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Topic: Early History of the Middle East

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Topic: Early History of the Middle East River Valley Civilizations The first great civilizations in the world developed along the banks of rivers. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: Early History of the Middle East


1
TopicEarly History of the Middle East
2
River Valley Civilizations
  • The first great civilizations in the world
    developed along the banks of rivers. Historians
    believe there were 4 cradles of civilizations 2
    here, and also in India and China
  • One was in Egypt, in the Nile Valley. The other
    was in Mesopotamia (Iraq today) between the
    Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
  • Conditions in the area favored agriculture. The
    great rivers annually overflowed their banks,
    depositing a rich layer of soil produced
    abundant harvests increased population and
    cities and villages arose.
  • These areas developed rules the early ones
    dealt with irrigation and cooperation among the
    villages dealing with the systems of dams and
    canals.
  • Trade and commerce developed because the people
    produced more food than they needed.

3
Ancient Egyptians
  • Dates back to 5,000 B.C. (7000 years)
  • Most people were farmers.
  • Several industries (copper mining, glass blowing,
    weaving, tanning, metal working) in urban areas.
  • Had a god-king called pharaoh.
  • Religion immortality of the soul, mummifying the
    corpse to preserve the body for the after life.
  • Developed the art of writing hieroglyphics
    (picture writing).
  • Believed they developed the first calendar (12
    months, 30 days each).
  • Advanced in mathematics (built pyramids, precise
    land measurement, also understood geometry and
    algebra).

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People of the Mesopotamia (also called the
Fertile Crescent)
  • Equally important with Egypt, advances were being
    made in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates
    Rivers no natural barriers to protect them from
    constant warfare.
  • Sumerians first to use wheel, number system
    based on 60 (60 minutes and 360) first system of
    writing (cuneiform, 350 symbols)
  • Babylonians Code of Hammurabi
  • Hittites used iron
  • Phoenicians developed an alphabet
  • Hebrews religion (monotheism)
  • Persians built great roads

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Contributions of the Muslims
  • The luxury and wealth that existed in the Muslim
    lands was unknown in Europe.
  • Advances in medicine described measles and small
    pox, published medical encyclopedias, built
    hospitals, druggists/doctors had to pass tests.
  • Progress in algebra and Arabic numbers.
  • Great geographers and printed maps.
  • Built beautiful mosques for worship.

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