, light travels approximately
    9.46 trillion kilometers in one year.
  • Even after astronomers figured out that stars
    were far from Earth, the nature of the universe
    was hard to understand. Some astronomers thought
    that our galaxy, the Milky way, included every
    object in space. In the early 1920s Edwin Hubble
    made one of the most important discoveries in
    astronomy. He discovered that the Andromeda
    galaxy, which is the closest major galaxy to our
    own, was past the edge of the Milky Way. This
    fact confirmed the belief of many astronomers
    that the universe is larger than our galaxy.

16
Reading Skills, continued
  • 9. Why was Edwin Hubbles discovery important?
  • A. Hubbles discovery showed scientists that the
    universe was smaller than previously thought.
  • B. Hubble showed that the Andromeda galaxy was
    larger than the Milky Way galaxy.
  • C. Hubble's discovery showed scientists that the
    universe was larger than our own galaxy.
  • D. Hubble showed that all of the stars exist in
    two galaxies, the Andromeda and the Milky Way.

17
Reading Skills, continued
  • 9. Why was Edwin Hubbles discovery important?
  • A. Hubbles discovery showed scientists that the
    universe was smaller than previously thought.
  • B. Hubble showed that the Andromeda galaxy was
    larger than the Milky Way galaxy.
  • C. Hubble's discovery showed scientists that the
    universe was larger than our own galaxy.
  • D. Hubble showed that all of the stars exist in
    two galaxies, the Andromeda and the Milky Way.

18
Reading Skills, continued
  • Because the sun and Earth are close together, the
    distance between the sun and Earth is measured in
    light-minutes. A light-minute is the distance
    light travels in 1 minute. The sun is about 8
    light-minutes from Earth. What is the approximate
    distance between the sun and Earth?
  • F. 2,400,000 km
  • G. 18,000,000 km
  • H. 144,000,000 km
  • I . 1,000,000,000 km

19
Reading Skills, continued
  • Because the sun and Earth are close together, the
    distance between the sun and Earth is measured in
    light-minutes. A light-minute is the distance
    light travels in 1 minute. The sun is about 8
    light-minutes from Earth. What is the approximate
    distance between the sun and Earth?
  • F. 2,400,000 km
  • G. 18,000,000 km
  • H. 144,000,000 km
  • I . 1,000,000,000 km

20
Reading Skills, continued
  • 11. Why might scientists use light-years as a
    measurement of distance between stars?
  • Light-years can express vast distances in
    compact form. When expressing distance between
    stars, using light-years is easier and more
    efficient than using kilometers.

21
Interpreting Graphics
  • The diagram below shows a group of stars called
    the Big Dipper moving over a period of 200,000
    years. Use this diagram to answer question 12.

22
Interpreting Graphics, continued
  • 12. What does this series of drawings
    demonstrate about the individual stars in such a
    star group?
  • Your answer should include the following
  • The diagrams show that the individual stars move
    at different rates and in different directions
    from one another constellations are arbitrary
    human distinctions the stars within
    constellations move along individual paths, not
    as a group the familiar patterns that stars form
    in the Earths sky change slowly over time as the
    stars that comprise the patterns move relative to
    each other star movement may take thousands of
    years to become apparent.

23
Multiple Choice, continued
  • The table below shows data about several
    well-known stars. Distance is given in
    light-years. Use this table to answer questions
    13 through 15.

24
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 13. Which star has the brightest apparent
    magnitude as seen from Earth?
  • F. Rigel
  • G. Betelgeuse
  • H. Mintaka
  • I. Sirius

25
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 13. Which star has the brightest apparent
    magnitude as seen from Earth?
  • F. Rigel
  • G. Betelgeuse
  • H. Mintaka
  • I. Sirius

26
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 14. Which of these stars is the coolest?
  • A. Arcturus
  • B. Betelgeuse
  • C. Mintaka
  • D. Vega

27
Multiple Choice, continued
  • 14. Which of these stars is the coolest?
  • A. Arcturus
  • B. Betelgeuse
  • C. Mintaka
  • D. Vega

28
Multiple Choice, continued
15. Which star most likely has a temperature that
is similar to the temperature of our sun? Explain
how you are able to determine this
information. Your answer should include the
following The star in the table with the
closest temperature to the sun is most likely
Capella a stars temperature can be determined
by its color. Stars that have similar colors
share a common temperature range Capella is a
yellow star like the sun and thus it is the most
likely to have a temperature similar to that of
the sun
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