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Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action


Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action Chapter 5 The Periodic Table 5.1 Organizing the Elements Objectives: 1. Explain how Mendeleev organized the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action

Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science Concepts
in Action
  • Chapter 5
  • The Periodic Table

5.1 Organizing the Elements
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain how Mendeleev organized the periodic
  • 2. Describe the evidence that helped verify the
    usefulness of Mendeleevs table

Mendeleevs Organization
  • Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of
    increasing mass
  • Elements with similar properties were in the same
    column by using this arrangement
  • Definition a periodic table is an arrangement of
    elements in columns based on a set of properties
    that repeat from row to row

Evidence for the Mendeleev Table
  • Mendeleev used his organization of the table to
    predict where undiscovered elements would fit
  • He deliberately left spaces or gaps in the table
    for these elements
  • As new elements were discovered, Mendeleevs
    prediction proved to be correct
  • The close match between the predictions and the
    actual properties of new elements showed how
    useful his periodic table could be

5.2 The Modern Periodic Table
  • Objectives
  • 1. Describe how the modern periodic table is
  • 2. Explain what atomic mass of an element depends
  • 3. Compare the categories that are used to
    classify elements on the periodic table
  • 4. Distinguish how properties vary across a
    period in the periodic table
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Organization of the Modern Periodic Table
  • In the modern periodic table, elements are
    arranged by increasing atomic number
  • Atomic number is the number of protons
  • Each ROW of the table is a PERIOD
  • Each COLUMN is a GROUP or FAMILY
  • Properties of elements repeat predictably when
    atomic numbers are used to arrange elements in
  • Definition periodic law is the predictable
    pattern of repeating properties in the periodic

Atomic Mass
  • Atomic mass is a value that depends in the
    distribution of an elements isotopes in nature
    and the masses of those isotopes
  • Definition an atomic mass unit (amu) is one
    twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
  • Mass is given in grams
  • Scientists assigned 12 atomic mass units (amu) or
    12 g to the carbon-12 atom which has 6 protons
    and 6 neutrons
  • Each proton and each neutron weighs one gram
  • Electron mass is small and is ignored under this

  • Definition an isotope of an element has a
    different number of neutrons in its nucleus
  • Since mass is given by protons plus neutrons,
    isotopes of an element have different masses
  • It is still the same the element, however,
    because the number of PROTONS remains unchanged
  • The number of protons determines which element
    you have

  • Most elements exist as a mixture of two or more
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  • Atomic mass is determined by the weighted average
    of all the isotopes
  • The weighted average takes into account how often
    the isotope occurs by using percentages
  • The more often an isotope occurs, the more it
    contributes to the final atomic mass calculation

3 Categories to Classify Elements
  • Elements are classified as metals, nonmetals and
  • Metalloids are also called semiconductors
  • Metals are good conductors, ductile (can be drawn
    into wires), malleable, shiny, solid (with the
    exception of mercury)
  • Transition metals (flat part of the table) tend
    to form compounds with color
  • Nonmetals are poor conductors, have low boiling
    points tend to be gases
  • Metalloids or semiconductors have properties of
    both metals nonmetals

How Properties Vary Across the Table
  • Periods are the rows
  • Across a period from left to right, the elements
    become less metallic and more nonmetallic

5.3 Representative Groups
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain why elements in a group have similar
  • 2. Describe some properties of the Group A
    (representative) elements

Similar Properties in a Group
  • Definition a valence electron is an electron
    that is in the highest occupied energy level of
    an atom
  • Valence electrons are the electrons in the outer
  • Elements in a group have similar properties
    because they have the same number of valence
  • Elements seek to have complete outer shells with
    8 electrons
  • Therefore, the number of valence electrons
    determines how reactive the element is

Group A
  • Group 1A are the alkali metals
  • The reactivity of alkali metals increases from
    the top of Group 1A to the bottom
  • Group 1A has one valence electron (charge is 1)
  • Group 2a are the alkaline earth metals
  • Differences in reactivity among the alkaline
    earth metals are shown by the ways they react
    with water calcium, strontium barium react
  • These elements have 2 valence electrons (charge
    is 2)

  • Group 3A is the boron family
  • Aluminum is in this family it is the most
    abundant METAL in earths crust
  • Group 3A has 3 valence electrons (charge is 3)
  • Group 4A is the carbon family
  • The carbon family has 4 valence electrons
  • Except for water, most of the compounds in your
    body contain carbon
  • These elements are reactive and will either give
    up their 4 valence electrons or share 4 valence
    electrons with other elements (charge is either
    4 or -4)

  • The nitrogen family is Group 5A
  • Group 5A has 5 valence electrons which it can
    give up (charge 5)
  • Group 5A can also take in 3 additional electrons
    from other elements which make a charge of -3
  • This group is a mixture one metal plus nonmetals
  • The oxygen family is Group 6A
  • It has both nonmetals metalloids
  • Oxygen is most abundant ELEMENT in the earths
  • These elements have 6 valence electrons
  • They seek to acquire 2 more electrons and the
    family charge is -2 for these elements

  • Group 7A are the halogens
  • halo means salt gen comes from genesis
    which means beginning or formation
  • Halogens are salt formers
  • They readily react with metals
  • Their 7 valence electrons means they seek one
    additional electron, giving their family a charge
    of -1

  • Group 8A are the noble gases
  • The nobles are colorless, odorless and unreactive
    because they have 8 valence electrons in their
    outer shell
  • Since their outer shell is complete their charge
    is 0
  • The nobles are also called the zero elements