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Fish: The good and the bad

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Title: Fish: The good and the bad Author: Valued Sony Customer Last modified by: Angie Archer Created Date: 6/7/2006 6:27:36 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fish: The good and the bad


1
Fish The good and the bad
  • Leslie E. Dorworth
  • Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program
  • Purdue University Calumet
  • Hammond, IN

2
Fish is Good Food!
  • Source of protein and some minerals
  • Source of Omega-3 fatty acids

3
Fish is Good Food!
  • Easy to prepare
  • Economical to catch locally
  • Culturally important to many populations

4
U.S Fish Consumption - 2004
  • Shrimp
  • Canned Tuna
  • Salmon
  • Pollock
  • Catfish
  • Tilapia
  • Crab
  • Cod
  • Clams
  • Flatfish
  • 4.2 lbs/person
  • 3.3
  • 2.1
  • 1.3
  • 1.1
  • 0.7
  • 0.6
  • 0.6
  • 0.5
  • 0.3
  • 16.6 (Per Capita)
  • H.M. Johnson Assoc., 2005

5
Whats the Concern?
  • Fish consumption is the major pathway for
    exposure to mercury and PCBs in the diet
  • DeRosa, ATSDR 1998
  • http//water.usgs.gov/wid/FS_216-95/FS_216-95.htm
    l

6
Bioaccumulation/magnification
  1. Pollutants get into the sediment or water from
    man-made or natural processes
  2. Plants and small organisms absorb/ingest the
    pollutants, including juvenile fish.
  3. Large fish eat smaller fish.
  4. Top predators (man, eagles, raccoons, etc) eat
    the big fish.

Some pollutants can be found at much higher
levels in fish compared with sediment!
7
Overview
  • Healthy Fats in Fish
  • Mercury
  • PCBs and TEQ
  • Fish Advisories

8
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  • EPA eicosapentaenoic acid C205 n-3
  • DHA docosahexaenoic acid C226 n-3

9
Healthy Fats in Fish
  • DHA important for brain/eye development
  • NAS, 2002
  • An estimated 250,000 Americans die each year from
    sudden cardiac death
  • AHA
  • consumption of long chain omega-3 fatty acids
    as found in fatty fish may reduce the risk of
    coronary heart disease
  • ISSFAL, 1994

10
Possible Mechanisms
  • Preventing arrhythmias
  • Decreasing platelet aggregation
  • Decreasing plasma triglycerides
  • Moderately decreasing blood pressure
  • Reducing atherosclerosis
  • Small increase in HDL cholesterol
  • Modulating endothelial function
  • Decreasing pro-inflammatory eicosanoids
  • NAS, 2002

11
Dietary Recommendations
  • National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 2002
  • EPA DHA 0.14 g/day for nursing and or
    pregnant women
  • Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report
    2004
  • 8 oz fish/week
  • American Heart Association (AHA)
  • 2 servings (2-3 oz per serving) of fatty
    fish/week
  • EPA DHA 1 g/d for heart disease patients

12
What of the recommended levels do you get if
you consume 8 oz/week?
13
Mercury
14
Mercury and Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Fish Hg (ppm) Omega-3 FA (g/3oz)
Shark 0.99 0.90
Swordfish 0.97 0.70
Tilefish 1.45 0.80
King Mackerel 0.73 0.34
Fresh/frozen Tuna 0.38 0.24-1.28
Tuna, albacore 0.32 0.7
Tuna, light 0.12 0.26
15
Mercury Toxicity in Adults
  • Patients living in San Francisco
  • High-end consumers of higher Hg fish
  • Symptoms including fatigue, headache, decreased
    memory, decreased concentration, muscle and joint
    pain
  • Symptoms gone after diet changes

16
Methylmercury
  • Crosses placenta and into breast milk
  • Clearance from body 1 year
  • FDA Action Level (fish tissue) 1 ppm
  • Canadian Limit (fish tissue) 0.5 ppm

17
Why focus on women of child-bearing age?
Toxins can cross the placenta and are found in
breast milk Fetal exposure can effect behavioral
, neurological and cognitive function in infants
and children Many of the most pronounced effects
occur in the first trimester and chemicals like
PCBs have a long half-life in the blood
18
NHANES (19992002) - Mercury
  • 6 of U.S. women have mercury levels in their
    blood that exceed the RfD (gt5.8 µg/L)
  • CDC, MMWR. 2004. 53(43)1018-1029

19
EPA Projection
  • 15 (630,000 babies of the 4 million born
    annually) may be exposed to excessive mercury
    when in the womb
  • Mahaffey, EPA 2004

20
Mercury in Fish Sandwiches
  • Fish in sandwiches from 6 restaurant chains
  • Dairy Queen, McDonalds Burger King, White
    Castle, Long John Silvers and Subway
  • 5 sandwiches from 4 stores for each chain
  • Range 5-132 ppb hg well below FDA Action Level
    for Hg of 1000 ppbcan exceed EPAs RfD by 1.4x
    for 2 products
  • Low in EPA/DHA (92-620 mg/sandwich)
  • Shim et. al., 2005

21
Mercury in Canned Fish
  • Canned tuna (n240), salmon (n16), and mackerel
    (n16)
  • All samples were well below FDA Action Level for
    Hg of 1,000 ppb
  • Tuna (all types) 188 ppb salmon 45 ppb
    mackerel 55 ppb
  • Chunk light tuna in water 54 ppb but also lower
    in EPA/DHA
  • Shim et. al., 2004

22
Canned Tuna and Mercury
  • Main source of dietary mercury exposure
  • Served in school lunch programs and provided by
    WIC clinics to lactating women
  • Consumer reports recommends women who are
    pregnant or nursing to not consume any canned
    tuna

23
PCBs TEQ
24
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
  • 209 Congeners
  • Aroclors include 60 congeners
  • Aroclor 12 68
  • 12 represents 12 carbons
  • 68 represents the chlorine

25
PCBs
  • 6 years to clear from the body
  • Passes throough the placenta and into milk
  • U.S. and Canadian Limit (fish tissue) 2 ppm
    (expected to increase cancer risk by 1 in
    100,000)
  • Infants exposed at high levels
  • Have altered postnatal development, lower birth
    weight, smaller head circumference, poorer
    short-term memory
  • Safe 1992 EPA/823-R-93, 1993

26
Total PCBs in Coho Salmon Fillets (Lake Michigan)
EPA/823-R-93-003, 1993
27
Maximum Total PCB in Sportfish
  • Creek Chub
  • White Sucker
  • Rock Bass
  • White Crappie
  • Spotted Bass
  • Green Sunfish
  • Black Bullhead
  • Channel Catfish
  • Carp
  • PCB (ppm)
  • 426
  • 355
  • 300
  • 235
  • 220
  • 110
  • 64
  • 41
  • 35

28
Sources of PCB (TEQ) in U.S. Diet
13.6 Farmed Salmon (2.5 g/d) 8.4 Other Fish
(16 g/d)
NAS, 2003
29
Fish Advisories
30
Fishy Characteristics
How can you tell if the fish you caught has a lot
of mercury or other contaminants? Does it smell,
look, act or taste different?
General Guidelines -Larger fish vs. smaller
fish -Fish that are top predators (bioaccumulatio
n) -Older fish -Source?
31
FDA EPA Advisory for Women of Childbearing Age
and Children
32
Advice For Women Who Are Pregnant, Or Who Might
Become Pregnant, and Nursing Mothers About
Avoiding Harm To Your Baby Or Young Child From
Mercury In Fish
  • Do not eat Shark, Swordfish, King Mackerel,
    Tilefish
  • Eat up to 12 oz. (2 average meals) of a variety
    of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.
  • For recreationally-caught fishcheck local
    advisories.
  • Eat up to 6 oz. of Albacore/white tuna per week,
    and on other fish in the same week
  • FDA/EPA 2004

33
Choose Fish Low in Mercurywww.americanheart.org
Fish Hg (ppm) Omega-3 FA (g/3oz.)
Canned Tuna (light) 0.12 0.26
Shrimp ltLOD0.01 ppm 0.27
Ollock 0.06 0.46
Salmon 0.01 0.68-1.83
Cod 0.11 0.13-0.24
Catfish 0.05 0.15-0.20
Clams ltLOD0.01 ppm 0.24
Flounder/sole 0.05 0.43
Crabs 0.06 0.34-0.40
Scallops 0.05 0.17
34
For Advisory Information
  • Current state and local advisories available at
  • http//fn.cfs.purdue.edu/fish4health/
  • http//www.idph.state.il.us/public/press06/2.2.06f
    ishadv.htm

35
Other Educational Materials
  • Sensitive populations
  • http//fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAdviso
    ry2006.PDF (English)
  • http//fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAdviso
    ry200620Span.PDF (Spanish)
  • http//fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAdviso
    ry20Kosher2006.PDF (Kosher)

36
Ways To Educate Others
  • Local stakeholder involvement
  • Translation of health education materials
  • Signage
  • Mass media
  • Outreach at fairs and festivals
  • One-on-one counseling
  • Small grants for community programs
  • FSNEP Fish Connection
  • Collaboration with WIC

37
I would like to thank Dr. Charles Santerre of
Purdue University for providing the bulk of the
slides for this presentation.
38
Questions?
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