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Chapter 6: The Road to Revolution


Title: Chapter 6: The Road to Revolution Author: Lori Williams Last modified by: student Created Date: 9/30/2007 5:34:24 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6: The Road to Revolution

Chapter 6 The Road to Revolution
  • Tighter British Control

6.1 Tighter British Control
Events Leading to the American Revolution in
order from left to right, top to bottom.
Setting the Stage
  • England needed the colonies. Mercantilism was
    Englands way of maintaining her position of
    power in the world.
  • The English suddenly wanted to regain control of
    the colonies after having left them alone for 150
  • The colonists resented the interference.

Imports and Exports between England and North
America from 1763-1776
Not only did the colonists supply raw materials
to England, they also bought all of their
finished products from England. England was
making a killing selling finished products to the
The Colonies and Britain Grow Apart
  • With the help of the Colonists, the British won
    the French and Indian War
  • In 1763, The Treaty of Paris awarded England all
    of the land from the Appalachian Mountains to the
    Mississippi River.

The Proclamation of 1763
  • The colonists were eager to claim the new land
    west of the Appalachians.
  • King George, however, didnt want trouble with
    the Indians, so he passed a Proclamation
    forbidding the colonists to move beyond the
    Appalachian Mountains

King George III enforce the Proclamation of 1763,
by keeping 10,000 soldiers in the
colonies. British soldiers were stationed in the
colonies after 1763 to keep peace between the
colonists and the Native Americans.
To Make Matters Worse. . . .
  • The Colonists were angry over the Proclamation of
    1763. They felt they deserved the new land
    because they had fought for it.
  • Then, King George decided the colonists should
    help pay for the debt hed acquired fighting the
    French and Indian War, which had doubled
    Britains debt. So, he passed the Sugar Act which
    placed a tax on molasses, sugar, and other items
    shipped to the colonies

And Even WORSE . . . . .
  • King George wanted to enforce the Proclamation of
    1763 by preventing the colonists from moving
    across the mountains.
  • He also wanted to make sure the colonists didnt
    smuggle goods from other countries to avoid the
    Sugar Act.
  • So, George passed the Quartering Act.
  • He wanted to keep troops in America to enforce
    his laws, but he didnt want to pay for their
    room and board.
  • In 1765, Parliament passed a quartering act that
    stated that British troops in America would be
    housed in barracks and in public houses unless
    and until the number of troops overwhelmed the
    facilities, at which time, the troops could be
    housed in private commercial property, such as
    inns and stables, and in uninhabited homes and
    barns. The quartering would be without
    compensation and, in fact, owners would be
    required to provide soldiers with certain
    necessities such as food, liquor, salt, and
    bedding, also without compensation.

Colonists became increasingly angry
  • They resented the kings sudden enforcement of
  • They especially resented being taxed without
    their consent. They had no representatives in
  • Colonists were angry over the Quartering and
    Sugar Acts.
  • Remember, the colonists had enjoyed 150 years of
    salutary neglect in which they made their own

(No Transcript)
And Then Came the STAMP ACT
https// 432
Parliament passed the Stamp Act to raise in the
colonies to pay the costs of defending them.
Britain Passes the Stamp Act The Stamp Act was
different from the Sugar Act because the Stamp
Act taxed the colonists, while the Sugar Act
taxed trade. Patrick Henry was a member of the
House of Burgesses that called for resistance to
the Stamp Act.
The Colonies Protest the Stamp Act The
significance of the Stamp Act Congress was that
it was the first colonial gathering to consider
acting together in protest. What role did the
Sons of Liberty play in the fight for liberty in
the colonies? They staged both peaceful and
violent protests against Parliaments laws.
The Colonies Protest the Stamp Act The
Declaratory Act gave Parliament the supreme
control to govern the colonies.
Look at your text p. 146 The Bostonians Paying
the Excise-Man, 1774 British propaganda print
that depicts the tarring and feathering
of Boston Commissioner of Customs John Malcolm.
This was the second time Malcolm had been tarred
and feathered. The Boston Tea Party is shown, but
it had occurred four weeks before this event.
https// No
More Kings, School House Rock
5f817c-c87b-478c-86c3-2a2f79553896 The Quartering
Act 101
The Townshend Acts
  • The King wasnt happy over the colonists refusal
    to pay taxes.
  • His finance minister, Charles Townshend,
    suggested new acts.
  • One of these acts suspended New Yorks assembly
    until New Yorkers agreed to house soldiers.

d573b0-39ec-4969-b878-06a405de788a The Townshend
Acts, Writs of Assistance, and the Boston
Massacre 128
And. . . .
  • The Townshend Acts placed duties or taxes on
    imported goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead,
    and tea.
  • The Townshend Acts also gave soldiers the right
    to search colonists homes with warrants known as
    writs of assistance.
  • These writs could be issued without probable
    cause to search homes for smuggled goods.

The Townshend Acts
Cartoon in text p. 171
Tools of Protest
  • Samuel Adams was the driving force behind the
    boycott of British goods to protest the Townshend
  • Samuel Adams, a brewer, and the leader of the
    Sons of Liberty led the opposition to the
    Townshend Acts.

Trouble brews . . . . .
  • In the fall of 1768, 1,000 British soldiers
    arrived in Boston under the command of General
    Thomas Gage.
  • These soldiers were to enforce the Townshend Acts
  • Tension filled the streets of Boston

The Boston Massacre
Watch https//
Write Facts are stubborn things. and Make
shipwreck of conscience. on the board. On March
5, 1770, a fight called the Boston Massacre broke
out between British soldiers and dockworkers.
The Boston Massacre became a symbol of British
The Tea Act
Finally, the boycott of English goods and the
anger of the colonists forced Parliament to
repeal the Townshend Acts. BUT. . . . King
George left one tax in place . . . The tax on tea.
The Boston Tea Party
https// 402

https// 148
6.3 The Road to Lexington and Concord Would Mr. C
be willing to show the kids his cd of pictures of
this topic?
The Intolerable Acts
  • Englands rulers were furious over the Boston Tea
  • Determined to get the colonists under control,
    Parliament and King George passed the Coercive
    Acts. The Colonists called these the Intolerable
    Acts. https//
  • 101

4)As tensions rose in late 1773 and early 1774,
the old quartering act was supplemented with the
Quartering Act of 1774. This act, passed on June
2, 1774, required colonists to house troops not
only as previously required, but also in private
The First Continental Congress Meets
  • In response to the Intolerable Acts, the
    colonists formed the First Continental Congress.
  • Delegates voted to ban all trade with Britain
    until the Intolerable Acts were repealed.
  • In the eyes of the king, this was treason.

The Midnight Ride
  • British troops march from Boston into the
    countryside in April 1775 to arrest patriot
    leaders and destroy the militias supplies.
  • Paul Revere became famous for spreading the news
    of the British troops movements.
    86CFB6-5FC9-41D6-8448-3930B3038943 434

The Midnight Ride
  • William Dawes avoided capture while spreading the
    news that the British were coming.

Use next several slides if videos are unavailable.
Lexington and Concord
  • April 1775, General Thomas Gage, was ordered to
    destroy the rebel's military stores at Concord.
    To do this he put Lieutenant Colonel Francis
    Smith and Marine Major John Pitcairn in charge.
    He also composed a relief column under the
    command of Lord Hugh Percy to leave 6 hours after
    the main column. In an attempt at secrecy he did
    not tell his officers his plan until the last
    minute. The problem with this was that Boston had
    become a glass fishbowl. All rebel eyes were
    watching to see the British' next action, and
    when the garrison committed to an action, the
    Americans knew their every move.

At midnight on the 19th, 650-900 troops left
Boston, crossed the Charles River, followed
closely by the alarm rider Paul Revere. As the
British marched towards Concord, the entire
countryside had been alerted to their presence,
and rebel militia was deployed to meet them.
Up to now, no armed resistance to the British
that had resulted in loss of British life.
Several months earlier, Gage had attempted to
destroy military arms at Salem and met with
resistance but no shots were fired, and the
British retreated without completing their
objective. Lexington Militia Captain John Parker
had heard of the events at Salem, and collected
his men on Lexington Green to face the British
At dawn, Smith's advanced parties under the
command of Major Pitcairn, arrived at Lexington
Green to see a group of armed Militia in
formation across the Green. Pitcairn ordered the
militia, led by John Parker, to be surrounded and
disarmed. In response Parker ordered his men to
disperse. Then a shot rang out. No one really
knows who fired first, but the British, hearing
the shot, fired upon the small group of militia,
killing 8, and wounding 10 more. The militia then
retreated into the woods to avoid the British
That was the first battle in the American
Revolutionary War.
The British column then marched to Concord, to
destroy some cannons believed to be at Provincial
Colonel Barrett's farm ran into a group of armed
militia at Concord North Bridge. This time when
shots rang out the Americans were more prepared,
and fired back in "The Shot Heard Round The
World.", and so began the American Revolution.
The short battle at the bridge was a defeat, and
the British abandoned the bridge, retreating to
Concord center. Knowing that he was in a
dangerous situation, Smith decided to return to
Boston as soon as possible. In his retreat the
real battle began.
Militia and Minutemen from all surrounding towns
had marched toward Concord, and when the
retreating column ran into this army they were
outflanked, out gunned and scared. The Americans
did not fight as the British did. Instead of
forming an offensive line the rebels used small
squad and company tactics to flank the column and
inflicted heavy damage. Because the American's
never formed a firing line the inexperienced
British had little to shoot at. This style of
flanking and shooting from behind trees, walls
etc. destroyed the British morale, and they broke
ranks while retreating towards Lexington.
Had it not been for the relief brigade of Lord
Percy, the British would have been destroyed.
Waiting at Lexington, Percy used his two cannon
to disperse the rebels and collected Smiths
troops back into regiments. He then led the
retreat back to Boston. Under Percy's command the
retreating column maintained control, even under
heavy fire, and the retreat to Boston was a
success. The British suffered badly, nearly 20
percent casualties, but more importantly, this
action led to the siege of Boston and the start
of the Revolutionary War.
Days later, the men of Massachusetts used the
engagement as propaganda to turn the public
opinion to their cause. At the time of the battle
only one third of the population believed in
breaking from Britain.
Lexington and Concord
  • During the Revolutionary War, people who sided
    with the rebels were called Patriots.

fc1732-315c-4fdd-a3f0-39762f3495cb The Attack of
the Minutemen 445 https//app.discoveryeducati
e22c44 Samuel Whittmore Fights Back 220
  • Declaring Independence

When armed conflict between bands of American
colonists and British soldiers began in April
1775, the Americans were really fighting only for
their rights as British subjects. By the
following summer, with the Revolutionary War in
full swing, the movement for independence from
Britain had grown, and delegates of the
Continental Congress were faced with a vote on
the issue. In mid-June 1776, a five-man committee
including Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and
Benjamin Franklin was tasked with drafting a
formal statement of the colonies intentions. The
Congress formally adopted the Declaration of
Independencewritten largely by Jeffersonin
Philadelphia on July 4, a date now celebrated as
the birth of American independence. Advertisement
John Hancock, proud to attach his name to the
Declaration of Independence, signed in huge, bold
strokesthe most prominent signature on the
document. To this day, putting your John Hancock
on something means to sign it. The most common
legend is that he signed his name bigger than
everyone elses so that the fat old King could
read it without his spectacles. The fact is that
as the president of Congress he was the first
person to sign the document and because he was
the leader of Congress his signature was centered
below the text. Another myth reinforced by
the Trumbulls painting of the Declaration of
Independence which is now located in the United
States Capitol rotunda  is that the declaration
was signed by all delegates on July 4, 1776. The
fact is that signing started August 2 and was not
completed until late November.
What would have happened had the American
patriots lost their war against Great Britain.
British victory in the conflict was entirely
possible. Given the significant disparities in
resources between the British and the colonists,
such an outcome seemed not just possible but
likely early on, and at numerous points during
the conflict. The Patriots lacked a professional
army, a central government, and a navy the 13
colonies were geographically dispersed and lacked
Britains political unity. The Patriots waged
their war for independence against the worlds
most powerful military and its greatest empire,
only 15 years from its great triumph over France
in the Seven Years War.
https// Its
Too Late to Apologize 321 Explain King George,
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin, John
Hancock, Samuel Adams
The Continental Army is Formed
  • Militiamen from all over the colonies gather
    outside of Boston- 20,000 strong
  • Washington, a member of the Continental Congress,
    is chosen as General
  • They attack and capture British Fort Ticonderoga
    on May 10, 1775

Battle of Bunker Hill
  • Colonists control a hilltop across the bay from
  • 2,200 Redcoats set out to attack colonists
  • British finally won, but at a cost of over 1,000
    killed or wounded vs. only 400 colonists
  • The colonists lost, but the battle showed
    Continental Army was a force to be reckoned with

Dont fire until you see the whites of their
Colonel William Prescott at the Battle of Bunker
A Last Attempt at Peace
  • Most colonists still wanted peace

A last attempt at Peace We extended the olive
  • Olive Branch Petition- 1775
  • Asked King to restore harmony between Britain and
    the Colonies
  • King not only rejects petition he also
  • Uses British Navy to blockade ports
  • Sends German Hessian soldiers to fight

Common Sense is Published
  • In early 1776, most Americans STILL wanted to
    avoid a final break with Britain.
  • However, the publication of a pamphlet titled
    Common Sense helped convince many Americans that
    a complete break with Britain was necessary.
  • Thomas Paine was the author of Common Sense.

A Time of Decision
  • The Continental Congress remained undecided.
  • Then Congress allowed each of the 13 colonies to
    establish its own government.
  • On June 7, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
    introduced a key resolution. It declared that all
    political connection between the colonies and
    Great Britain was totally dissolved.

A Time of Decision
  • The Committee that Drafted the Declaration of
  • Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams,
    Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston

The Declaration is Adopted
  • Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence
    on July 4, 1776
  • Thats why we celebrate
  • the 4th of July or Independence Day!!!!!

The Declaration is Adopted
  • The Declaration Contains these words
  • We hold these truths to be self evident, that
    all men are created equal, that they are endowed
    by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty and the
    pursuit of Happiness.

Declaration of Independence
  • After much debate, Continental Congress has
    Thomas Jefferson write the document
  • July 4, 1776 Declaration is adopted
  • Key Points
  • People have rights government cant take away
  • People have right to challenge government
  • Explained reasons for breaking with Britain
  • Declared colonies to be free and independent
  • http//
    declaration-of-independence 349

Americans have now declared their independence-
now they have to win their freedom on the