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1970

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1970 s Brian Kim, Bryan Sanoshy, Kane Mcloughlin, Dylan Kim, Brynan Qiu, Marco Zorrilla – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1970


1
1970s
  • Brian Kim, Bryan Sanoshy, Kane Mcloughlin, Dylan
    Kim, Brynan Qiu, Marco Zorrilla

2
Politics
3
Watergate Scandal
  • Watergate
  • Reason
  • The Committee to Reelect the President believed
    that in the next election, Nixon would not be
    reelected.
  • Act
  • On Saturday, 17 June 1972, four Cubans and one of
    the members from the Committee to Reelect the
    President, James W. McCord, were arrested on
    charge of burglary in the offices of the
    Democratic National Committee.
  • Due to McCords involvement, the people started
    to ask questions of why he was at the Watergate
    office complex.
  • Two days after, Ron Zeigler reassured the public
    and officials that the break-ins were of little
    importance.
  • In order to gain information from the other side,
    The CRP planned out illegal wiretappings.
  • Including the Democratic Presidential Committee,
    George McGovern, and Lawrence OBrien, chairman
    of the Democratic Presidential Committee.
  • Unfortunately, the wiretappings failed
  • The first attempt was to place the bug
  • The second attempt was to fix the defective bug
    in OBriens office, which ended up with the five
    arrests.
  • Six days after, Nixon gave orders to his staff to
    try and prevent the FBI from finding out who was
    behind the deed.
  • Extremely illegal move for Nixon
  • Reason was so the FBI could not find out his
    other illegal activities

4
Watergate cont.
  • Investigation
  • As the news of the incident spread across the
    country, some people were not convinced by the
    testimony of Zeigler.
  • Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein were two
    reporters from the Washington Post who wanted the
    truth
  • They also gained help from the federal judge,
    John J. Sirica, who overseeing the criminal
    trials for the Watergate burglars.
  • During the trial, The White House aide, Alexander
    Butterfield, mentioned the existence of secret
    recording systems installed in the White House.
  • These tapes held Nixons decisions on Watergate
  • The truth was hidden in the tapes and the court
    wanted to see these tapes immediately.
  • Nixon refused to hand over the tapes, claiming
    that they were private property.
  • Due to the lack of cooperation from Nixon, the
    people no longer had confidence in Nixon
  • Nixon finally agreed to hand over transcripts of
    the tapes
  • With the incident out in the open, Nixon decides
    to resign the presidency, leaving the country
    with the Vice President, Gerald Ford.
  • The Federal Election Campaign Act
  • Gave public disclosure of the money being used to
    influence federal elections.
  • Restrictions on contribution and expenditures
    used to influence federal elections as well with
    the public spending of presidential campaigns
  • Three years later, it was amended to set limits
    on the contributions of political parties,
    individuals, and political action committees.
  • Also established the Federal Election Commission
    that enforce these laws.
  • War Powers Resolution
  • Aimed at limiting the presidents power to wage
    war without the approval of Congress.
  • Freedom of Information Act

5
Election of 1972
  • Candidates
  • Rep- Richard Nixon
  • Favored desegregation.
  • Focused on ending the war through peace with
    honor
  • Dem- George McGovern
  • Worked against the war
  • Progressive
  • Appealed to the minorities, feminists, leftists,
    and youth
  • This isolated him to only those groups, while the
    working class was being ignored.
  • Although Democrats mostly supported the working
    class
  • Wanted a guaranteed minimum income for the poor.

6
Election of 1972 cont.
  • Issues
  • The Vietnam War
  • Change for the New Deal and Great Society
    programs
  • The great division of liberalism and conservatism
  • Results
  • Nixon won with a landslide
  • 520 electoral votes
  • 47,169,911 in the popular vote.
  • McGovern
  • 17 Electoral votes
  • 29,179,383 in the popular vote
  • The majority was the younger voters from ages
    18-21

7
Election of 1976
  • Candidates
  • Dem- James Earl Carter
  • Former Georgia Governor
  • I will never lie to you
  • Rep- Gerald Ford
  • Approved of the détente with the Soviet Union

8
Election of 1976 cont.
  • Issues
  • The cynicism created by Nixons scandal
  • The dire need to fix the economy

9
Economics
10
Economics
  • First time since WWII, Economy not prosperous
  • Increased prices and unemployment, decreased
    productivity and growth

11
Causes of Economic Crisis
  • Oil Embargo
  • Israel vs. Oil-rich, Middle-eastern countries
  • US helps IsraelgtOPEC embargos oil
  • Causes Energy Crisis- No more cheap energy
  • Government Deficit Spending
  • Vietnam War
  • Great Society
  • Nixons refuses to cut spending

12
Effects
  • Forced adjustments to expensive energy
  • Increase in imports
  • Inflation
  • Shift to service-based Economy
  • Rise of Microsoft, Apple, Wal-mart, Nike

13
Nixons Economic Plan
  • 4 phases
  • Aimed to solve crisis
  • Beneficial in the short term
  • Failed
  • Watergate Scandal other distractions

14
Main Result
  • Realization that US isnt permanently on top of
    the world
  • Cant dominate b/c of dependence on oil

15
Foreign Policy
16
Nixons Détente with Beijing and Moscow
  • Tension between the Soviet and China
  • enemys enemy is friend
  • One china policy lessening the US effort to
    the independence of Taiwan
  • Soviets selling 750 million worth of grains
  • ABM anti ballistic missile and SALT decreased
    number of nuclear

17
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18
Arab Oil Embargo and the energy crisis
  • The U.S sent troops to Israel when Egypt attacked
  • Arab oil embargo on the U.S
  • Reaction Alaska pipeline and a national speed
    limit of 55
  • Arab lifted embargo about a year later and
    quadrupled its price

19
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20
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21
Carters Humanitarian Diplomacy
  • Concern for human rights
  • Carter invited President of Egypt and Prime
    Minister of Israel
  • He gives up the Panama Canal

22
Carters SALT II and Iranian Hostage crisis
  • Carter met with Brezhnev in Vienna
  • The U.S embassy got attacked
  • The U.S sent troops to the Persian Gulf region.
  • The Soviet marched to the Afghanistan.
  • The US embargo on the export of grain to the
    Soviet
  • The boycott of the upcoming Olympic Games in
    Moscow
  • Carter ordered a rescue mission, but failed.

23
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24
Social/Cultural Changes
25
DrUgS iN tHe 1970s
  • Major drugs problems were with Heroin
  • July 1970 John Ehrlichman suggested operation
    Heroin Traffickers
  • This plan was made to try to stop the harmful
    narcotic.
  • Drugs in Washington???
  • Because Drugs were so popular, they were common
    in parties.
  • Drugs were considered fashionable
  • August 2, 1978 President Carter eliminated all
    criminal penalties fro possession of marijuana.
  • At least 20 of members of Congress were
    occasional smokers of Marijuana

26
Literature of the 1970s
  • Novels followed a disturbing theme
  • Feminism
  • Civil Rights Movements
  • i.e Looking for Mr. Goodbar
  • Political Disillusionment
  • Most characters did not have a sense of purpose
  • No motive for their actions
  • Surrealism
  • Poetics attacked political and social structures
  • Violence
  • Horror novels i.e The Shining and The Exorcist
  • Challenging of Family roles
  • Characters disconnected themselves from family
    and society
  • Trying to find their place in society

27
  • 1970s marked the beginning of modern
    environmental movements
  • 3 big econ. Changes
  • Economic and population growth
  • The environment and pollution
  • Changes in management and policies in environment
    harming factories
  • Energy Use
  • Total energy consumption was over 5 billion tons
    of oil in the 1970s
  • 15 OF world consumption was used by wealthy
    industrialized nations
  • Oil consumption has increased from 600-1,000
    billion barrels of oil.
  • Pollution
  • Streams
  • Lakes
  • Low-lying costal regions

Environment
28
Freedom
Sexuality
Morality
Streaking
No Rules
29
Music of the 1970s
  • Between the Rebellious music of 60s and happy
    songs of the 80s
  • Disco Disco movement
  • Dance music
  • Definition of the 70s
  • People sought refuge in dance clubs
  • Van McCoy The Hustle
  • Gloria Gaynor I Will Survive
  • The Village People YMCA
  • Lack of Attention to musical significance helped
    its downfall
  • Popular for only a short time

30
Glam Rock
  • Outrageous clothing, makeup, hairstyles, glitter,
    platform shoes
  • Laser lightshows
  • More theatrical approach
  • Famous rockers David Bowie, T. Rex, Gary Glitter
  • Origins-English psychedelic and art rock scenes
  • Most noted for its sexual/gender uncertainty
  • Mellow Rock
  • Elton John, Chicago, and Paul McCarthy
  • Focus on themes of love, everyday life, and
    relationships
  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustic guitar
  • Piano
  • Synthesizers
  • Saxophones
  • Electric guitars
  • Derived from folk rock

31
Heavy Metal/Punk Rock
  • Continued legacy from 60s
  • More upbeat, harsher, and shrill sound
  • Emerged from British Bands
  • Led Zeppelin
  • The Who
  • Pink Floyd

32
School Clothing of 70s
  • Young Women
  • Skirts and dresses
  • Culottes and pant dresses
  • Slacks
  • Neat and casual hair style
  • Blouses and Skirts
  • Blue jeans
  • Young men
  • Clothing worn how it was suppose to be
  • Shoes
  • No extreme hair styles, and facial hair
  • Neat sideburns
  • Bellbottoms and mock turtlenecks may be worn
  • All Students
  • No Sunglasses
  • Clothing with no words on them
  • Socks and stockings are a must

33
Fashion of 70s
  • Hot Pants
  • Short tight shorts
  • Cotton, nylon, or other common materials
  • Inseem length of 2 in. or less
  • Earth/Platform shoes
  • Made of cork, plastic, rubber, or wood
  • Used for fashion or added height
  • Also known as Disco Shoes
  • Worn more by young women than men
  • Later used bright colors
  • Caused extreme foot pain
  • More pain the higher the shoe
  • Earth shoes
  • Soles thick and heel thin

34
Fashion of 70s cont.
  • Negative Heel Technology
  • Worn heel-downward
  • Invented in Scandinavia
  • Ads said walking on a beach
  • Bell-bottom pants
  • Fashion for both men and women
  • Hippie counter culture
  • Went with turtle neck shirts
  • Associated with Disco
  • Various colors and styles

35
Fun and Entertainment!!!
  • Video Games
  • Space Invaders
  • Asteroids
  • Pong!
  • TV
  • Social consciousness programming
  • All in the Family
  • Changed to more urban/edgy settings rather than
    rural/country settings
  • Womens rights on TV
  • The Mary Tyler Moore Show
  • Some centered around sexual gratification
  • Threes Company
  • Game Shows
  • Family Feud
  • Science Fiction
  • Battle Star Galactica

36
Movies!!!
  • Oscar winning films
  • The Godfather
  • Rocky
  • Other films
  • Star Wars
  • Jaws
  • Exorcist
  • Grease
  • Close Encounters of the Third King
  • Asian Films gains popularity
  • Bruce Lee
  • Hong Kong Martial Arts

37
Trends
38
Trends Smoking
  • Early 1970s-Less people smoked than 60s
  • 60s -52 of males and 39 of females smoked
  • Early 70s- 31 of males and 29 of females
    smoked
  • 1971-Congress banned cigarette commercials
  • 1973-30 states banned smoking in some areas
  • 1972-Warning on cigarette ads
  • Cigarette sales increased
  • Smoking remained social habit

39
Trends Feminism
  • 1970 50th anniversary of Woman suffrage
  • Womens Stride for Equality
  • 1972-Congress passed Title IX of Education
    Amendments
  • No discrimination due to gender
  • Opportunities for womens sports
  • Title IX Generation
  • Reach maturity in 80s or 90s

40
Trends ERA
  • ERA
  • Equal Rights Amendment
  • 1923-Proposed by suffragists
  • 1972-Congress approved
  • Equality of rights under the law shall not be
    denied or abridged by the United States or by any
    State on account of sex
  • 28 out of the needed 38 ratified amendment

41
Trends Death of ERA
  • Phyllis Schlafly
  • Antifeminists Leader
  • Conservative Activist
  • Remove traditional women protection
  • Threaten basic family structure
  • 3 states short of success

42
Trends Feminism
  • Supreme Court Cases
  • Reed v. Reed (1971)
  • Frontiero v. Richardson (1973)
  • Roe v. Wade (1973)
  • Abortion
  • Right of Privacy
  • Negatives
  • Divorce Rates Rose
  • Tripled between 1960 and 1976
  • Blamed on Feminists by Antifeminists

43
Trends Consumerism
  • Consumers wanted accurate, truthful, safe
    products
  • Nixon set up Office of Consumer Interests
  • Handled Complains
  • Nixon created Bureau of Product Safety
  • Regulatory division of Department of Health,
    Education, and Welfare

44
Trends Consumerism
  • Consumer Product Safety Act
  • Signed October 28, 1972
  • Created CPSC
  • Consumer Product Safety Commission
  • Most powerful independent federal agency created
    by Congress
  • Made safeguards for various unsafe items.
  • Food and Drug Administration required proper
    required proper labeling on certain items
  • Possible harmful ingredients
  • U.S. recommended values

45
Key Events
  • Watergate Scandal
  • Environmental Movement
  • Energy Crisis
  • Increase in drug and cigarette use
  • ERA
  • Feminist Movement
  • Nixons Détente
  • Increase in forms of entertainment
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