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Major Events leading to Disunion


Major Events leading to Disunion Gadsden Purchase 1853 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act (repeal of Missouri Compromise) 1855 Kansas Territory erupted in violence – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Events leading to Disunion

Major Events leading to Disunion
  • Gadsden Purchase 1853
  • 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act (repeal of Missouri
  • 1855 Kansas Territory erupted in violence
  • 1820 Missouri Compromise invalidated by the Dred
    Scott decision
  • 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln for Pres

Ch 19 PPT Drifting Toward Disunion 1854-1861
Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Toms
  • Source of antislavery sentiments lay in the
    crusades of 2nd Great Awakening
  • Made slavery appear almost as evil as it was,
    showing how family members were separated.
  • Lincoln said to her, So youre the little woman
    who wrote the book that made this great war.

Hinton R. Helper Views on Slavery
  • 1857 Hinton R. Helpers book The Impending
    Crisis of the South.
  • He disliked slavery and African Americans.
  • Book - banned and burned in the South.
  • Believed that non-slaveholding whites suffered
    most from slavery.

Harriet Beecher Stowe
Hinton R. Helper
  • 1. Pg 410 Advertisement List two pieces of
    information you find in the advertisement.
  • 2. Pg 412 Give a description of the conflict in
    Kansas between pro-slaveryites and abolitionists

North-South Contest for Kansas Newcomers to
  • Northerners Pioneers searching for richer lands.
  • Some financed by abolitionists or free soilers
    such as the Emigrant Aid Company which sent 2,000
  • 1855 election for a legislature proslavery
    border ruffians poured into Kansas to vote
    early often this won a victory for slave
    supporters and a govt was set up in Shawnee
  • Free Soilers established an illegal govt in
  • 1860 Census found 2 slaves out of 107,000 people
    in Kansas only 15 slaves in Nebraska.
  • 1856 proslavery raiders burned part of the
    free-soil town of Lawrence

Kansas in Convulsion
  • John Brown - Old Brown Dedicated abolitionist
  • May 1856 led followers to Pottawatomie Creek -
    murdered 5 pro-slaveryites.
  • Retaliation by proslavery forces, thus civil war
    erupted in Kansas,1856.
  • 1857 Kansas had enough people to apply for
    statehood with popular sovereignty.
  • Proslavery forces wrote up Lecompton Constitution
    If people vote for or against it vote for or
    against slavery.
  • Part of constitution protected owners of slaves
    already in Kansas, so no matter what, there would
    still be slavery.
  • Many free-soilers upset and boycotted the polls
    so the 1857 constitution was approved with

  • 3. Pg 414 What is being depicted by the political
    cartoonist? Is this for or against slavery?
  • 4. Pg 417 Describe the geographic areas that were
    won by the Democrats and the Republicans in the
    1856 election.

Bully Brooks Canes Sumner
  • Senator Charles Sumner of Mass. (leading
    abolitionist) delivered a speech The Crime
    Against Kansas.
  • Condemned proslavery men
  • Insulted South Carolina and Senator Andrew Butler
  • May 1856 Congressman Preston S. Brooks of
    Carolina pounded Charles Sumner with a cane.
  • Brooks resigned and then was re-elected
  • North angered by Bully Brooks Tens of
    thousands of Sumners speech were sold.

Brooks Beating of Charles Sumner
1856 Election
  • Democrat Candidate James Buchanan (Lawyer)
  • Nickname -Old Buck Buchanan
  • Wanted popular sovereignty
  • Republican Candidate Captain John C. Fremont
    (pathfinder of the West)
  • Against extending slavery to the West.
  • Know-Nothing Candidate ex-pres Millard Fillmore
  • Secret American party organized by nativists
    (old stock Protestants)
  • Anti-foreigners and anti-Catholic
  • Slogan Americans Must Rule America
  • Buchanan wins election.

Buchanan wins Election
Dred Scott v. Sandford
  • Dred Scott sued for his freedom because of his
    long residence on free soil. He had lived with
    his master for 5 years in Illinois and
    Wisconsin Territory.
  • Supreme Court under Chief Justice Taney ruled
    Dred Scott was a black slave who was not
    protected by the Constitution and could never be
    a citizen of the U.S.
  • Wasnt a citizen, so he couldnt sue the federal

Dred Scott v. Sandford cont.
  • Court ruled that because a slave was property,
    they could be taken into any territory and
    legally held there in slavery.
  • Reason 5th Amendment forbade Congress to deprive
    people of their property without due process of
  • 1820 Missouri Compromise had been repealed
    (slavery wasnt banned above 36 30 anymore).
    Now Court ruled the Bill had been
    unconstitutional all along
  • Why? Supreme Court determined Congress had no
    power to ban slavery from territories.

1857 Financial Crash
  • Causes
  • California gold helped inflate currency
  • Demands of Crimean War over stimulated growing of
  • Over speculation in land and railroads
  • 5,000 businesses failed, unemployment, hunger
  • North hit hardest while South still had good
    cotton prices
  • Congress passed 1860 Homestead Act Public lands
    available for 25 cents/acre, but Pres. Buchanan
    vetoed it.
  • Pressure from South Tariff of 1857- lowered duty
  • Republicans given 2 economic issues for the next
    election in 1860 a protective tariff and farms
    for farmless.

1858 Illinois Senatorial Election
  • Democrat Senator - Stephen Douglas from Illinois
  • Term about to end
  • For popular sovereignty
  • Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln
  • Born in Kentucky - poor parents, self-educated
  • Trial lawyer in Illinois
  • Had served one term in Congress 1847-1849
  • Challenged Douglas to series of debates

Great Debates Lincoln vs. Douglas
  • 7 debates - Aug to Oct 1858.
  • Most famous debate at Freeport, Illinois.
  • Lincoln asked What if the people of a territory
    should vote against slavery. The Supreme Court in
    the Dred Scott decision had decreed that they
    couldnt. Who would prevail - the Supreme Court
    or the people?
  • Douglass response (AKA Freeport Doctrine)
    aimed toward the people and stated that No
    matter how the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would
    stay down if the people voted it down. Laws to
    protect slavery would have to be passed by the
    legislatures of the territories.
  • Douglas defeated Lincoln for Senate seat, but
    Douglas hurt his chances of winning presidency
    (At this time, Senators were chosen by state

(No Transcript)
John Brown Murder or Martyr?
  • John Browns plan invade south, call slaves to
    rise, give them arms, establish a black, free
  • Oct 1859 - Harpers Ferry seized federal arsenal
    and killed 7 innocent people.
  • Slaves didnt rise up in rebellion.
  • Brown and followers captured by U.S. Marines. He
    was convicted of murder/treason and was hung.
  • Effects
  • -Abolitionists/free-soilers angered by his
  • -Stirred up Souths desire to leave the Union.
    Many in South believed most abolitionists were
    violent and shared Browns views.

Democrats Divide at Nominating Conventions
  • Democrats Met in Charleston, S. Carolina
    Douglas was leading candidate, but some felt he
    was a traitor they walked out.
  • Met again in Baltimore Douglas nominated with a
    platform of popular sovereignty and support for
    Fugitive Slave Law.
  • Rival Democratic Convention John C. Breckinridge
    nominated with a platform that favored extension
    of slavery and annexation of Cuba.
  • Constitutional Union Party was organized
    nominated John Bell of Tennessee platform -
    believed in the Union, the Constitution, the
    Enforcement of the Laws.

Republican Nominating Convention
  • Republicans met in Chicago Abraham Lincoln
  • Republican Platform Non-extension of slavery,
    protective tariff for Northerners, Pacific
    railroad for the Northwest, internal improvements
    at federal expense for the West, free homesteads
    from public lands for the farmers, for immigrants
    no removal of rights.

  • 5. Pg 425 How many electoral votes did Lincoln
    win in the 1860 presidential election? And
  • 6. Pg. 426 Electoral Map Describe the
    geographical area that Lincoln won in the
    presidential election. And Douglas?
  • 7. Pg. 427 Map Describe the areas that were most
    against seceding from the United States. Which
    state was the most fervent for secession? How did
    you determine this?

1860 Presidential Election
  • Virtually 2 elections in North and South.
  • Lincoln wasnt even on the ballot in 10 Southern
  • If Democrats didnt split, they might have won
    with better organization and higher enthusiasm.
  • Lincoln wins election with only 40 of popular
  • South still had five-to-four majority in Supreme
  • Federal govt couldnt touch slavery in those
    states where it existed, except by constitutional

Southern States Secede
  • S. Carolina legislature votes to secede from the
    Union Dec 1860.
  • 6 other states in lower South secede also
    Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia,
    Louisiana, Texas.
  • The 7 states met at Montgomery, Alabama and
    created a new govt Confederate States of America
    with Jefferson Davis as Pres.
  • Lincoln didnt take office until March 4, 1861.
  • Buchanan blamed for not holding the Union
    together by force. (one reason why the small
    standing army was scattered, trying to control
    Indians in the West).

  • 8. Pg 429 Map and paragraph What was the
    Crittenden Compromise?

Collapse of Compromise
  • Senator James Henry Crittenden of Kentucky
    proposed the Crittenden amendments to the
    Constitution, designed to appease the South.
  • Slavery in territories would be allowed south of
    36 30 and given federal protection in those
    territories as well as future territories such as
  • Future states, north or south of 36 30, could
    come into Union w/or without slavery.
  • Lincoln rejected the Crittenden plan because he
    opposed the extension of slavery

Farewell to Union
  • Souths concerns
  • Political imbalance against South.
  • Threat of losing their rights as slaveholding
  • Tired of Northern interference Underground
    Railroad, abolitionists (John Browns raid.)
  • South believed northern manufacturers and bankers
    depended on Souths cotton and their markets.
  • An independent South could develop its own
    banking, shipping and trade with Europe.

Act of Secession