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The CRAR3FS2 framework for developing teachers

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The CRAR3FS2 framework for developing teachers ICT skills for e-Education By Andr du Plessis NMMU (SMATE) Walter Sisulu University (WSU) E-LEARNING EVENT – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The CRAR3FS2 framework for developing teachers


1
The CRAR3FS2 framework for developing teachers
ICT skills for e-Education By André du
Plessis NMMU (SMATE)
  • Walter Sisulu University (WSU) E-LEARNING EVENT
  • Integrating information and communication
    technology into learning and teaching
  • East London, South Africa, 3-4 November 2009

2
BACKGROUND
  • WHO AM I?
  • I sometimes dont know either!!!
  • Lecturer at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
    University (NMMU)
  • Areas of knowledge and expertise
  • Intermediate Phase Senior Phase Maths Method
  • Research design supervision
  • ICT and school implementation integration
  • ICT and Teacher Development
  • ICT teaching and learning strategies, frameworks
    models
  • Learning as Design
  • ICT School Leadership
  • E-Learning
  • M-Learning (emerging researcher)
  • Web Design
  • PHD just submitted related to ICT implementation,
    integration, developing ICT teaching strategies,
    ICT and the critical outcomes AND ICT Teacher
    Development

3
INTRODUCTION
  • What is E-Learning? Is there a one only answer?
    Is E-Learning E-Education synonymous?
  • A great deal has been written in the South
    African White Paper on e-Education (DoE, 2003,
    2004) in terms of
  • the type of learning envisioned,
  • the kind of Information and Communications
    Technology (ICT) levels that need to be
    developed, and
  • the type of school that is required
  • BUT Where is the actual implementation? Policy
    is one thing Implementation is the evidence!!!
  • HOWEVER There is a paucity of information on how
    teachers and schools are expected to practically
    integrate or make use of ICT within the South
    African context (Hodgkinson-Williams, 2005).
  • ICT used in many instances to complement
    traditional teaching learning practices
  • This paper forms part of a larger study related
    to ICT teacher development of teachers.
  • Teachers-as-designers of cyberhunts as an
    e-learning tool AND Learners-as-designers

4
PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • The fact that what happens in the computer room
    is not directly linked to what happens within the
    classroom.
  • Teachers want to be responsible for their own
    classs computer integration, but they are unsure
    what to do as they lack the basic computer and
    Internet skills.
  • There is a need to establish the integration of
    computers within learning areas and assistance
    with the implementation of integration.
  • There is a need to get personally involved with
    computer integration and to play an active part
    in the establishment and implementation of
    computer integration at schools.
  • In many cases, one person is responsible for
    teaching computer literacy to the whole school.
  • The Internet has to be introduced to teachers and
    learners, but teachers do not have access to the
    Internet, nor do they know how to introduce the
    Internet, or how to implement Internet or related
    strategies in teaching and learning.

5
AIMS OF THE STUDY
  • To develop a strategy to introduce the
    participating teachers to the Internet in an
    integrative manner.
  • To establish from the literature what the
    problems, concerns and barriers are that mitigate
    against the implementation and integration of ICT
    and to propose how these barriers can be
    addressed.
  • To establish, on a continuous basis, how
    participants experienced the professional
    training development process used to prepare them
    for cyberhunt implementation in order to address
    teacher needs during the process with a view to
    make any necessary changes and to assist with
    future planning and teacher development-training
    sessions.

6
RESEARCH QUESTION REPORTING ON THE FOLLOWING
FOR THIS CONFERENCE
  • How should the teacher development process for
    ICT integration using cyberhunts as an Internet
    strategy be managed?

7
RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
  • ALARM BELLS or SIRENS
  • Many teachers feel that research and teachers
    actual practices are too far removed from one
    another (Royer, 2002) and
  • Researchers and their research do not take
    teachers needs into consideration
    (Blumenfeld, Fishman, Krajcik, Marx Soloway,
    2000).
  • Quote from an in-service teachers remarks
    about academics
  • There are many of them academics out there
    who have all of the theory and none of the
    classroom (Watson, 2001, p. 185)

8
CONTEXT OF THE RESEARCH AND DELIMITATION
  • Teachers from 6 SMIS disadvantaged schools
    comprising of 6 disadvantaged schools
  • Four primary schools and two high schools in the
    Port Elizabeth Missionvale area) formed the
    convenience sample used in this study.
  • Each of these six schools received 20 computers
    each from the Dell Foundation. From each school
    approximately six teachers participated.

9
METHODOLOGY AND METHODS
  • Ontological position
  • The greater research project was conducted within
    the post-positivist paradigm underpinned by a
    critical realist position
  • A reality do exist, BUT we can only apprehend it
    to a certain extent as our knowledge of reality
    is fallible and open to correction
  • Epistemological position
  • Socio-cultural perspective, including situated
    learning within communities of practice
    recognising the cognitive, social and situated
    learning dimension of teacher learning
  • Methodological position
  • Interpretive case study approach (qualitative and
    quantitative data gathering method)

10
LITERATURE REVIEW CYBERHUNTS (1 of 3)
  • What is a cyberhunt?
  • A cyberhunt is an online activity
  • Learners use the Internet as a tool to find
    answers to questions based upon a certain theme
    or topic
  • Hyperlinks are provided on which the user have to
    click so that the hyperlink to which the
    hyperlink points, can open and be displayed on
    the computer screen
  • Resources can be text based, graphical, digital
    media, etc.
  • Questions composed should be on different
    cognitive levels
  • Example of a the online learning tool for
    learning how to design CYBERHUNTS
  • First and second order barriers have to be
    identified and addressed

11
Literature Review Designing to learn OR
Learning as design (2 of 3)
  • Teachers and/or learners can be the designers of
    cyberhunts
  • Why should learners become designers?
  • The only people who significantly benefit from
    the design process during the design of
    educational software through the use of design
    tools are the designers themselves, not the
    learners (Jonassen, Myers McKillop, 1996).
  • Design emphasis process and product
  • Reflection is a key element during the learning
    as design process
  • Learning as design is underpinned by
    constructivist principles
  • Possible to achieve the Critical Outcomes of the
    National Curriculum Statement
  • Knowledge creation a possibility

12
Literature Review Models for teacher
development (3 of 3)
  • Training model,
  • Award-bearing model,
  • Deficit model,
  • Cascade model,
  • Standards-based model,
  • Coaching/mentoring model,
  • Community of practice model (This study)
    cognitive apprenticeship
  • Action research model and the
  • Transformative model (some elements) as the focus
    is the transformation of current practices
  • PROBLEM . CHALLENGE
  • Dana and Yendol-Hoppey (2008, p. ix) The problem
    is that teachers see teacher development as
    torture and not as treasure

13
Enablers for Teacher Development during this
research intervention project
  • This study has been informed by a community of
    practice model embedded by cognitive
    apprenticeship
  • It is acknowledged that teachers prior beliefs
    and knowledge related to classroom practice
    influence their interpretation of new pedagogical
    ideas (and new practices.
  • Teachers also learn a great deal from their
    social interaction(s) in discourse communities
    when they share experiences from the classroom
    contexts in which they experiment with new or
    alternative practices
  • Social interaction as a learning tool through
    language NB
  • knowledge creation model of Nonaka and Takeuchi
    (1995) was seen as a useful model for learning

14
ACTIVITY THEORY TRIANGLE
Mediated (higher) functioning are interactions
between the subject (individual) and object
(task) mediated by tools, at the vertex of the
triangle
Object the lesson outcomes (or higher order
thinking skills, motivation and interest, greater
interaction or collaboration, etc.) that the
learner needs to achieve.
OUTCOME(s)
MEDIATING ARTIFACTS (TOOLS)
Mediating tools are the lesson design, the media
used, the software, the information on the
Internet, etc.
Transformation Process
Subject is the learner
PRODUCTION
SUBJECT
OBJECT
Cyberhunt as created atefact
CONSUMPTION
EXCHANGE
DISTRIBUTION
RULES
DIVISION OF LABOUR
COMMUNITY
Division of labour is negotiated between the
teacher and the learner
Rules The learner is subject to the rules of the
teacher and the school
Community The learner works within the social
community of the class
Unmediated (elementary) functioning occurs along
the base of the triangle
15
THE TEACHER DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FOR ICT
IMPLEMENTATION INTEGRATION OF THE INTERNET
  • Acronym C R A R3 F S2 holds the key for teacher
    development and classroom implementation.
  • Figure of C R A R3 F S2 follows

16
Care
Assess
Relate
Support
Feedback
Re-plan
Reflect
Read
Share
Decide upon your PHASES what each entails
17
Teacher Development for technology integration
HOW? WHAT PROCESS?
  • Graphical presentation to follow

18
(No Transcript)
19
CONCLUSION
  • Education Department and its officials should
    take note of the barriers and the C R A R3 F S2
    framework provided within this paper
  • WHY?
  • To assist with the development of teachers, in
    order to achieve the type of learning and the
    necessary aspects that are required pertaining to
    teacher development as envisioned in the South
    African White Paper on e-Education.
  • One-shot sessions are not the answer, but
  • ongoing teacher development and ongoing
    supports seems to be the key.

20
END
  • SharePoint Designer as E-Learning tool for school
    principals
  • Current project SOS for school principals
    http//nmmumod.nmmu.ac.za/sites/sosproject/default
    .aspx
  • Thanks for attending
  • Any questions or remarks?

21
Teacher Development for technology integration
HOW? WHAT PROCESS? (1 of 3)
  • OUTCOMES AND OBJECT
  • Determine what is the object of the teacher
    development sessions and what are the intended
    outcomes and assessment strategies
  • Design instruments for example reflection
    sheets, questionnaires (open-ended, closed, or
    a combination of open-ended and closed
    questionnaires) and/or checklists to ascertain
    whether the development sessions planned were
    achieved
  • Sessions should not be once-off, but should be
    ongoing.
  • Teacher development sessions should include
    follow up in-context school visits in order to
    determine what has been learned and implemented
    within the school context.
  • Classroom observations will help to determine
    the needs of the participants, and to inform
    further support strategies.

22
Teacher Development for technology integration
HOW? WHAT PROCESS (2 of 3)
  • Teacher development should be tailored according
    to the specific needs of individuals.
  • Data collection is vital before the teacher
    development commences
  • It renders a picture of the participants
  • Classes or training groups should be kept at
    manageable sizes
  • Enables improved classroom support.
  • COMMUNITY
  • Create collaborative communities of practice
  • Identify and utilise capable peers as co-
    facilitators and as co-support
  • Training in real life contexts
  • Value input from participants

23
Teacher Development for technology integration
HOW? WHAT PROCESS? (3 of 3)
  • MOTIVATORS
  • ARCS
  • Cultural responsive
  • DIVISION OF LABOUR
  • Who does what?
  • Who is responsible for what?
  • What are possible contradictions?
  • RULES
  • Rules must be very clear
  • WHY?
  • Rules may results in the manifestation of
    contradictions in terms of traditional beliefs
    and approaches associated with non-constructivist
    teaching and learning approaches.
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