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National Security Policymaking

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Title: National Security Policymaking


1
18
National Security Policymaking
2
Video The Big Picture
18
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDI
A_1/polisci/presidency/Edwards_Ch18_National_Secur
ity_Policymaking_Seg1_v2.html
3
18
Learning Objectives
Identify the major instruments and actors in
making national security policy
18.1
Outline the evolution of and major issues in
American foreign policy through the end of the
Cold War
18.2
4
18
Learning Objectives
Explain the major obstacles to success in the war
on terrorism
18.3
Identify the major elements of U.S. defense policy
18.4
5
18
Learning Objectives
Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national
security policy
18.5
Assess the role of democratic politics in making
national security policy and the role of national
security policy in expanding government
18.6
6
Video The Basics
18
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDI
A_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_ForeignDefense_v2.html
7
American Foreign Policy Instruments, Actors, and
Policymakers
18.1
  • Instruments of Foreign Policy
  • Actors on the World Stage
  • The Policymakers

8
Instruments of Foreign Policy
18.1
  • Military
  • War, threat of war
  • Economic
  • Almost as important as war
  • Sanctions, tariffs, regulations
  • Diplomatic
  • Treaties, summit talks
  • First option

9
Iran and the Instruments of Foreign
Policy Follow the links.Read the ArticlesHow
have sanctions been used as an instrument of
foreign policy?
  • US State Department Iranian Sanctions
  • http//www.state.gov/e/eb/tfs/spi/iran/index.htm
  • Iran-U.S. differences over nuclear deal widen
  • Oren Dorell, USA TODAY 451 a.m. EDT April 18,
    2015
  • http//www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2015/04/1
    7/politics-and-details-divide-usa-and-iran-on-nucl
    ear-deal/25944199/

10
18.1
Actors on the World Stage
  • International organizations
  • United Nations

11
18.1
UN health programs
12
18.1
Actors on the World Stage
  • Regional organizations
  • NATO, EU
  • Multinational corporations
  • Nongovernmental organizations
  • Terrorists
  • Individuals

13
The Policymakers
18.1
  • President
  • Chief diplomat/Commander in chief
  • Treaties, executive agreements
  • Diplomats
  • State Dept./Secretary of State
  • Bureaucratic and intransigent
  • National security establishment
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • Secretary of Defense
  • CIA
  • Congress

14
18.1
Foreign policy makers
15
18.1
18.1 Whos the presidents main foreign policy
adviser?
  1. Secretary of state
  2. Secretary of defense
  3. Vice president
  4. Secretary of war

16
18.1
18.1 Whos the presidents main foreign policy
adviser?
  1. Secretary of state
  2. Secretary of defense
  3. Vice president
  4. Secretary of war

17
American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War
18.2
  • Isolationism
  • The Cold War

18
Isolationism
18.2
  • Foreign policy doctrine until World War II
  • Monroe Doctrine

19
18.2
FIGURE 18.1 U.S. military interventions in
Central America and the Caribbean since 1900
20
Isolationism
18.2
  • Foreign policy doctrine until World War II
  • League of Nations
  • United Nations

21
The Cold War
18.2
  • Containment
  • Stop spread of communism
  • Brinkmanship
  • Arms race/MAD

22
18.2
Berlin Wall
23
The Cold War
18.2
  • Vietnam War
  • Era of détente
  • Reagan rearmament
  • Final thaw in the Cold War

24
18.2
Berlin Wall falls
25
18.2
18.2 Why didnt the U.S. join the League of
Nations?
  1. President Wilson refused to sign the treaty
  2. The U.S. was not invited to join
  3. The Senate refused to ratify the treaty
  4. The U.S. did join the League of Nations

26
18.2
18.2 Why didnt the U.S. join the League of
Nations?
  1. President Wilson refused to sign the treaty
  2. The U.S. was not invited to join
  3. The Senate refused to ratify the treaty
  4. The U.S. did join the League of Nations

27
Discussion International Government??
  • The United Nations grew out of Wilsons vision of
    a League of Nations that would work in
    cooperation to mitigate and mediate disputes
    among sovereign states.
  • Is such a vision possible among sovereign states?

28
Video In Context
18.2
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDI
A_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_ForeignDefense_v2.html
29
American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism
18.3
  • Spread of Terrorism
  • Afghanistan and Iraq

30
Spread of Terrorism
18.3
  • 9/11 not first attack
  • Difficult to defend against in open society
  • Stealth, surprise, willingness to die
  • Improved security and intelligence
  • Clash with civil liberties

31
18.3
32
Afghanistan and Iraq
18.3
  • U.S. declares war on terrorism
  • Axis of evil
  • Iran, Iraq, North Korea
  • Nation building
  • Anti-American sentiments

33
18.3
18.3 Why havent we yet won the war on terror?
  1. Al Qaeda has fragmented but still exists, despite
    the killing of Osama bin Laden
  2. Al Qaeda has moved to Pakistan, where it enjoys
    high-level government support
  3. Anti-American sentiment has grown in the Muslim
    world due to U.S. military action in the Middle
    East
  4. All of the above

34
18.3
18.3 Why havent we yet won the war on terror?
  1. Al Qaeda has fragmented but still exists, despite
    the killing of Osama bin Laden
  2. Al Qaeda has moved to Pakistan, where it enjoys
    high-level government support
  3. Anti-American sentiment has grown in the Muslim
    world to due to U.S. military action in the Mid
    East
  4. All of the above

35
Video In the Real World
18.3
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDI
A_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_ForeignDefense_v2.html
36
Defense Policy
18.4
  • Defense Spending
  • Personnel
  • Weapons
  • Reforming Defense Policy

37
Defense Spending
18.4
  • Guns v. butter
  • Is there a trade-off?
  • Ideological disputes
  • Where the real guns v. butter battle takes place
  • Peace dividend v. jobs

38
18.4
FIGURE 18.2 Trends in defense spending
39
Personnel
18.4
  • Large standing military
  • 1.4 million active duty
  • 847,000 National Guard and reserves
  • 300,000 deployed abroad
  • National Guard maintains national security

40
18.4
FIGURE 18.3 Size of the armed forces
41
Weapons
18.4
  • Nuclear weapons
  • ICBMs
  • Submarine-launched ballistic missiles
  • Strategic bombers
  • Weapons are expensive
  • 2 billion to build a stealth bomber
  • 5.5 trillion
  • Arms reduction treaties

42
18.4
Nuclear (INF) treaty
43
Reforming Defense Policy
18.4
  • Changing nature of threats
  • Lighter, faster, more flexible
  • Better intelligence
  • Increased use of Special Forces

44
18.4
18.4 How many active duty troops does the U.S.
currently maintain?
  1. 847,000
  2. 562,000
  3. 1.4 million
  4. 1.2 million

45
18.4
18.4 How many active duty troops does the U.S.
currently maintain?
  1. 847,000
  2. 562,000
  3. 1.4 million
  4. 1.2 million

46
The New National Security Agenda
18.5
  • Changing Role of Military Power
  • Nuclear Proliferation
  • International Economy
  • Energy
  • Foreign Aid

47
Changing Role of Military Power
18.5
  • Soft power versus hard power
  • Humanitarian interventions
  • Increasingly necessary
  • Violate sovereignty
  • Can cost American lives
  • Economic sanctions
  • Influence behavior without force
  • Cut off aid, trade embargoes
  • Mixed record of success

48
Nuclear Proliferation
18.5
  • 9 nuclear powers
  • United States, Russia, Britain, France, China,
    India, Pakistan, North Korea, Israel
  • How to prevent more?
  • Special concerns about Iran, North Korea, Pakistan

49
18.5
FIGURE 18.4 The spread of nuclear weapons
50
The International Economy
18.5
  • Interdependency
  • International Trade
  • Globalization of financial markets
  • Nontariff barriers to trade
  • Balance of Trade
  • What we buy from them versus what they buy from
    us
  • 558 billion deficit in 2011

51
18.5
McDonaldization
52
Energy
18.5
  • OPEC has us over a barrel (of oil)
  • Dependence on foreign oil
  • Trade embargo
  • Middle East controls worlds oil reserves
  • Saudi Arabia 25
  • Kuwait 10
  • U.S. imports 50 of oil it uses

53
Foreign Aid
18.5
  • Developing world
  • Humanitarian
  • Stabilization
  • Access to raw materials
  • Forms of foreign aid
  • Grants, credits, loans, loan forgiveness
  • Military assistance
  • Agricultural assistance
  • Medical care
  • Unpopular

54
18.5
18.5 What percentage of GDP is spent on economic
and humanitarian foreign aid?
  1. 3
  2. 5
  3. 1
  4. 10

55
18.5
18.5 What percentage of GDP is spent on economic
and humanitarian foreign aid?
  1. 3
  2. 5
  3. 1
  4. 10

56
Understanding National Security Policymaking
18.6
  • National Security Policymaking and Democracy
  • National Security Policymaking and the Scope of
    Government

57
Video Thinking Like a Political Scientist
18.6
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDI
A_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_ForeignDefense_v2.html
58
National Security Policymaking and Democracy
18.6
  • Are international relations undemocratic?
  • Citizens not as interested or knowledgeable
  • Decision makers unelected
  • Policymakers responsive in long run
  • Democracies rarely go to war
  • Congress holds purse strings
  • Pluralism is pervasive

59
Bureaucracy and the Scope of Government
18.6
  • Superpower status
  • War on terror
  • Worlds policeman
  • Globalization
  • Global warming
  • 2 million employed in Dept. of Defense

60
18.6
18.6 Why is foreign policy considered
undemocratic?
  1. Policymakers not elected
  2. Public not as knowledgeable
  3. Congress plays smaller role
  4. All of the above

61
18.6
18.6 Why is foreign policy considered
undemocratic?
  1. Policymakers not elected
  2. Public not as knowledgeable
  3. Congress plays smaller role
  4. All of the above

62
Discussion Questions
18
How has national security policy evolved since
World War II? What effects did the end of the
Cold War and the commencement of the war on
terrorism have on national security policy?
63
Video So What?
18
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDI
A_1/polisci/presidency/Edwards_Ch18_National_Secur
ity_Policymaking_Seg6_v2.html
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