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Title: Lifespan Development


1
Lifespan Development
2
  • Maturation
  • The sequential unfolding of genetically
    influenced behavior and physical characteristics

3
  • Determining Gender Roles

4
From Conception
5
  • NOVA Lifes Greatest Miracle

6
The Three Pre-Birth Stages
  • Germinal Stage (Zygote)
  • Embryonic Stage
  • Fetal Stage

7
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8
  • Harmful influences that can cross the placenta
    barrier include German measles, radiation, toxic
    chemicals, sexually transmitted diseases,
    cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption,
    prescription and nonprescription drugs. These
    are collectively known as Teratogens.
  • Teratogens

9
  • One thing to remember is that as an individual
    grows, they go through a variety of critical
    periods. Critical periods are specific windows
    of time after which it is very difficult to
    acquire a skill.

10
  • The Newborns Physical Abilities

11
Reflexes
  • Rooting when something touches an infants
    cheek, they instinctively open their mouths and
    root for a nipple

12
  • Palmar Reflex grasping objects that are placed
    in the hand
  • Babinski Reflex toes splaying outwards when the
    foot is stroked
  • Moro Reflex limb splaying when a loud noise
    occurs

Newborn Abilities
13
  • Newborns and their Temperaments

14
Temperament
  • A persons characteristic emotional reactivity
    and intensity

15
Temperament
  • A babys temperament is apparent after just a few
    hours of birth
  • easy babies eat and sleep regularly
  • difficult unpredictable, intense, irritable

16
  • Newborns and Attachment

17
  • Attachment the bonding between child and
    caregiver that provides a secure base from which
    children can explore

18
Harry Harlow
  • One wire monkey with a milk bottle, one soft
    cloth monkey
  • Baby monkeys preferred the softer mother figure
    when they were scared
  • Physical Comfort is a key to attachment
  • Harry Harlows Experiment

19
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20
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21
  • Ainsworth devised an experimental method called
    the Stranger Situation in which the babies
    behavior is observed when the mother leaves the
    baby with a stranger
  • Stranger Situation Experiment

22
  • Securely attached children are clearly more
    attached to the mother. They explore while a
    parent is present, are distressed when they
    leave, and go to the parent upon return

23
  • Insecurely Attached children dont particularly
    like to be held, may explore with or without the
    parent around, may show a lot of stress when
    their parents leave though they may or may not go
    to the parent upon return

24
  • Parenting Styles

25
  • Authoritarian Parents set strict standards and
    apply frequent punishment
  • Permissive Parents do not set clear guidelines
    and the rules are constantly changing

26
  • Authoritarian styles produce children are more
    likely to distrust others and are more socially
    withdrawn

27
  • Permissive style reared children tend to have
    more emotional control problems and are more
    dependent

28
  • Authoritative Parents have set and consistent
    rules of behavior, and those rules are
    reasonable. Praise and punishment, independence
    and control.

29
  • Authoritative style produces the most desirable
    and beneficial home environment. Children are
    more capable and perform better academically

30
  • Infancy and Early Childhood Development

31
  • Language
  • Infant Speech Development

32
  • Noam Chomsky
  • Every child is born with the biological
    predisposition to learn language, any language.

33
  • Motherese
  • Infant Directed Speech the phenomenon that
    across cultures we speak to infants in a
    particular style. Small words, higher pitches,
    exaggerated intonation and expression.

34
Stages of Language Development
  • Cooing (3 mos.) repeated vowel sounds
  • aaaaa, oooooo
  • Babbling (5 mos.) adding in consonants,
    stringing together vowel sounds
  • da-da-da, ma-ma-ma, ba-bab-ba

35
Stages of Language Development
  • Babbling, Pt. II (9 mos.) babbling in sounds
    specific to their language
  • One-Word Stage (1 year) typically, single
    concrete words used
  • dada, mama, baba

36
Stages of Language Development
  • Two-Word Stage (2 years) two word sentences,
    all content
  • Where kitty? No potty !
  • By age 3, children begin to add in articles and
    prepositions and have a vocabulary of over 3,000
    words.

37
Stages of Language Development
  • Phonemes the smallest units of sounds used to
    differentiate meanings and words
  • Skill, Still, Spill
  • Kit, Skill
  • Morpheme the smallest, meaningful parts of a
    single word
  • Governmental govern ment al
  • Predict pre dict

38
  • Piaget and Thinking
  • Infant Cognitive Development

39
  • Thinking
  • Assimilation-adding new information into our
    present system of knowledge, belief and schemas
    through experience
  • Accommodation-we must change or modify existing
    schemas to accommodate new info that does not fit
    with the old

40
  • Piagets proposed that there are four stages of
    cognitive growth that humans go through, from
    birth through to adulthood. Each stage marks a
    new way in which a person learns new information
    and is able to think about the world around them.

41
  • Sensorimotor Stage (Preconventional)
  • (Birth to 2 years old)
  • Infants learn through concrete actions
    thinking consists of coordinating sensory info
    with bodily movement experience the world
    through looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping

42
  • Begin to understand object permanence at around 6
    months involves understanding that things exist
    even they are not perceived
  • Object Permanence

43
  • Preoperational Stage
  • (Ages 2-6 Years)
  • The time period in which a child learns to use
    language to learn about the world
  • Egocentrism Children at this age cannot
    perceive things from anothers point of view- the
    world revolves around them and them alone
  • Artificialism Children at this age may believe
    that all things are human made
  • Animism Children at this age may believe that
    all things are living

44
  • Concrete Operational Stage
  • (Ages 7-11)
  • Conservation is the understanding that properties
    such as mass, volume, and number remain the same
    despite changes in the forms of objects

45
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46
  • Formal Operations Stage
  • (Age 12 to adulthood)
  • Beginning of abstract reasoning
  • Can reason systematically, think about the
    future, think about situations they have not
    experienced firsthand

47
  • The Development of Morals

48
  • Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Moral Reasoning is the thinking that occurs as we
    consider the ideas of what is right and what is
    wrong, and what guides our judgments and
    behaviors
  • There are three stages of moral growth

49
  • Level 1 Preconventional Morality
  • Choosing what is right or wrong is based on the
    fear punishment for disobedience, or the promise
    of rewards
  • Children often do what is in their own best
    interest

50
  • Level 2 Conventional Morality
  • Beginning to care for others feelings, and
    understanding that there are laws and social
    rules to follow
  • Choices are also made based on social acceptance
    as adolescence begins

51
  • Level 3 Postconventional Morality
  • Abstract reasoning is used
  • Broader, ethical themes of justice and human
    rights
  • An internal struggle between your personalized
    morals, and those of society

52
  • Social Development
  • Social Development

53
  • Erik Ericksons psychosocial theory says that all
    people go through eight stages in their lives,
    resolving a crisis at each one while learning
    to deal with the rest of society. How we resolve
    the crisis is the basis for our social
    interactions.

54
  • Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Who do I trust and who cant I trust? Is the
    world friendly or hostile?
  • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  • A child begins to develop a sense of control
    over their environment and their bodily
    functions.
  • Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and assert
    themselves socially.

55
  • Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Children gain a sense of accomplishment and
    pride in their work. They begin to understand
    their potential.
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • This involves a sense of identity. Who am I?
    What do I stand for? Am I an individual or a
    just a reflection of society?
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Forming close relationships and looking for
    intimate love and mates.

56
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • The struggle between being both productive at
    home and at work, and figuring out how to best
    contribute to the next generation.
  • Integrity vs. Despair
  • Reflecting on my life and my legacy, and have I
    had a successful life or am I a failure?

57
  • Adolescence

58
  • Adolescence is the transitional period from
    childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to
    independence

59
  • Puberty the period of sexual maturation, during
    which a person becomes capable of reproducing

Girls usually begin at age 11 Boys usually begin
at 13
60
  • Puberty Landmarks
  • Menarche the first menstrual cycle for females
  • The first ejaculation for boys

61
  • Primary Sex Characteristics the body structures
    (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that
    make reproduction possible
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics
    non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as
    female breasts and hips, male voice quality and
    facial hair, and pubic and underarm hair in both
    sexes

62
  • Identity Ones sense of self according to
    Erickson, the adolescent task is to solidify a
    sense of self by testing and integrating various
    roles trying new things to discover the answer
    to the question Who am I?

63
  • Intimacy the ability to form close, loving
    relationships

64
  • Carol Gilligan studies suggest that women are
    naturally more concerned with making connections
    (interdependent) than men (independent)

65
  • Independence begins to occur as teens become
    young adults, go off to colleges or the world of
    work

66
  • Adulthood

67
  • To measure the mental and physical changes that
    take place over a lifetime, researchers typically
    use either a cross-sectional or longitudinal
    study.

68
  • Cross-sectional a study in which people of
    different ages are compared with another
  • Longitudinal Study research in which the same
    people are restudied and retested over a long
    period of time

69
  • Living Longer
  • Slowing The Aging Process
  • Human Hibernation?
  • Can We Live Forever?
  • Facing Death

70
  • Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory
    keenness, cardiac output all peak by the
    mid-twenties

71
  • Women and Menopause
  • The end of menstruation
  • Only about 10 of all women have severe physical
    symptoms

72
  • Men and Sexuality Gradual decline in sperm
    count, lowering testosterone levels, slower speed
    of erections and ejaculation

73
  • Contrary to popular belief, recent studies found
    that people over 60
  • 39 were satisfied with the amount of sex that
    they were having
  • 39 wanted sex more frequently

74
  • Visual sharpness declines
  • Distance perception declines
  • Less adaptation to light changes
  • Hearing declines
  • The immune system weakens
  • Slower reaction times
  • Short-term memory decreases

75
  • Aging and Memory

76
  • Recognition declines slower than recall
    information
  • Overall, intelligence does not sharply decline
    with age

77
  • Fluid Intelligence decreases slowly up to the age
    of 75, and then rapidly thereafter
  • Ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly
  • Crystallized Intelligence increases up to old age
  • Ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills

78
  • The Marriage Phenomena
  • Lasts longer for those that marry after the age
    of 20 and are educated
  • Those that lived together prior to marriage have
    a higher rate of divorce than those that didnt

79
  • Midlife Crisis As people enter middle age, they
    realize that life will very soon be mostly behind
    then instead of ahead of them. The crisis is a
    question of whether to continue on their current
    path, or to change while theres still time?

80
  • Over-65? Its presumed that depression sits in
    and we wait for death
  • Studies suggest that those over-65 report that
    they are 80 satisfied with their life at that
    age, a greater percentage than other age bracket
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