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Unit II: 600-1450

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Unit II: 600-1450 C.E. Big Picture Themes: Rebuilding of Declining Empires ( Post-Classical ) Rise & Spread of Islam Centralized VS. Decentralized Empires – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit II: 600-1450


1
Unit II 600-1450 C.E.
Big Picture Themes
  • Rebuilding of Declining Empires
    (Post-Classical)
  • Rise Spread of Islam
  • Centralized VS. Decentralized Empires
  • Golden Age of Nomads
  • Increased Global Trade

2
1. Trade Patterns
Long-distance trade Silk Roads, Indian Ocean
maritime system, Trans-Saharan trade,
Mediterranean Sea Pax Mongolia during Mongol
Empire trade flourished
3
2. Changes - Feudalism - Religious empires -
Decentralized states - Nomadic migrations (Turks,
Vikings Mongols)
  • 3. Continuities
  • - Religions spread
  • Trade routes grow
  • Patriarchal gender roles

4
4. Tech. Migrations
Inventions compass, improved ships, GUNPOWDER
Migrations Bantus, Turks, Mongols, Vikings
Diseases Plague spreadsmissionaries, nomads,
traders
5
5. Social systems religion
  • Patriarchal systems
  • Universal religions Buddhism, Christianity
    Islam spread

6
6. New Empires
  1. Centralized empires Byzantine, Arab Caliphates,
    Tang Song
  2. Decentralized states W. Europe Japan
    (feudalism)
  3. The Mongols

7
China Tang Song Dynasties
Empress Wu 1st female Empress
  • Political Features
  • centralized rule
  • Confucian bureaucracy (civil service exams)
  • defeated by Mongols

8
The Tang at its peak, c.750
9
Song Golden Age
  • Economic
  • Grand Canal rice
  • Urbanization
  • Cultural Features
  • Tang anti-Buddhist backlash
  • Inventions GUNPOWDER COMPASS
  • JUNK SHIP MOVEABLE TYPE

10
The Song Golden Age
INVENTIONS
Gunpowder Rockets
Porcelain - Chinaware
Landscape art
Moveable Type
Compass
Chinese junks
11
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12
Rise Spread of Islam 600-1450
  • Beginnings
  • 610 C.E. Prophet Muhammad in Mecca
  • Beliefs
  • Holy book _____________
  • Five Pillars
  • 1. ____________________________________ 2.
    ________________________________________ 3.
    ________________________________________ 4.
    ________________________________________ 5.
    ________________________________________

Quran
one god (Allah)
Prayer (5x a day facing Mecca)
Fasting (Ramadan)
Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)
Charity
13
Islam spread to __________________ _______________
___ __________________
the Middle East, N. Africa, S. Asia
  • Split
  • Sunni largest branch
  • Shia mostly Iran

14
Umayyad Caliphate
1st ISLAMIC EMPIRE
  • highly centralized (Damascus)
  • led by Caliphs
  • spread Arabic
  • Arabs dominated
  • convert or pay tax
  • Women gained some rightsbut confined to harem

15
Golden Age of Islam
  • Abbasid Caliphate sciences, medicine, math,
    astronomy, chemistry, literature

16
  • Which of the following is a major difference
    between the classical periods in Rome and the
    Islamic civilizations?
  • (A) While the Roman Empire fell as a result of
    internal warfare, Islamic dynasties faced few
    internal divisions.
  • (B) While Roman society had strict social
    classes, Islam was more egalitarian with fewer
    barriers to social mobility.
  • (C) Islamic civilizations were more dependent
    on agriculture.
  • (D) While Roman emperors were considered both
    secular and religious leaders, the caliphs were
    secular rulers only.

17
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18
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19
Byzantine Empire (400s-1453)
  • - Eastern Roman Empire
  • Centralized
  • Greek language
  • E. Orthodox Christianity
  • Capital Constantinople
  • Empire divided in themes
  • Local military leaders
  • Land for military service
  • HUGE bureaucracy

Byzantium during Justinians reign.
Military
Clergy
Civil Bureaucrats
20
Emperor Justinian
  • Autocratic Rule
  • Wife Theodora
  • United Empire Justinians Code
  • Hagia Sophia, roads, public baths, mosaics

21
Decentralized States
1. Western Europe
2. Japan
22
Decentralized States
WESTERN EUROPE
Political - Feudalism - Lords ruled locally -
Catholic Church
  • Economic
  • Serfdom
  • Manoralism (farming)

23
Decentralized States
WESTERN EUROPE
  • Social
  • Nobility
  • knights code (chivalry )
  • Catholic Church

24
Japan
  • Political
  • bureaucracy Confucian-like
  • The Rise of Feudalism
  • Shogun supreme...
  • loyalties of local samurais

25
Japan
Cultural -traditional religion Shinto -
rise of Zen Buddhism - anti-Chinese during Heian
Period
26
Nomadic Empires
BIG THREE
The Vikings
The Turks
The Mongols
27
Vikings (c. 800-1100)
  • Ransacked Europe
  • adopted Christianity

28
Nomadic Empires The Vikings (c. 800-1100)
29
The Turks
  • Mercenaries
  • Converted to Islam
  • Mamluk slaves conquered Abbasid Caliphate

30
  • in India began Muslim Delhi Sultanate

31
The Mongols
  • Genghis Khan unites
  • horsemanship, archery, terror
  • LARGEST LAND EMPIRE EVER

Resist and die. Submit and livepay tribute
32
Empire divided into Khanates
Khanate of the Golden Horde
Great Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
Ilkhan Khanate
33
  • Russia Golden Horde
  • local Princes in power
  • (at Novgorod)
  • TRIBUTARY TAX COLLECTION
  • China Yuan Dynasty
  • - Kublai Khan
  • centralized rule
  • - Confucianism outlawed
  • - Chinese lowest class
  • Middle East Il-khante
  • used local bureaucrats
  • - TAX FARMING

34
Pax Mongolia The Mongol Peace
increase in trade cultural interaction
35
Mongol Decline
  1. Poor administrators
  2. Overexpansion (Japanese failure)
  3. Internal Rivalry

36
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37
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38
Africa
  • Ghana
  • Trans-Saharan trade!
  • gold salt
  • Conversion to Islam!
  • Mali
  • Gold salt
  • Islamic
  • King Mansa Musa (hajj)
  • Ibn Battuta the traveler

Mosque _at_ Timbuktu
Musas Hajj
39
Ibn Battuta
- 75,000 milesacross Muslim world -book
Travels of Ibn Battuta
40
Marco Polo
  • traveled on Silk Roads
  • lived w/ Yuan Dynasty
  • brought paper money, gunpowder to Europe

41
  • 1. Which of the following is an example of an
    event or situation between 600 and 1450 C.E. that
    helps to distinguish it as a new period in world
    history?
  • a) The invasions of the Huns disrupted the
    former Roman Empire as they attacked from the
    northeast.
  • b) Christianity was spread around the eastern
    Mediterranean by Paul of Tarsus.
  • c) The Mongols invaded many areas of Eurasia
    and formed the largest empire in world history.
  • d) Buddhism entered China for the first time
    and for a time supplanted Confucianism.

42
Marco Polo Ibn Battuta
43
  • 2. In the 9th century the Tang Dynasty was
    weakened by considerable conflict between
  • a) Buddhism and Shintoism
  • b) Shintoism and Hinduism
  • c) Confucianism and Hinduism
  • d) Buddhism and Confucianism

44
  • 3. In the period between 500 and 1000 C.E., all
    of the following statements accurately compare
    the eastern and western parts of the former Roman
    Empire EXCEPT
  • a) Christians in both areas were largely under
    the control of the Pope.
  • b) In general the civilizations of the east
    were more advanced economically and culturally
    than the west.
  • c) The east kept more aspects of the old Roman
    civilization intact than did the west.
  • d) Both civilizations completely collapsed.

45
Christianity in Africa
  • 1. Egypt Coptic Christians
  • 2. Ethiopia

Church of St. George, Ethiopia
46
East Africa
  • Swahili Coast
  • -Indian Ocean maritime trade w/ Arabs
  • Swahili trade language
  • gold, slaves, ivory

47
Crusades
  • wars for Holy Land
  • Christians Muslims
  • Turks win Jerusalem

48
Fight for the Holy Land
49
European Results
  • new goods ideas
  • increased trade (Hanseatic League)
  • DECLINE OF FEUDALISM
  • Florence new banking center

50
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51
Portuguese Spice Trade - Ottoman Turks blocked
European traders - Europeans sea routes to the
Indies
- 1400s Portugal explores Africa -port
entrepôts in Africa, India, China
Portuguese trade in China
52
Portuguese Spice Trade
The map above shows the voyages of Vasco Da Gama,
who was able to reach India by sea and gain
access to the Spice Islands.
53
Spread of Disease
  • Black Death
  • along Silk Roads
  • entered Europe 1340s

54
Buddhism Spread
  • Mahayana Buddhism
  • to C. E. Asia
  • -Bodhisattva worship

3. Japan Zen Buddhism
  • Theravada Buddhism
  • to S.E. Asia
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