Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 799526-MWU4Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution

Description:

Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution ... What is evolution? a. the increased reproductive success ... Proposed changes in environment caused an organism behavior ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:75
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 85
Provided by: Dunca53
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution


1

UNIT IV Chapter 10 Principles of
Evolution
2
UNIT 4 EVOLUTION Chapter 10 Principles of
Evolution   I. Early Ideas about Evolution
(10.1)   A. Early scientists proposed ideas
about evolution   1. Evolution- process of
biological change by which descendants come to
differ from their ancestors   2. Other
scientists besides Darwin came up with idea  
3
B. Four scientists important in development of
evolution theory      
1. Carolus Linnaeus (1700s)- developed
classification system to name living things
(grouped by similarities)
4
2. Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1700s)-
proposed species shared ancestors instead of
arising separately    
5
3. Erasamus Darwin- Darwins grandfather.
Proposed that all living things were descended
from a common ancestor    
6
4. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck -proposed theory that
all organisms evolved toward perfection and
complexity.      
a. Proposed changes in environment caused an
organism behavior to change, leading to greater
use or disuse of a structure or organ   b.
Organism then passed changes on to offspring
7
C. Theories of geologic change set stage for
Darwins Theory   1. Age of the Earth was key
issue in early debates      
a. Many thought Earth on 6000 years old   b.
Discovery of fossils created controversy
8
2. James Hutton (late 1700s)- proposed that
Earth very old. Said geologic change occurred
gradually (called gradualism)    
9
3. Charles Lyell (1830)- published Principles of
Geology. Also said Earth must be very old. Said
changes in Earth occurred at constant rate over
time a. Same changes we see happening
today   b. Greatly affected Darwins
thinking.    
10
II. Darwins Observations (10.2)   A. Darwin
observed differences among island species      
1. Differences between species studied on
Galapagos Islands
11
(No Transcript)
12
2. Noticed variations well suited to animals
environment (variation- differences in physical
traits)    
13
3. Studied birds, tortoises and said some how
adapt to their surroundings (adaptation- a
feature that allows an organism to better survive
in environment)    
14
B. Darwin observed fossil and geologic evidence
supporting ancient Earth      
1. Discovered fossil evidence of species changed
over time   2. Suggested that modern organisms
have relationship to fossil forms  
15
 3. Earth must be very old (supported Lyells
theory)   4. Darwin said, like the Earth,
organisms must change gradually over time    
16
III. Theory of Natural Selection (10.3)   A.
Several key insights led to Darwins idea for
natural selection   1. Artificial Selection-
process by which humans changes a species by
breeding it for certain traits    
a. Darwin compared what he learned about breeding
to his idea of adaptation b. Said that in nature,
environment creates selective pressure instead of
humans in artificial selection
17
2. Natural Selection- mechanism by which
environment is selective agent a. Darwin used
work of others to develop theory    
b. Said adaptations arose over many generations
(called process decent with modification)
18
B. Natural selection explains how evolution can
occur   1. 4 main principles to theory of
natural selection   a. Variation- variations
in populations are basis for natural
selection.    
19
b. Overproduction- organisms produce more
offspring than will survive (creates
competition)    
20
c. Adaptation- Some adaptations allow organism to
survive at higher rate and individuals are
naturally selected to survive and produce
offspring  
21
d. Descent with Modification- Over time, natural
selection will result in species with adaptations
that are well suited for survival  
22
Before the industrial revolution, soot was rare
in the English countryside. A light-colored moth
was difficult to see against the clean bark.
Which moth would most likely be noticed by a
hungry bird?
23
2. Fitness- measure of ability to survive and
produce more offspring relative to other members
of a population  
24
C. Natural selection acts on existing
variation   1. Natural selection acts on
phenotypes (not genetic material itself)    
2. As environment changes, different traits will
become beneficial.
25
IV. Evidence of Evolution (10.4) A. Evidence for
evolution in Darwins time came from several
sources 1.Fossils- supported Darwins descent
with modification    
26
2. Geography- Darwin realized that finches found
on Galapagos Islands closely resembled those
found on mainland.  
27
a. Over time new traits became well established
in separate island populations b. The different
environments on each island led tospecific
adaptations in diets, habits, and beak shapes  
28
3. Embryology- Similarities in embryos showed
relation-ships between organisms and possible
common ancestor    
29
4. Anatomy- Some of Darwins best evidence came
from comparing body parts of different
species    
a. homologous structures- features that are
similar in structure but have different
functions (suggested common ancestor) (i.e.
forelimbs of vertebrates)
30
 b. analogous structures-structures that perform
similar function but are not similar in origin
(i.e. wings of bats and insects)  
31
B. Structural patterns are clues to the history
of a species 1. vestigial structures- structures
or organs that seem to lack any useful function
that had a function in early ancestor 2.
Examples of vestigial structures found in many
organisms. (e.g. human appendix, wings of
Ostriches)  
32
V. Evolutionary Biology Today (10.5)   A.
Fossils provide a record of evolution  
1. Paleontology- study of fossils or extinct
organisms   2. Fossil evidence shows change in
forms over time.   3. New fossils found that fill
in gaps (transitional forms)
33
B. Molecular and genetic evidence support fossil
and anatomical evidence
Human chromosomes (23 pair)
Chimp chromosomes (24 pair)
34
1. DNA sequence analysis- more closely related
have more similar DNA  
35
 2. Pseudogenes- genes that no longer function.
Similarities in organisms suggest common
ancestor  
36
3. Protein comparisons- Similarities in proteins
found in specific cell types suggest common
ancestor
37
 C. Evolution unites all fields of biology 1.
New discoveries and tools helping to study
mechanisms of evolution 2. Principles used to
study medicine, disease, ecology, etc.
To avoid going extinct a population must not only
survive, but also reproduce. Yale's Paul Turner,
associate professor of ecology and evolutionary
biology, tested the practicality of luring a
virus population into the wrong cells within the
human body, thus preventing virus reproduction
and alleviating disease.
38
Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution
39
During the voyage of the Beagle, many of
Darwin's observations were made a. in
England. b. in North America. c. on the
Galápagos Islands. d. in Africa.
40
During the voyage of the Beagle, many of
Darwin's observations were made a. in
England. b. in North America. c. on the
Galápagos Islands. d. in Africa.
41

The species of finches that Darwin found on the
Galápagos Islands displayed different structural
adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin
noted was the a. similarities of the birds'
embryos. b. birds' differently shaped
beaks. c. length of the birds' necks. d. number
of eggs in each bird's nest.
42

The species of finches that Darwin found on the
Galápagos Islands displayed different structural
adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin
noted was the a. similarities of the birds'
embryos. b. birds' differently shaped
beaks. c. length of the birds' necks. d. number
of eggs in each bird's nest.
43

Hutton and Lyell's work suggested that a. Earth
is millions of years old. b. Earth is several
thousand years old. c. fossils are not the
remains of living things. d. all rocks on Earth
contain fossils.
44

Hutton and Lyell's work suggested that a. Earth
is millions of years old. b. Earth is several
thousand years old. c. fossils are not the
remains of living things. d. all rocks on Earth
contain fossils.
45

Hutton and Lyell's work was important to Darwin
because it a. was the first to attempt to explain
catastrophic events such as earthquakes. b. compl
etely explained the nature of all geologic events
on Earth. c. suggested that Earth was old enough
for evolution to have occurred. d. refuted the
work of Wallace, which relied on
misunderstandings about geology.
46

Hutton and Lyell's work was important to Darwin
because it a. was the first to attempt to explain
catastrophic events such as earthquakes. b. compl
etely explained the nature of all geologic events
on Earth. c. suggested that Earth was old enough
for evolution to have occurred. d. refuted the
work of Wallace, which relied on
misunderstandings about geology.
47

Which is a major concept included in Lamarck's
theory of evolution? a. Change is the result of
mutations. b. Body structure can change
according to the needs of the organism. c. Select
ion pressures decrease the rate of
evolution. d. Sexual reproduction is the genetic
basis for variations.
48

Which is a major concept included in Lamarck's
theory of evolution? a. Change is the result of
mutations. b. Body structure can change
according to the needs of the organism. c. Select
ion pressures decrease the rate of
evolution. d. Sexual reproduction is the genetic
basis for variations.
49

The economist Malthus suggested that a. people
die faster than babies are born. b. babies are
born faster than people die. c. in the 1700s,
Earth was overrun by people. d. in the 2000s,
the seas will be overrun by oysters.
50

The economist Malthus suggested that a. people
die faster than babies are born. b. babies are
born faster than people die. c. in the 1700s,
Earth was overrun by people. d. in the 2000s,
the seas will be overrun by oysters.
51

Darwin was prompted to publish his theory of
evolution by a. an essay by Wallace on
evolution. b. the publication of Lamarck's
theory of evolution. c. the vice governor of the
Galápagos Islands. d. his wife.
52

Darwin was prompted to publish his theory of
evolution by a. an essay by Wallace on
evolution. b. the publication of Lamarck's
theory of evolution. c. the vice governor of the
Galápagos Islands. d. his wife.
53

When Darwin returned from the voyage of the
Beagle, he a. immediately publish his theory of
evolution. b. realized his theory of evolution
was wrong. c. waited many years to publish his
theory of evolution. d. copied the evolutionary
theory of Wallace.
54

When Darwin returned from the voyage of the
Beagle, he a. immediately publish his theory of
evolution. b. realized his theory of evolution
was wrong. c. waited many years to publish his
theory of evolution. d. copied the evolutionary
theory of Wallace.
55

When a farmer breeds only his or her best
livestock, the process involved is a. natural
selection. b. artificial selection. c. artificia
l variation. d. survival of the fittest.
56

When a farmer breeds only his or her best
livestock, the process involved is a. natural
selection. b. artificial selection. c. artificia
l variation. d. survival of the fittest.
57

According to Darwin's theory of natural
selection, individuals who survive are most
likely the ones best adapted to exist in their
environment. Their survival is due to
the a. possession of structures developed through
use. b. possession of adaptations that maximize
fitness. c. lack of competition within the
species. d. ability to change their genotype.
58

According to Darwin's theory of natural
selection, individuals who survive are most
likely the ones best adapted to exist in their
environment. Their survival is due to
the a. possession of structures developed through
use. b. possession of adaptations that maximize
fitness. c. lack of competition within the
species. d. ability to change their genotype.
59

An adaptation is a characteristic that can be
physical or a. behavioral. b. geographical. c. a
cquired. d. that does not affect fitness.
60

An adaptation is a characteristic that can be
physical or a. behavioral. b. geographical. c. a
cquired. d. that does not affect fitness.
61

When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some
antelope are eliminated. Which part of Darwin's
theory of evolution may be used to describe this
situation? a. acquired characteristics b. reprodu
ctive isolation c. survival of the
fittest d. speciation due to mutations
62

When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some
antelope are eliminated. Which part of Darwin's
theory of evolution may be used to describe this
situation? a. acquired characteristics b. reprodu
ctive isolation c. survival of the
fittest d. speciation due to mutations
63

According to Darwin's theory of natural
selection, the individuals that tend to survive
are those that have a. characteristics their
parents acquired by use and disuse. b. undergone
mutations. c. the smallest number of
offspring. d. variations best suited to the
environment.
64

According to Darwin's theory of natural
selection, the individuals that tend to survive
are those that have a. characteristics their
parents acquired by use and disuse. b. undergone
mutations. c. the smallest number of
offspring. d. variations best suited to the
environment.
65

What is evolution? a. the increased reproductive
success of the fittest individuals b. the
diminished reproductive success of poorly adapted
individuals c. the change in the inherited
characteristics of a population d. the struggle
for existence undergone by all living things
66

What is evolution? a. the increased reproductive
success of the fittest individuals b. the
diminished reproductive success of poorly adapted
individuals c. the change in the inherited
characteristics of a population d. the struggle
for existence undergone by all living things
67

The pelvis and femur of the whale shown in Figure
_____________. a. allow the whale to
walk. b. are vestigial structures. c. are
acquired traits. d. are not inherited.
68

The pelvis and femur of the whale shown in Figure
_______________. a. allow the whale to
walk. b. are vestigial structures. c. are
acquired traits. d. are not inherited.
69

The observation by Darwin that finches of
different species on the Galápagos Islands have
many similar physical characteristics supports
the conclusion that these finches a. have the
ability to interbreed. b. acquired traits
through use and disuse. c. all eat the same type
of food. d. originated from a common
ancestor.
70

The observation by Darwin that finches of
different species on the Galápagos Islands have
many similar physical characteristics supports
the conclusion that these finches a. have the
ability to interbreed. b. acquired traits
through use and disuse. c. all eat the same type
of food. d. originated from a common
ancestor.
71

The number and location of bones of many fossil
vertebrates are similar to those in living
vertebrates. Most evolutionary biologists would
probably explain this on the basis of a. the
needs of the organism. b. a common
ancestor. c. a chance occurrence. d. the
inheritance of acquired traits.
72

The number and location of bones of many fossil
vertebrates are similar to those in living
vertebrates. Most evolutionary biologists would
probably explain this on the basis of a. the
needs of the organism. b. a common
ancestor. c. a chance occurrence. d. the
inheritance of acquired traits.
73

The theory that organisms evolve, or change, over
time by natural selection was proposed
by a. Hutton. b. Lamarck. c. Malthus. d. Darwin
.
74

The theory that organisms evolve, or change, over
time by natural selection was proposed
by a. Hutton. b. Lamarck. c. Malthus. d. Darwin
.
75

Which statement is in agreement with Darwin's
theory of evolution? a. More offspring are
produced than can possibly survive. b. The
organisms that are the fittest are always
largest. c. Number of offspring is not related
to fitness. d. Acquired characteristics are
inherited.
76

Which statement is in agreement with Darwin's
theory of evolution? a. More offspring are
produced than can possibly survive. b. The
organisms that are the fittest are always
largest. c. Number of offspring is not related
to fitness. d. Acquired characteristics are
inherited.
77

Which phrase best defines evolution by natural
selection? a. an adaptation of an organism to its
environment b. a sudden replacement of one
community by another c. a geographic or
reproductive isolation of organisms d. a process
of change in organisms over a period of time
78

Which phrase best defines evolution by natural
selection? a. an adaptation of an organism to its
environment b. a sudden replacement of one
community by another c. a geographic or
reproductive isolation of organisms d. a process
of change in organisms over a period of time
79

The following dog breeds were produced by the
process known as ______________.
80

The following dog breeds were produced by the
process known as artificial selection
81

The diagram below represents what type of
structures?
82

The diagram below represents what type of
structures? Homologous structures
83

What is the name of the book in which Charles
Darwin presented his theory of evolution?
84

What is the name of the book in which Charles
Darwin presented his theory of evolution? The
Origin of Species
About PowerShow.com