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AP US GOVERNMENT

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AP US GOVERNMENT & POLITICS REVIEW Ms. Salmeri Cypress Bay High School 2015-2016 Exam date: Tuesday, May 12th (morning exam) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP US GOVERNMENT


1
AP US GOVERNMENT POLITICS REVIEW
  • Ms. Salmeri
  • Cypress Bay High School
  • 2015-2016
  • Exam date Tuesday, May 12th (morning exam)

2
THE COURSE
  • AP Government Politics is mostly conceptual
  • Concepts of government by applying political
    situations
  • The course is broken into 6 units consisting of a
    multitude of topics to help you better master
    these concepts
  • I. Constitutional Underpinnings (515)
  • II. Political Beliefs Behaviors (1020)
  • III. Political Parties, Elections, Interest
    Groups Mass Media (1020)
  • IV. Institutions of Government (3545)
  • V. Public Policy (515)
  • VII. Civil Rights Civil Liberties (515)
  • Percentages equal roughly material covered on
    the AP exam.

3
THE EXAM
  • Multiple choice 50 (60 POINTS)
  • 60 questions
  • 45 minutes
  • NO PENALTY FOR WRONG ANSWER
  • Free Response 50 (60 POINTS)
  • 4 questions (15 points each)
  • 100 minutes
  • MUST answer ALL of them

4
STATS
5
SCORING (AVERAGE)
6
MASTERING THE MULTIPLE CHOICE
7
TIME AND GRADE
  • You have 45 minutes for this section
  • 50 of overall grade
  • Allow less than one minute for each question
  • Answer the ones you know for sure first, skip
    what you dont know and come back
  • Read the question, THINK about the answer, then
    find the answer from options
  • This is so you dont trick yourself out of the
    correct answer with the distractors
  • ANSWER EVERY QUESTION! You can only EARN points!

8
QUESTIONS
  • Definition/identification, analytical, conceptual
  • Theres no cheating the exam you just have to
    know your stuff /
  • Know your VOCAB!!! most questions are testing
    retention of vocab
  • Use knowledge of US History/Human
    Geo/Economics/Political culture to infer what you
    dont know
  • ANSWER EVERY QUESTION!!!

9
MC EXAMPLE
  • DEFINITION
  • Which of the following best describes
    GERRYMANDERING?
  • The party in power wins four or five surrounding
    districts by very small margins
  • The Supreme Court requires that state
    legislatures must adopt the doctrine of one
    person, one vote
  • The party in control of the state legislature
    draws district boundaries in such a way as to
    favor its own candidates in subsequent elections
  • By polling voters, party officials are able to
    determine how citizens will vote
  • The public decides which issues are most
    important and tells the elected officials how to
    vote on specific bills

10
ANSWER
  • DEFINITION
  • Which of the following best describes
    GERRYMANDERING?
  • The party in power wins four or five surrounding
    districts by very small margins
  • The Supreme Court requires that state
    legislatures must adopt the doctrine of one
    person, one vote
  • The party in control of the state legislature
    draws district boundaries in such a way as to
    favor its own candidates in subsequent elections
  • By polling voters, party officials are able to
    determine how citizens will vote
  • The public decides which issues are most
    important and tells the elected officials how to
    vote on specific bills

11
MC EXAMPLE
  • APPLICATION
  • When a childs parents both identify strongly
    with the same political party, the child will
    most likely
  • A. Identify with the opposing party
  • B. Identify with the parents party
  • C. Have a low sense of political efficacy
  • D. Become an independent rather than a party
    identifier
  • E. Become alienated from the political system

12
ANSWER
  • APPLICATION
  • When a childs parents both identify strongly
    with the same political party, the child will
    most likely
  • A. Identify with the opposing party
  • B. Identify with the parents party
  • C. Have a low sense of political efficacy
  • D. Become an independent rather than a party
    identifier
  • E. Become alienated from the political system

13
MC EXAMPLE
  • CONCEPTUAL
  • The development of the two party system in the
    United States is best accounted for by
  • A. The Twelfth Amendment
  • B. Proportional representation
  • C. Multimember legislative districts
  • D. Single-member legislative districts
  • E. Strong party loyalty of elected representatives

14
ANSWER
  • CONCEPTUAL
  • The development of the two party system in the
    United States is best accounted for by
  • A. The Twelfth Amendment
  • B. Proportional representation
  • C. Multimember legislative districts
  • D. Single-member legislative districts
  • E. Strong party loyalty of elected representatives

15
WRITING FRQS
16
FRQ BASICS
  • 4 MANDATORY FRQs ANSWER ALL OF THEM
  • You can only EARN points
  • Questions are broken down into parts (Part A, B,
    C, etc.)
  • LABEL YOUR PARTS!!!
  • i.e. 1a) , 2b) , 3c)
  • If you dont label, the reader doesnt ALWAYS
    know what youre answering.
  • If you feel you answered 3c in 3b then REPEAT
    YOURSELF!
  • YOU CAN ONLY EARN POINTS SO WRITE, WRITE,
    WRITE!!!
  • Dont contradict yourself.

17
TIME AND GRADE
  • You have 100 minutes for this section
  • Take the time to UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION
  • 50 of overall grade
  • Allow 25 minutes for each question
  • Spend 5 minutes reading and jotting down a few
    words on each point you want to cover
  • HINT the question itself gives you context clues
    on how they want you to answer it. Examine that.
  • Then, spend 15 minutes writing your response
  • Save the last 5 minutes to review your response

18
FRQ VERBS
  • List/Identify - Listing or identifying is a task
    that requires no more than a simple enumeration
    of some factors or characteristics. A list does
    not require any causal explanations.
  • For example, a student might be asked to list or
    identify three characteristics presidents
    consider when making appointments. Such a list,
    which could be bulleted or numbered, might
    include party, race, gender, etc.
  • Define - A definition requires a student to
    provide a meaning for a word or concept.
  • Examples may help to demonstrate understanding of
    the definition. First define, then give example
    (not always necessary but may help augment your
    response). Students may be instructed to note the
    terms significance as part of the definition.

19
FRQ VERBS
  • Describe - A description involves providing a
    depiction or portrayal of a phenomenon or its
    most significant characteristics. Descriptions
    most often address what questions.
  • For example, if students are asked to describe
    reasons for the decline in voter turnout, they
    must do more than simply list factsthey must
    actually describe the reasons. Students may
    explain that the expansion of suffrage led to a
    decline in overall voter turnout because once
    voting was made available to more individuals,
    the overall percentage of those voting declined.
    Students need to focus on the details of a
    process and/or a concept.

20
FRQ VERBS
  • Explain - An explanation involves the exploration
    of possible causal relationships. When providing
    explanations, students should identify and
    discuss logical connections or causal patterns
    that exist between or among various political
    phenomena. Typically this requires students to
    show a result. (Use terms like as a result or
    therefore)
  • For example if a student were asked to explain
    how the first amendment addressed Anti-Federalist
    concerns they would need to first give context by
    describing the first amendment and the beliefs of
    the Anti-Federalists and then connect them.
    Anti-Federalists were concerned with a tyrannical
    central government with the ability to deprive
    Americans of civil liberties therefore including
    a provision in the Bill of Rights allowing
    Americans to speak out against the government or
    petition the government without fear of
    consequence eased their overall concern.

21
FORMAT EXAMPLES
  • Define Federalism. (1 POINT)
  • Identify two characteristics of an accurate
    public opinion poll. (2 POINTS)
  • Describe the winner-take-all feature of the
    Electoral College (1 POINT)
  • Explain how one of the following has increased
    the power of the federal government relative to
    the power of state governments (1 POINT each)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Sometimes combined
  • Identify and explain two reasons why voter
    turnout has been higher in presidential elections
    than in midterm elections. (4 POINTS)

22
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23
BREAKING DOWN THE QUESTION
  • 1. Understand the pretext
  • Voter turnout is the amount of the electorate
    that vote, so if this question is about turnout
    it must be about whether people show up to vote
    or dont show up to vote it increases
    sometimes, decreases sometimes (why?) because of
    provisions in the Constitution, national laws,
    and/or, demographic changes

24
PART A
  • Identify (just list) pick from 1 of 3 amendments
    and how it effect (raised or lowered)
  • You can also answer ALL 3 if you want!!!
  • 15th, 19th, 26th ALL increased/raised the
    potential for turnout

25
PART B
  • Explain how 2 laws affect (raised or lowered)
    turnout. Explain questions REQUIRE context to be
    established as well as some sort of result
  • So
  • Motor Voter Laws
  • First define
  • Second EXPLAIN how this would affect voter
    turnout
  • Photo identification Laws
  • First define
  • Second EXPLAIN how this would affect voter
    turnout

26
PART C
  • Describe how a demographic feature could (most
    likely) affect if someone would vote
  • Education
  • You have to be aware of statistics supported
    those with
  • Lower educated individuals dont vote much as
    those with higher education
  • Age
  • You have to be aware of statistics supporting
    those that are
  • Younger dont voter as much as elderly

27
PART D
  • Explain why voter turnout is different
  • Again, context, describe the difference between
    the 2 elections and THEN explain WHY that
    difference accounts for difference in turnout.
  • Most students make the mistake by not providing
    context and therefore cannot complete the answer.
  • A presidential election is an election for the
    President of the US versus a midterm election
    which is just for member so Congress (HOR and
    Senate). The electorate typically views the
    presidency as a more important office, as opposed
    to members of Congress, and therefore turnout at
    a higher rate to vote for the president than
    members of Congress.

28
FRQ DOS AND DONTS
  • Dos
  • Donts
  • Use PEN
  • Read answer what the question wants
  • List
  • Define
  • Explain
  • Describe
  • LABEL!
  • Cross out for mistakes
  • Answer questions directly asked link answer to
    ?
  • Answer what you know
  • You can only EARN points
  • Be SPECIFIC
  • KISS
  • Use PENCIL
  • Write a thesis
  • Write sloppy
  • Write in cursive
  • Write a conclusion
  • Leave out vital information
  • Give your opinion no one cares!
  • Rant without getting to the point

29
CONTENT REVIEW
  • Some basics this is NOT everything, but its
    helpful

30
I. CONSTITUTION
  • Articles of Confederation
  • First attempt, weak central gov., NO TAXING!
  • Shays Rebellion
  • Structure Articles (7) Amendments (27)
  • I, II, III
  • Branches
  • IV
  • Full Faith and Credit, Privileges and Immunities,
    Extradition
  • V Amendment process
  • 2/3 Congress ¾ states
  • VI Supremacy Clause

31
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32
I. CONSTITUTION
  • The Federalist Papers
  • Collection of essays urging ratification of
    Constitution
  • James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
  • 10
  • American republic manages factions
  • 51
  • Ambition made to counteract ambition checks
    and balances/separation of powers
  • 78
  • Judiciary weak

33
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34
I. Constitution
  • Article I Legislative Branch
  • House v. Senate
  • Requirements
  • Powers
  • Expressed v. implied
  • Necessary and proper commerce clause
  • Expanded by
  • McCulloch v. Maryland
  • Gibbons v. Ogden

35
I. Constitution
  • Article II Executive Branch
  • Requirements
  • Powers
  • Electoral College

36
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37
I. Constitution
  • Article III Judiciary
  • NO judicial review UNTIL
  • Marbury v. Madison (1803)

38
I. Constitution
  • Madisonian principles
  • Popular Sovereignty power to govern belongs to
    the people, govt based on the consent of
    governed
  • Separation of Powers division of govt between
    branches executive, legislative and judicial
  • Checks and Balances a system where branches
    have some authority over others
  • Limited Government govt is not all-powerful,
    and it does only what citizens allow
  • Federalism division of power between central
    government and individual states

39
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40
I. AMENDMENTS
  • 1-10 Bill of Rights
  • Guarantee people protection from abuses of
    FEDERAL government
  • 11-27 added as needed procedural, civil rights

41
AMENDMENT MNEMONICS
  • BILL OF RIGHTS
  • 1 RAPPOS
  • 2 thumb and index finder make a gun 2 arms
  • 4 What are you searching 4?
  • 5 I plead the 5th
  • 6 Speedy 6
  • 8 look like handcuffs
  • 9 9 makes more rights mine!
  • 10 state right (10 letters)

42
AMENDMENT MNEMONICS
  • PROCEDURAL
  • 12, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27
  • CIVIL RIGHTS/PROGRESSIVE
  • (13, 14, 15) RECONSTRUCTION (16, 17, 18, 19)
    PROGRESSIVE, 24, 26

43
AMENDMENT MNEMONICS
  • 12 1 and 2 positions
  • 20 Jan. 20 inauguration
  • 22 2 terms
  • 23 3 votes for DC
  • 25 25 if hes not alive
  • 27 highest one, pay increases

44
AMENDMENT MNEMONICS
  • 13 FREE
  • 14 CITIZENS
  • 15VOTE
  • 16 -19 In come Senators with Wine and Women
  • 24 polling open 24 hours
  • 26 26 (2 6) 18 18 to vote

45
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47
VI. CIVIL RIGHTS LIBERTIES
  • Derived from 14th Amendment equal protection
    clause
  • Incorporation Doctrine
  • Selective incorporation
  • Civil Rights government took away arbitrarily
  • Suffrage, education, equality in workplace
  • Civil Liberties guaranteed rights against
    government abuse of power
  • Speech, religion, criminal rights

48
VI. COURT CASES
  • 1st Amendment
  • Religion (Establishment Clause and Free Exercise
    Clause)
  • Engel v. Vitale, Lemon v. Kurtzman,
  • Speech (Symbolic, press, spoken/written)
  • Tinker v. Des Moines, Texas v. Johnson, Schenck
    v. US,
  • 4th Amendment
  • Search and seizure
  • Mapp v. Ohio
  • 5th Amendment
  • Criminal rights
  • Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright

49
VI. COURT CASES
  • 6th Amendment
  • Fair and speedy trial
  • 8Th Amendment
  • Cruel and unusual punishment
  • Furman v. Georgia, Gregg v. Georgia
  • 9th Amendment
  • Privacy
  • Roe v. Wade, Griswald v. Connecticut

50
VI. CIVIL RIGHTS
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Equal Rights Amendment (never passed)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Lawrence v. Texas
  • Dismantled state sodomy laws
  • Brown v. Board of Education
  • Desegregated schools
  • University of California v. Bakke
  • Affirmative action

51
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52
I. FEDERALISM
  • System of government where power is divided
    between a central structure (national government)
    and smaller units (states, local gov)
  • Contrast unitary, confederation
  • Divides power, decentralizes power, conflicts b/t
    natl gov and states
  • Delegated, reserved, concurrent
  • Dual, Cooperative, Fiscal (grants), New (divert
    back to states)

53
II. SOCIALIZATION
  • Political ideology
  • Primary factors family (parents), education,
    geographic region, religion, gender, social
    class, race, ethnicity
  • Liberal, conservative, moderate
  • Turnout/mobilization
  • Political efficacy
  • Grassroots mobilization
  • Motor Voter Act

54
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55
II. POLITICAL OPINION
  • Polls gauge public interest
  • Random sample, representative, low margin of
    error, neutral questions

56
III. POLITICAL PARTIES
  • First Party System Federalists v. Anti
  • Not IN the Constitution
  • GOAL control government through the winning of
    elections
  • Party identification -A citizen's personal
    affinity for a political party, usually expressed
    by a tendency to vote for the candidates of that
    party.
  • Democratic Party (1820s)
  • Democratic National Committee
  • Republican Party (1860s)
  • Republican National Committee
  • Current platforms
  • National, state and local somewhat independent
    of each other
  • Third Parties
  • Realignment v. Dealignment (an effect, not a
    cause)

57
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59
III. ELECTIONS
  • Reapportionment
  • Redistricting
  • Gerrymandering
  • Congressional midterm, congressional, off-year
  • Presidential general
  • Narrowing down
  • primary OR caucus
  • Open or closed
  • New Hampshire and Iowa
  • Conventions
  • Superdelegates
  • Campaign finance
  • PACs, FECA (FEC), soft money, hard money,
    SuperPacs, Buckley v. Valeo, Citizens United,
    McCain Feingold

60
III. MEDIA
  • Its all about the role of the press in politics
  • Agenda setter influence standards by
    broadcasting/determining what is newsworthy draw
    attention to important issues
  • Gatekeeper what subjects become national
    political issues and for how long
  • Scorekeeper keeping track of and helping make
    political reputations, note who is being
    mentioned as candidates, and helping to decide
    who is winning and losing (horse race journalism)
  • Watchdog investigating and exposing scandals

61
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63
IV. CONGRESS
  • House v. Senate
  • House Rules Committee, Revenue bills
  • Committees little legislatures
  • Standing, joint, select, conference
  • Majority hold most seats and chairs
  • Leadership
  • House
  • Speaker, Majority Leader, Majority Whip, Minority
    Leader, Minority Whip
  • Senate
  • President of the Senate (VP), President Pro
    Tempore, Majority Leader, Majority Whip, Minority
    Leader, Minority Whip
  • General vocab pork barrel, franking privilege,
    casework

64
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66
IV. BILL TO LAW
  • BOTH houses of Congress pass legislation
  • Simple majority
  • Sent to POTUS
  • Sign law
  • Veto not law
  • Both houses of Congress can override w/ 2/3 vote
  • Pocket veto 10 days within end of legislative
    session ending

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68
IV. BUREAUCRACY
  • Implement policies of legislative
  • Controlled by legislative AND executive
  • Legislative budget, change laws, oversight
  • Executive appointment
  • Based on civil service
  • Government Corporations
  • Independent Regulatory Agencies regulates
    economy
  • Executive Agencies provides service
  • Administrative discretion ability of
    bureaucrats to use their own judgment to make
    choices concerning the best way to implement
    federal law
  • Rule making quasi legislative power of the
    bureaucracy that results in regulations by gov
    agencies

69
IRON TRIANGLE
70
IV. EXECUTIVE
  • Formal v. informal powers
  • Veto, commander in chief, make appointments w/
    AC
  • Executive agreements, bully pulpit/going public
  • Executive orders way for POTUS to exercise
    supervision and direct agency activity

71
IV. COURTS
  • 2 tiers National and state
  • Jurisdiction original or appellate
  • Criminal vs. civil cases
  • National District courts (original), appellate
    courts (appellate), US Supreme Court (BOTH)
  • State local courts (county, district, etc.)
    state appeals, state Supreme Court
  • Majority of cases argued in STATE courts
  • SCOTUS 1 Chief Justice 8 associate justices
  • Serve for good behavior politically immune

72
I. IV. CHECKS BALANCES
73
V. BUDGET
  • Mandatory v. discretionary
  • Entitlements SS, medicare, medicaid, food stamps
    (welfare programs designed to provide a social
    safety net)
  • Means-tested v. non means-tested

74
I. III. IV. LATIN TERMS
  • Ex Post Facto
  • Habeas Corpus
  • Bill of Attainder
  • Amicus Curiae
  • Writ of Mandamus

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76
FURTHER HELP
  • Buy a review book Barrons, Princeton Review, 5
    Steps to a Five
  • Get them used on Amazon
  • Do the practice tests
  • Pinpoint your weaknesses
  • Ask your teacher for more resources on those
    topics or ME
  • erica.salmeri_at_browardschools.com
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