The Civil War Era - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: The Civil War Era


1
The Civil War Era
  • 1845-1865
  • U.S. History 1
  • Coach Pritch, J5

2
Brief Timeline
  • Bleeding Kansas
  • Bleeding Sumner
  • 1856 Presidential Election
  • 1857 Dred Scott SCOTUS decision
  • 1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates
  • John Browns Harpers Ferry raid
  • 1860 Presidential election

3
Sectional Tension
  • Missouri Compromise 1820
  • http//www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interac
    tives/sectionalism/lesson1/
  • Compromise of 1850
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
  • http//www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interac
    tives/sectionalism/lesson3/

4
Bleeding Kansas
  • 1854-55 Emigrant Aid societies New Englanders to
    KS to fight slavery freesoilers
  • Proslavery forces came to vote illegally in
    territorial elections
  • 1855 antislavery capital Topeka proslavery
    capital Lecompton
  • May 21, 1856 looting/burning of Lawrence, KS,
    homesnewspapers by proslavery Southerners

A period map showing free states (red), slave
states (gray), territories (green), and Kansas
Territory (white, in the center)
5
Bleeding Kansas Violence Erupts
  • May 24, 1856 John Brown and posse massacre five
    men at Pottawotomie Creek
  • Violent summer, raids and counter raids
    bleeding Kansas

The ruins of a hotel after the Sack of Lawrence
6
Bleeding Kansas Effects
  • Browns attack spurred widespread violence
  • Republicans trumped up situation to meet their
    interests Democrats heavily promoted settlement
  • Pres. Pierce supported proslavery forces did
    nothing to quell violence

Missouri raiders shooting down free-soil settlers
in Kansas
7
The Lecompton Constitution
  • Territorial governor supported popular
    sovereignty
  • Proslavery Kansans held constitutional convention
    in Lecompton
  • Series of stacked votes on constitution
  • Buchanan supported constitution to keep Southern
    support clashed with Douglas
  • Struggles over ratification of constitution

8
Brooks Attacks Sumner
  • Sumner made Senate speech against Butler,
    Brookss uncle
  • Brooks caned Sumner into unconsciousness on
    Senate floor
  • Brooks resigned his seat, but was quickly
    reelected

A political cartoon depicts the attack
9
Discussion Questions
  1. What was the Republican Partys philosophy
    regarding slavery? What aspect of the slavery
    issue did the party most object to?
  2. What was Bleeding Kansas? How did the passage
    of the Kansas-Nebraska Act contribute to this?
  3. How did John Browns actions in Kansas add to
    sectional tensions in the territory?

10
The Election of 1856
  • Republicans ran Fremont
  • Democrats chose Buchanan, a doughface
  • Buchanan won, but Republicans showed strength
  • www.270towin.com

John C. Fremont, the first Republican
presidential candidate
11
The Dred Scott Case Origins
  • Slave whose master had moved him to free
    territory for several years
  • Sued for his freedom under the Northwest
    Ordinance and Missouri Compromise
  • Case appealed to U.S. Supreme Court in 1857

Dred Scott
12
Dred Scott The Decision
  • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
  • Taney ruled against Scott
  • Slaves, as non-citizens, had no constitutional
    rights
  • State laws determined a slaves freedom, not
    federal
  • Congresss power to create territorial rules did
    not include prohibiting slavery
  • Missouri Compromise unconstitutional

Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
13
Dred Scott Curtiss Dissent
  • Believed that Scott was a citizen
  • Asserted that Scotts residence in free territory
    changed his status as a slave
  • Missouri Compromise constitutional Congress had
    the right to make territorial laws

Justice Benjamin R. Curtis
14
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates
  • Douglas saw Lincoln as a tough opponent
  • Thousands viewed the pair as they spoke
  • Both candidates used different styles to explain
    their views
  • He is the strong man of the party, Douglas
    stated, full of wit, facts, dates, and the best
    stump speaker, with his droll ways and dry jokes,
    in the West. He is as honest as he is shrewd, and
    if I beat him my victory will be hardly won.

Lincoln and Douglas spoke in seven different
Illinois communities
15
The Freeport Doctrine
  • Lincoln asked Douglas how, in light of Dred
    Scott, the people of a territory could exclude
    slavery
  • Douglas said that slavery could only flourish
    when supported by local laws no laws, no slavery
  • Douglass response probably helped him win the
    election, but killed any future presidential bid

16
Discussion Questions
  1. What was significant about Fremonts candidacy in
    the 1856 election? What did the results
    demonstrate about the Republican Party?
  2. What was the ruling in the Dred Scott case, and
    what made it so controversial? On what grounds
    did Justice Curtis dissent?
  3. What was the Freeport Doctrine? Why might it have
    helped Douglas defeat Lincoln in 1858, but hurt
    him in the 1860 presidential election?

17
John Brown
  • Raised in an antislavery family
  • Never financially successful
  • Involved in abolitionist activities, including
    the Underground Railroad
  • Pottawatomie Massacre

John Brown
18
Harpers Ferry
  • October 1859
  • Brown and followers planned to seize arsenal and
    arm slaves
  • Slaves failed to join in rebellion
  • Some of Browns men killed he was captured

Federal troops prepare to storm the arsenal at
Harpers Ferry
19
The Execution of John Brown
  • Brown convicted of treason against Virginia
  • Hanged in December 1859
  • Considered a hero to many Northerners
  • Southerners feared that some might follow his
    example

Brown kisses a slave child on the way to his
execution
20
Browns Speech Before the Virginia Court
Upon receiving the death sentence for his
involvement in the raid on Harpers Ferry, John
Brown made the following remarks to the jury
which convicted him Now if it is deemed
necessary that I should forfeit my life for the
furtherance of the ends of justice and mingle my
blood further with the blood of my children and
with the blood of millions in this slave country
whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel and
unjust enactments, I say, let it be done.
21
Southern Extremism Grows
  • Southerners fearful of Northern dominance
  • Worried that new free states would be able to
    abolish slavery
  • State legislatures restricted civil liberties
    made freeing slaves illegal
  • Concept of secession became popular

22
Essential Questions
  • Was the Civil War unavoidable?
  • Was the Civil War fought to end slavery?
  • Are we still fighting the Civil War today?
  • What was the greatest cause of the Civil War and
    why?
  • How did the Civil War make modern America?
  • What if the Confederacy had won the war?

23
Fundamental Causes of the War
  • Sectionalism and states rights
  • Slavery
  • Economic issues

24
The Dividing Union
  • Missouri Compromise (1820)
  • Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law
  • KansasNebraska Act (1854)
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)

Dred Scott
Cartoon criticizing the Fugitive Slave Law
25
The Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln
Stephen A. Douglas
John C. Breckin-ridge
John Bell
26
Electoral Votes in 1860
27
Secession
  • South Carolina was first to secede
  • Several other states followed soon after
  • Virginia seceded after the Battle of Fort Sumter

Seceding states appear in green
28
Discussion Questions
  1. What were the three fundamental causes of the
    Civil War? Which do you think was the most
    important? Why?
  2. How did the Dred Scott decision help bring the
    country closer to civil war? Do you think the
    decision made civil war inevitable? Why or why
    not?
  3. While running for president, Abraham Lincoln said
    that he had no plans to abolish slavery. Why then
    did Southerners fear his election so much?

29
The Creation of the Confederacy
  • Delegates met in Montgomery, Alabama
  • Formed the Confederate States of America
  • Jefferson Davis elected president, with
    Alexander Stephens as vice president

CSA President Jefferson Davis
30
Buchanans Inaction
  • Believed secession was illegal, but that acting
    to prevent it was also illegal
  • Decided to let the incoming administration handle
    the problem

President James Buchanan
31
Lincolns First Inaugural Address
  • March 4, 1861
  • Promised not to interfere with slavery where it
    already existed
  • Attempted to reconcile with the South

A crowd listens to Lincolns speech at the
Capitol building
32
Lincolns First Inaugural Address
  • I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to
    interfere with the institution of slavery in the
    states where it exists. I believe I have no
    lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination
    to do so.
  • I take the official oath today with no mental
    reservations and with no purpose to construe the
    Constitution or laws by any hypercritical rules
    and while I do not choose now to specify
    particular acts of Congress as proper to be
    enforced, I do suggest that it will be much safer
    for all, both in official and private stations,
    to conform to and abide by all those acts which
    stand unrepealed than to violate any of them
    trusting to find impunity in having them held to
    be unconstitutional.

33
Lincolns First Inaugural Address
  • In your hands, my dissatisfied
    fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the
    momentous issue of civil war. The Government will
    not assail you. You can have no conflict without
    being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath
    registered in heaven to destroy the Government,
    while I shall have the most solemn one to
    preserve, protect, and defend it... We are not
    enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies.
    Though passion may have strained it must not
    break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords
    of memory, stretching from every battlefield and
    patriot grave to every living heart and
    hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet
    swell the chorus of the Union, when again
    touched, as surely they will be, by the better
    angels of our nature.

34
Lincoln and Fort Sumter
  • Confederates demanded that the fort be
    surrendered
  • Lincoln received urgent message from Ft. Sumters
    commander
  • Lincoln faced with dilemma of resupplying Sumter
  • Decided to send only food for hungry men

Fort Sumter
35
The War Begins
  • Bombardment began on April 12, 1861
  • Anderson surrendered to Gen. Beauregard, a close
    friend and colleague

Painting depicting the bombardment of Fort Sumter
36
The Anaconda Plan
  • The Unions strategy
  • Naval blockade from Louisiana to Virginia
  • Control of the Mississippi River
  • Confederate strategy primarily defensive

Cartoon about the Anaconda Plan
37
Advantages Disadvantages The Union
  • Advantages
  • Industry and railroads
  • Larger population
  • Legitimate government
  • Strong political leadership
  • Disadvantages
  • Funding difficulties
  • Offensive war
  • Lack of skilled military leaders

A Massachusetts factory
38
Advantages Disadvantages The Confederacy
  • Advantages
  • Defensive war on home turf
  • Common cause
  • Strong military tradition and outstanding leaders
  • Disadvantages
  • Weak economy
  • Smaller population
  • Ineffective central government and leadership

Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. Stonewall
Jackson
39
War Aims North and South
  • The North to preserve the Union
  • The South safeguarding states rights, as well
    as protecting the South from Northern aggression

Horace Greeley
Abraham Lincoln
40
Discussion Questions
  1. Pretend you are a member of Buchanans cabinet.
    How would you advise him to deal with the
    secession crisis in the period before the next
    president took office?
  2. Do you think the Anaconda Plan was an effective
    strategy for subduing the Confederacy? If not,
    what strategy would you have recommended?
  3. Which sides goals for the war seem more
    reasonable to you? Why?

41
Prelude to Emancipation
  • At first, Lincoln did not believe he had the
    authority to end slavery
  • However, every slave working on a plantation
    allowed a white Southerner to fight
  • Lincoln saw emancipation as a strategic issue as
    well as a moral one

Slaves on a South Carolina plantation, 1862
42
Advantages to Emancipation
  • Cause union in the North by linking the war to
    abolishing slavery
  • Cause disorder in the South as slaves were freed
  • Kept Britain out of the war

Lincoln discussing emancipation with his cabinet
43
The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincoln announced proclamation after Antietam
  • Took effect on January 1, 1863
  • Freed slaves only in territories in rebellion

A cartoon celebrating emancipation
44
Dealing With Dissent
  • Copperheads
  • Led by Rep. Clement Vallandigham of Ohio
  • Lincoln suspends habeas corpus

Rep. Clement Vallandigham
45
Manpower for the War
  • Mostly volunteers
  • Conscription needed to sustain troop levels
  • In the North, draftees could hire substitutes or
    pay 300 to opt out

An illustrated sheet music cover protesting the
inequities of the draft
46
New York Draft Riots
  • July 1863
  • Rioters mainly poor whites and Irish immigrants
  • Opposed to freeing slaves
  • More than 100 people killed

Rioters loot a New York store
47
African American Enlistment
  • Congress allowed black enlistment in 1862
  • 54th Massachusetts commanded by Colonel Shaw
  • Half of 54th killed in assault on Ft. Wagner
  • Helped spur further enlistment

Col. Robert Gould Shaw
Memorial to the 54th Massachusetts
48
The Sanitary Commission
  • Poor health conditions in army camps
  • U.S. Sanitary Commission created
  • Purposes included improving hygiene and
    recruiting nurses
  • Developed better methods of transporting wounded
    to hospitals

A Civil War field hospital
49
Civil War Medicine
  • Infection often deadlier than the wounds
  • Amputations more common
  • Anesthesia widely used

A surgeon at the Camp Letterman field hospital at
Gettysburg prepares for an amputation
50
Andersonville
  • Confederate POW camp in Georgia
  • 32,000 prisoners jammed into 26 acres
  • One-third of all prisoners died
  • Superintendent was executed as a war criminal

Severely emaciated POWs rescued from Andersonville
51
The Gettysburg Address
  • Lincoln invited to attend cemetery dedication
  • Everett the principal speaker
  • At the time, Lincolns two-minute speech was
    considered great by some, a failure by others

The only known picture of Lincoln (lower center)
at the Gettysburg Cemetery dedication
52
Election of 1864
  • Lincoln sought reelection
  • Democrats nominated McClellan
  • Union victories helped Republican campaign
  • Lincoln won by large margin

A political cartoon shows Lincoln and Davis
tearing a U.S. map while McClellan tries to
intercede
53
Lincolns Second Inaugural
Lincoln addresses the crowd at his second
inauguration. It is believed that John Wilkes
Booth is the figure at top row center.
54
Lincolns Second Inaugural
  • With malice toward none, with charity for all,
    with firmness in the right as God gives us to see
    the right, let us strive on to finish the work we
    are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care
    for him who shall have borne the battle and for
    his widow and his orphanto do all which may
    achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace
    among ourselves and with all nations."

55
The Fall of Richmond
  • Lee told Davis the capital was in danger
  • Davis ordered evacuation
  • Union forces took Richmond
  • Lincoln toured the city soon after

The remains of buildings after the Union
invasion, April 1865
56
Surrender at Appomattox
  • Lee realized his position was hopeless
  • Asked to meet with Grant
  • Met in Appomattox on April 9, 1865
  • Lenient surrender terms

An artists rendition of the meeting
57
Impact of the War
Freedmen disinter bodies of soldiers killed at
Cold Harbor for reburial after the war
58
Impact of the War the Union
  • 111,000 killed in action
  • 250,000 killed by non-military causes (mostly
    disease)
  • Over 275,000 wounded
  • Estimated cost in todays dollars 6.19 billion

Union dead at Gettysburg
59
Impact of the War the Confederacy
  • 93,000 killed in battle
  • 165,000 killed by non-military causes
  • Over 137,000 wounded
  • Estimated cost in todays dollars 2.10 billion

Destruction in Atlanta after Shermans troops
took the city
60
Discussion Questions
  • Why did Grants total war policy meet with
    resistance even in the North? Do you think the
    policy was a good idea? Why?
  • How did Grant and Shermans military campaigns
    help Lincoln win reelection in 1864?
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The Civil War Era

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Title: The Civil War Era


1
The Civil War Era
  • 1845-1865
  • U.S. History 1
  • Coach Pritch, J5

2
Brief Timeline
  • Bleeding Kansas
  • Bleeding Sumner
  • 1856 Presidential Election
  • 1857 Dred Scott SCOTUS decision
  • 1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates
  • John Browns Harpers Ferry raid
  • 1860 Presidential election

3
Sectional Tension
  • Missouri Compromise 1820
  • http//www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interac
    tives/sectionalism/lesson1/
  • Compromise of 1850
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
  • http//www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interac
    tives/sectionalism/lesson3/

4
Bleeding Kansas
  • 1854-55 Emigrant Aid societies New Englanders to
    KS to fight slavery freesoilers
  • Proslavery forces came to vote illegally in
    territorial elections
  • 1855 antislavery capital Topeka proslavery
    capital Lecompton
  • May 21, 1856 looting/burning of Lawrence, KS,
    homesnewspapers by proslavery Southerners

A period map showing free states (red), slave
states (gray), territories (green), and Kansas
Territory (white, in the center)
5
Bleeding Kansas Violence Erupts
  • May 24, 1856 John Brown and posse massacre five
    men at Pottawotomie Creek
  • Violent summer, raids and counter raids
    bleeding Kansas

The ruins of a hotel after the Sack of Lawrence
6
Bleeding Kansas Effects
  • Browns attack spurred widespread violence
  • Republicans trumped up situation to meet their
    interests Democrats heavily promoted settlement
  • Pres. Pierce supported proslavery forces did
    nothing to quell violence

Missouri raiders shooting down free-soil settlers
in Kansas
7
The Lecompton Constitution
  • Territorial governor supported popular
    sovereignty
  • Proslavery Kansans held constitutional convention
    in Lecompton
  • Series of stacked votes on constitution
  • Buchanan supported constitution to keep Southern
    support clashed with Douglas
  • Struggles over ratification of constitution

8
Brooks Attacks Sumner
  • Sumner made Senate speech against Butler,
    Brookss uncle
  • Brooks caned Sumner into unconsciousness on
    Senate floor
  • Brooks resigned his seat, but was quickly
    reelected

A political cartoon depicts the attack
9
Discussion Questions
  1. What was the Republican Partys philosophy
    regarding slavery? What aspect of the slavery
    issue did the party most object to?
  2. What was Bleeding Kansas? How did the passage
    of the Kansas-Nebraska Act contribute to this?
  3. How did John Browns actions in Kansas add to
    sectional tensions in the territory?

10
The Election of 1856
  • Republicans ran Fremont
  • Democrats chose Buchanan, a doughface
  • Buchanan won, but Republicans showed strength
  • www.270towin.com

John C. Fremont, the first Republican
presidential candidate
11
The Dred Scott Case Origins
  • Slave whose master had moved him to free
    territory for several years
  • Sued for his freedom under the Northwest
    Ordinance and Missouri Compromise
  • Case appealed to U.S. Supreme Court in 1857

Dred Scott
12
Dred Scott The Decision
  • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
  • Taney ruled against Scott
  • Slaves, as non-citizens, had no constitutional
    rights
  • State laws determined a slaves freedom, not
    federal
  • Congresss power to create territorial rules did
    not include prohibiting slavery
  • Missouri Compromise unconstitutional

Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
13
Dred Scott Curtiss Dissent
  • Believed that Scott was a citizen
  • Asserted that Scotts residence in free territory
    changed his status as a slave
  • Missouri Compromise constitutional Congress had
    the right to make territorial laws

Justice Benjamin R. Curtis
14
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates
  • Douglas saw Lincoln as a tough opponent
  • Thousands viewed the pair as they spoke
  • Both candidates used different styles to explain
    their views
  • He is the strong man of the party, Douglas
    stated, full of wit, facts, dates, and the best
    stump speaker, with his droll ways and dry jokes,
    in the West. He is as honest as he is shrewd, and
    if I beat him my victory will be hardly won.

Lincoln and Douglas spoke in seven different
Illinois communities
15
The Freeport Doctrine
  • Lincoln asked Douglas how, in light of Dred
    Scott, the people of a territory could exclude
    slavery
  • Douglas said that slavery could only flourish
    when supported by local laws no laws, no slavery
  • Douglass response probably helped him win the
    election, but killed any future presidential bid

16
Discussion Questions
  1. What was significant about Fremonts candidacy in
    the 1856 election? What did the results
    demonstrate about the Republican Party?
  2. What was the ruling in the Dred Scott case, and
    what made it so controversial? On what grounds
    did Justice Curtis dissent?
  3. What was the Freeport Doctrine? Why might it have
    helped Douglas defeat Lincoln in 1858, but hurt
    him in the 1860 presidential election?

17
John Brown
  • Raised in an antislavery family
  • Never financially successful
  • Involved in abolitionist activities, including
    the Underground Railroad
  • Pottawatomie Massacre

John Brown
18
Harpers Ferry
  • October 1859
  • Brown and followers planned to seize arsenal and
    arm slaves
  • Slaves failed to join in rebellion
  • Some of Browns men killed he was captured

Federal troops prepare to storm the arsenal at
Harpers Ferry
19
The Execution of John Brown
  • Brown convicted of treason against Virginia
  • Hanged in December 1859
  • Considered a hero to many Northerners
  • Southerners feared that some might follow his
    example

Brown kisses a slave child on the way to his
execution
20
Browns Speech Before the Virginia Court
Upon receiving the death sentence for his
involvement in the raid on Harpers Ferry, John
Brown made the following remarks to the jury
which convicted him Now if it is deemed
necessary that I should forfeit my life for the
furtherance of the ends of justice and mingle my
blood further with the blood of my children and
with the blood of millions in this slave country
whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel and
unjust enactments, I say, let it be done.
21
Southern Extremism Grows
  • Southerners fearful of Northern dominance
  • Worried that new free states would be able to
    abolish slavery
  • State legislatures restricted civil liberties
    made freeing slaves illegal
  • Concept of secession became popular

22
Essential Questions
  • Was the Civil War unavoidable?
  • Was the Civil War fought to end slavery?
  • Are we still fighting the Civil War today?
  • What was the greatest cause of the Civil War and
    why?
  • How did the Civil War make modern America?
  • What if the Confederacy had won the war?

23
Fundamental Causes of the War
  • Sectionalism and states rights
  • Slavery
  • Economic issues

24
The Dividing Union
  • Missouri Compromise (1820)
  • Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law
  • KansasNebraska Act (1854)
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)

Dred Scott
Cartoon criticizing the Fugitive Slave Law
25
The Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln
Stephen A. Douglas
John C. Breckin-ridge
John Bell
26
Electoral Votes in 1860
27
Secession
  • South Carolina was first to secede
  • Several other states followed soon after
  • Virginia seceded after the Battle of Fort Sumter

Seceding states appear in green
28
Discussion Questions
  1. What were the three fundamental causes of the
    Civil War? Which do you think was the most
    important? Why?
  2. How did the Dred Scott decision help bring the
    country closer to civil war? Do you think the
    decision made civil war inevitable? Why or why
    not?
  3. While running for president, Abraham Lincoln said
    that he had no plans to abolish slavery. Why then
    did Southerners fear his election so much?

29
The Creation of the Confederacy
  • Delegates met in Montgomery, Alabama
  • Formed the Confederate States of America
  • Jefferson Davis elected president, with
    Alexander Stephens as vice president

CSA President Jefferson Davis
30
Buchanans Inaction
  • Believed secession was illegal, but that acting
    to prevent it was also illegal
  • Decided to let the incoming administration handle
    the problem

President James Buchanan
31
Lincolns First Inaugural Address
  • March 4, 1861
  • Promised not to interfere with slavery where it
    already existed
  • Attempted to reconcile with the South

A crowd listens to Lincolns speech at the
Capitol building
32
Lincolns First Inaugural Address
  • I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to
    interfere with the institution of slavery in the
    states where it exists. I believe I have no
    lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination
    to do so.
  • I take the official oath today with no mental
    reservations and with no purpose to construe the
    Constitution or laws by any hypercritical rules
    and while I do not choose now to specify
    particular acts of Congress as proper to be
    enforced, I do suggest that it will be much safer
    for all, both in official and private stations,
    to conform to and abide by all those acts which
    stand unrepealed than to violate any of them
    trusting to find impunity in having them held to
    be unconstitutional.

33
Lincolns First Inaugural Address
  • In your hands, my dissatisfied
    fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the
    momentous issue of civil war. The Government will
    not assail you. You can have no conflict without
    being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath
    registered in heaven to destroy the Government,
    while I shall have the most solemn one to
    preserve, protect, and defend it... We are not
    enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies.
    Though passion may have strained it must not
    break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords
    of memory, stretching from every battlefield and
    patriot grave to every living heart and
    hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet
    swell the chorus of the Union, when again
    touched, as surely they will be, by the better
    angels of our nature.

34
Lincoln and Fort Sumter
  • Confederates demanded that the fort be
    surrendered
  • Lincoln received urgent message from Ft. Sumters
    commander
  • Lincoln faced with dilemma of resupplying Sumter
  • Decided to send only food for hungry men

Fort Sumter
35
The War Begins
  • Bombardment began on April 12, 1861
  • Anderson surrendered to Gen. Beauregard, a close
    friend and colleague

Painting depicting the bombardment of Fort Sumter
36
The Anaconda Plan
  • The Unions strategy
  • Naval blockade from Louisiana to Virginia
  • Control of the Mississippi River
  • Confederate strategy primarily defensive

Cartoon about the Anaconda Plan
37
Advantages Disadvantages The Union
  • Advantages
  • Industry and railroads
  • Larger population
  • Legitimate government
  • Strong political leadership
  • Disadvantages
  • Funding difficulties
  • Offensive war
  • Lack of skilled military leaders

A Massachusetts factory
38
Advantages Disadvantages The Confederacy
  • Advantages
  • Defensive war on home turf
  • Common cause
  • Strong military tradition and outstanding leaders
  • Disadvantages
  • Weak economy
  • Smaller population
  • Ineffective central government and leadership

Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. Stonewall
Jackson
39
War Aims North and South
  • The North to preserve the Union
  • The South safeguarding states rights, as well
    as protecting the South from Northern aggression

Horace Greeley
Abraham Lincoln
40
Discussion Questions
  1. Pretend you are a member of Buchanans cabinet.
    How would you advise him to deal with the
    secession crisis in the period before the next
    president took office?
  2. Do you think the Anaconda Plan was an effective
    strategy for subduing the Confederacy? If not,
    what strategy would you have recommended?
  3. Which sides goals for the war seem more
    reasonable to you? Why?

41
Prelude to Emancipation
  • At first, Lincoln did not believe he had the
    authority to end slavery
  • However, every slave working on a plantation
    allowed a white Southerner to fight
  • Lincoln saw emancipation as a strategic issue as
    well as a moral one

Slaves on a South Carolina plantation, 1862
42
Advantages to Emancipation
  • Cause union in the North by linking the war to
    abolishing slavery
  • Cause disorder in the South as slaves were freed
  • Kept Britain out of the war

Lincoln discussing emancipation with his cabinet
43
The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincoln announced proclamation after Antietam
  • Took effect on January 1, 1863
  • Freed slaves only in territories in rebellion

A cartoon celebrating emancipation
44
Dealing With Dissent
  • Copperheads
  • Led by Rep. Clement Vallandigham of Ohio
  • Lincoln suspends habeas corpus

Rep. Clement Vallandigham
45
Manpower for the War
  • Mostly volunteers
  • Conscription needed to sustain troop levels
  • In the North, draftees could hire substitutes or
    pay 300 to opt out

An illustrated sheet music cover protesting the
inequities of the draft
46
New York Draft Riots
  • July 1863
  • Rioters mainly poor whites and Irish immigrants
  • Opposed to freeing slaves
  • More than 100 people killed

Rioters loot a New York store
47
African American Enlistment
  • Congress allowed black enlistment in 1862
  • 54th Massachusetts commanded by Colonel Shaw
  • Half of 54th killed in assault on Ft. Wagner
  • Helped spur further enlistment

Col. Robert Gould Shaw
Memorial to the 54th Massachusetts
48
The Sanitary Commission
  • Poor health conditions in army camps
  • U.S. Sanitary Commission created
  • Purposes included improving hygiene and
    recruiting nurses
  • Developed better methods of transporting wounded
    to hospitals

A Civil War field hospital
49
Civil War Medicine
  • Infection often deadlier than the wounds
  • Amputations more common
  • Anesthesia widely used

A surgeon at the Camp Letterman field hospital at
Gettysburg prepares for an amputation
50
Andersonville
  • Confederate POW camp in Georgia
  • 32,000 prisoners jammed into 26 acres
  • One-third of all prisoners died
  • Superintendent was executed as a war criminal

Severely emaciated POWs rescued from Andersonville
51
The Gettysburg Address
  • Lincoln invited to attend cemetery dedication
  • Everett the principal speaker
  • At the time, Lincolns two-minute speech was
    considered great by some, a failure by others

The only known picture of Lincoln (lower center)
at the Gettysburg Cemetery dedication
52
Election of 1864
  • Lincoln sought reelection
  • Democrats nominated McClellan
  • Union victories helped Republican campaign
  • Lincoln won by large margin

A political cartoon shows Lincoln and Davis
tearing a U.S. map while McClellan tries to
intercede
53
Lincolns Second Inaugural
Lincoln addresses the crowd at his second
inauguration. It is believed that John Wilkes
Booth is the figure at top row center.
54
Lincolns Second Inaugural
  • With malice toward none, with charity for all,
    with firmness in the right as God gives us to see
    the right, let us strive on to finish the work we
    are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care
    for him who shall have borne the battle and for
    his widow and his orphanto do all which may
    achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace
    among ourselves and with all nations."

55
The Fall of Richmond
  • Lee told Davis the capital was in danger
  • Davis ordered evacuation
  • Union forces took Richmond
  • Lincoln toured the city soon after

The remains of buildings after the Union
invasion, April 1865
56
Surrender at Appomattox
  • Lee realized his position was hopeless
  • Asked to meet with Grant
  • Met in Appomattox on April 9, 1865
  • Lenient surrender terms

An artists rendition of the meeting
57
Impact of the War
Freedmen disinter bodies of soldiers killed at
Cold Harbor for reburial after the war
58
Impact of the War the Union
  • 111,000 killed in action
  • 250,000 killed by non-military causes (mostly
    disease)
  • Over 275,000 wounded
  • Estimated cost in todays dollars 6.19 billion

Union dead at Gettysburg
59
Impact of the War the Confederacy
  • 93,000 killed in battle
  • 165,000 killed by non-military causes
  • Over 137,000 wounded
  • Estimated cost in todays dollars 2.10 billion

Destruction in Atlanta after Shermans troops
took the city
60
Discussion Questions
  • Why did Grants total war policy meet with
    resistance even in the North? Do you think the
    policy was a good idea? Why?
  • How did Grant and Shermans military campaigns
    help Lincoln win reelection in 1864?
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