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Early Middle Ages In Europe

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Early Middle Ages In Europe 500-1000 CE Early Middle Ages Learning and Civilization Declined, but it was a great time for Germanic Kings and Warriors New society had ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Middle Ages In Europe


1
Early Middle Ages In Europe
  • 500-1000 CE

2
Early Middle Ages
  • Learning and Civilization Declined, but it was a
    great time for Germanic Kings and Warriors
  • New society had three roots
  • Classical heritage from Rome
  • Beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Customs of German tribes

3
More Middle Ages
  • By 600, Priests were almost the only literate
    Europeans
  • Changes in citizenship
  • German tribes took over Roman lands
  • Family ties and personal loyalty bound society
    together (beginnings of Feudalism) a contract
    between serfs (produce food), nobility
    (protection)
  • People belonged to a family and followed one
    leader (like a TRIBE or CLAN)
  • They felt no obligation to obey a king who was a
    stranger

4
Even more Middle Ages
  • Christianity won new followers
  • Roman Catholic Church was the strongest
    civilizing force in W. Europe
  • In the 300s and 400s Christian missionaries
    spread beliefs to German Celtic groups
  • Clovis, leader of N. Gaul, converted to
    Christianity won more German tribes over

5
Monastic Life
  • Benedictine rule
  • Monasteries communities of Christian men or
    women
  • Lived according to rules of poverty, chastity,
    obedience
  • Benedict was a monk who wrote a book of rules for
    monastic life
  • Monasteries operated schools, maintained
    libraries, and copied books (manuscripts)
  • leading scholarly centers of the day
  • Also Dominicans, Franciscans, etc

6
Christianity Rules
  • Pope Gregory the Great
  • Made the papacy an office of political
    spiritual power
  • Foresaw a churchly kingdom, ruled by a pope
    this idea became a central part of the Middle
    Ages
  • Charles Martel The Hammer
  • Led the Franks and defeated a Muslim army in
    Spain at Battle of Tours in 732

7
Charlemagne
  • King of the Franks (768-814)
  • Forced people to become Christian
  • Conquered with his armies by 800, had lands in
    Italy, France, Germany, and N. Spain (larger than
    Byzantine Empire)
  • First to unite W. Europe since the Romans
  • His court became a center of learning the
    Carolingian revival
  • Crowned emperor by Pope Holy Roman Empire

8
The Vikings
  • Culture
  • From Scandinavia
  • pagans, worshiped warlike gods (Thor, etc.)
  • names like Eric Bloodaxe
  • Were traders, farmers, and explorers
  • Last great raiders of W. Europe
  • Raided European settlements from Ireland to
    Russia, 800-1000 CE
  • Had kingdoms in Ireland and much of England
    stopped there by Alfred the Great in 886
  • Settled down in many areas such as French
    Normandy (Northmen or Norsemen Normans)
  • Settled Iceland explored Greenland (Eric the
    Red) and Newfoundland in N. America (Leif
    Ericson)
  • Adopted Christianity, decline after AD 1000

9
Norse Words Today
  • Tuesday after the Norse god Tyr
  • Norse god of war, only had one hand, the other
    was bitten off by the wolf Fenris
  • Wednesday after the Norse god Odin (Wodin)
  • Father of the gods, all knowing because he drank
    from the spring of wisdom
  • Thursday After the Norse god Thor
  • God of Thunder
  • Friday After the Norse god Freya
  • Goddess of love, most beautiful goddess

Fenris will swallow the world at the end of
time Ragnarok Grrr.
10
Feudalism
  • A highly decentralized form of government that
    stressed mutual protection between monarchs
    nobles.
  • Fief (land) for oath of fealty (loyalty)
    military service
  • Oath of fealty makes one a vassal
  • Serfs grow food for protection
  • Most of Europe was using this system

11
Manorialism
  • Fief-estates with peasants, became manors
  • Manors were self sufficient
  • Three field system of crop rotation
  • Moldboard plow
  • Lords took oath of loyalty in exchange for power
    over Manor
  • Knights provided protection for Manor King

12
Knights
  • Code of Chivalry
  • be brave in battle
  • fight fairly
  • keep promises
  • defend the church
  • treat women of noble birth in a courteous manner

Knight swearing Fealty
13
Dailies Early Medieval
  • How did the Viking Invasions lead to Feudalism?
  • Describe the innovations in farming during the
    middle ages.
  • What was the code of Chivalry?
  • Compare serfs and slaves.
  • Draw the feudal pyramid out to the side.
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