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The Civil Rights Movement

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Title: The Civil Rights Movement


1
The Civil Rights Movement
2
What is it?
  • During the 1950s, African Americans led one of
    the most significant social movements in U.S.
    History The Civil Rights Movement.

3
The Emergence of the Civil Rights Movement
The movement emerged from a 300 year-long
struggle for equality and justice - Slavery to
Jim Crow to Plessy!
4
1. What was the ruling in the Supreme Court Case
Plessy vs. Ferguson?
  • Separate but equal!
  • If the two races meet, it must be a result of
    the voluntary consent of the individuals
  • Were things actually equal?

5
Who was Jackie Robinson?
  • First African American to enter the major league
    baseball association.
  • Began the integration of Baseball in 1947.

6
1. Rosa Parks
3. Segregated Busses (The Montgomery Bus Boycott)
2. Elizabeth Eckford (Little Rock Nine)
4. Brown vs. Board of Education This where they
will begin their fight.
7
  • Describe the following events (Pages 918-922)

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes
Important People Thurgood Marshall Little Rock Nine Elizabeth Eckford Rosa Parks Martin Luther King (include his philosophy)
Events
Effects SCLC
8
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
9
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
10
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
11
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
12
School Desegregation
Much white resistance! -Central High School, and
the Little Rock Nine. -James Meredith and Ole
Miss
13
(No Transcript)
14
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
15
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
16
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
17
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
18
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
19
  • Describe the following events

Brown vs. Board of Education Little Rock, AK The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Causes Several state victories desegregating schools, and NAACP pressures Central High School is one of the first in Arkansas to be desegregated opposition forces National Guard to intervene Busses were segregated, whites in front blacks in back.
Important People Thurgood Marshall NAACP member, lawyer leading the struggle against school segregation, defending lawyer in Brown vs. Board Little Rock Nine first to integrate, troops stayed entire school year. Elizabeth Eckford Did not get the message the first day to meet at the police station, had to enter the school alone! Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man and was arrested Martin Luther King (include his philosophy) encouraged the blacks to Not ride the bus Monday NON VIOLENCE!!!!!!!!!!
Events Under Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren, the court declares separate but equal in public schools unconstitutional Federal troops sent to enforce the Supreme Courts desegregation rule. Ernest green first to Graduate. One day turned into a year of the black community boycotting the busses, walked and carpooled instead
Effects Harsh opposition from the southern states refusing to obey the decision conflicts between state and federal government Civil rights act of 1957 Established a US Civil Rights Commission which had the power to investigate violations of civil rights. SCLC Created by MLK, Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Supreme Courts rules busses must desegregate!
20
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks!
Dont ride the bus Monday!! (Was the best way
to respond)
December 1956 the SUPREME Court ordered to end
the segregation of buses!
21
Martin Luther King Jr.
Philosophy Nonviolence!! Approach your enemies
with love!
If we are wrong, the Constitution is wrong. If
we are wrong, God almighty is wrong. If we are
wrong, Jesus of Nazareth was merely a utopian
dreamer and never came down to earth. If we are
wrong, justice is a lie. -MLK Jr.
- Formation of the SCLC
22
We Shall Overcome
  • We shall overcome, we shall overcome
  • We shall overcome someday.
  • Oh deep in my heart, I do believe, we shall
    overcome someday.
  • We are not afraid, we are not afraid, we are not
    afraid today.
  • Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, we shall
    overcome someday!

23
Making Progress....The Civil Rights Movement
Continued What is a sit-in?
24
Making Progress? The Sit-In Movement
People SNCC, College Students Causes Segregated
lunch counters/restaurants Events sit at lunch
counters until served Outcome White resistance,
harassed
A peaceful demonstration where typically young
black college students will sit down at a
segregated lunch counter, and remain there to
protest its segregated facilities. -SNCC Student
Non-violent Coordinating Committee, created by
college students conducting sit-ins! Justice
permeated by love!
25
Making Progress? The Freedom Rides
  • Many states refused to comply with the Supreme
    court order to desegregate the buses
  • Freedom Riders- bus trip from Washington DC
    through the South to New Orleans as a protest.
  • Both blacks and whites rode together, sang
    songs, as inspiration for desegregation.
  • Sometimes turned violent, bombs on buses,
    attacked at bus terminals, put in jail!

26
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27
Making Progress? Demonstrations in Birmingham
  • Began with various sit-ins and peaceful
    demonstrations around the extremely segregated
    city.
  • Eugene BULL Connor
  • One demonstration over 150 people were arrested,
    MLK being one of them.
  • Letter from a Birmingham Jail
  • We know through painful experience that freedom
    is never voluntarily given by the oppressor it
    must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I
    have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign
    that was "well timed" in the view of those who
    have not suffered unduly from the disease of
    segregation. For years now I have heard the word
    "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro with
    piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost
    always meant 'Never." We must come to see, with
    one of our distinguished jurists, that "justice
    too long delayed is justice denied."

28
Demonstrations Continued..
  • The Children's Marches
  • -Children 6-16 marched in protest
  • Over 600 young fighters were sent to jail
  • Video footage caught tape of children rolling
    down the street from fire hoses
  • Brought about much sympathy for the movement!

People Bull Connor Causes Very racist city
and police commissioner Events Sit-ins,
protests, childrens marches Outcome Gained
national attention sympathy due to the violence
29
Making Progress? 16th Street Baptist Church
Bombing
A bomb in the basement of the church went off and
killed six people.(KKK leader planted) -Will
spark violence Leads to nationwide protest in D.C.
30
Victory? The 1963 March on Washington
  • WHO Over 25,000 people gathered in DC from
    across the nation.(MLK, CORE, SNCC, NAACP, SCLC)
  • The most positive and memorable speech came from
    MLK, I have a dream speech!
  • I have a dream that one day this nation will rise
    up and live out the true meaning of its creed
    "We hold these truths to be self-evident that
    all men are created equal."
  • I have a dream that one day on the red hills of
    Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of
    former slave owners will be able to sit down
    together at the table of brotherhood.
  • I have a dream that one day even the state of
    Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of
    injustice, sweltering with the heat of
    oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of
    freedom and justice.
  • I have a dream that my four little children will
    one day live in a nation where they will not be
    judged by the color of their skin but by the
    content of their character.
  • I have a dream today

31
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32
  • OUTCOME The March was a success, and done
    peacefully!
  • In response, President Johnson passes the Civil
    Rights Act of 1964 forces immediate
    desegregation to all public facilities! (will
    prompt 2 other very important civil rights acts
    later)

Aint gonna let nobody turn me round Aint
gonna let nobdy, Lordy, turn me round, turn me
round, turn me round, Aint gonna let nobody turn
me round Keep on walkin, keep on talkin, marchin
up to freedom land! Aint gonna let segregation,
Lordy, turn me round. Aint gonna let no
Jailhouse. Aint gonna let no nervous
Nellie. Aint gonna let Chief Prickett. Aint
gonna let Mayor Kelly. Aint gonna let no Uncle
Tom. Aint gonna let nobody
33
The Violence continues The Voter Registration
Drive.
  • Many Blacks still could not vote (literacy tests,
    poll taxes)
  • Freedom Summer 1964 people went door to door or
    held classes on how to pass literacy tests and
    how to vote.
  • Brought back confidence some did not have (Turned
    violent some leaders beaten, shot or attacked
    while doing this.)
  • SELMA TO MONTGOMERY 1965
  • What Protest march Where from SELMA to
    MONTGOMERY in response to violence, met by state
    troopers at city borders and How some were
    shotBloody Sunday
  • Effects in response, the President passed the
    VOTING RIGHTS ACT 1965 made poll taxes and
    literacy tests illegal.
  • Who Alabama Voters, Jim Clark

34
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35
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36
The Movement turns RADICAL Malcolm X
  • Some were very dissatisfied with MLKs
    leadership, and new leaders arose!
  • Had a rough childhood, went to jail, converted to
    Islam.
  • PROMOTES Malcolm X promotes racial pride and
    separatism!
  • Uses self defense, MLK is too passive
  • Later assassinated by a member of the Nation of
    Islam.

37
  • Facts?
  • Inferences?
  • Reminders
  • The two had a great deal of respect for each
    other.
  • Many historians suggest that both men were moving
    towards each others ideas before their
    assassinations.
  • Did not see each other as enemies

38
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39
The Movement Turns Radical Urban Race Riots
  • What Spontaneous violence among angry urban
    residents and police broke out in cities across
    the US.
  • Kerner Commission created by President Johnson
    to investigate the causes of the urban race
    riots
  • concluded that white racism, especially with
    the police, was to blame!

40
The Shift to Radicalism
  • The character of the civil rights movement began
    to change in the late 1960s.
  • Key radical organizations began to emerge

The Black Panther Party
41
The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement
No longer did the majority of blacks and whites
accept that only native born white Americans
deserved first class citizenship! Nor did most
people accept the racial stereotype that AAs
should be Quietly Obedient to their government
or peers in the face of discrimination.
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