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America Becomes A Colonial Power

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The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. U.S. agreed to pay $20 million for Philippines. The U. S ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: America Becomes A Colonial Power


1
(No Transcript)
2
Essential Question Why did America join the
imperialist club at the end of the 19c?
3
America Becomes an Imperial Power
4
Foreign Policy in the Gilded Age 18801890
  • Population growing _at_ 50 million (1880)
  • Industry 2 in the world (UK 1)
  • America turned their attention inward after 1860
  • Navy was small and inadequate
  • State Dept. was on the sidelines as Congress
    controlled the country
  • However U.S. was beginning to out-grow its
    borders
  • The West was closed off (Turner Thesis) so now
    what?
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------
  • American diplomacy in these years has been
    characterized as a series of incidents, not the
    pursuit of foreign policy.

5
Alaska
6
Sewards Folly 1867
7.2 million
7
WHY did the U.S. buy Alaska??
  • Alaska had been settled by Russian fur traders in
    the late 1700s, but by 1867 fur sources were
    becoming scarce.
  • In addition, Russia was struggling to recover
    from the Crimean War. As a result, Russia offered
    to sell Alaska to the United States.
  • Overcoming strong opposition from Congress,
    Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska
    for 7.2 million in 1867.
  • Critics scoffed at Sewards Folly, thinking
    that the territory was a frozen wasteland. But
    after gold and oil were discovered, Americans
    appreciated the bargain. Seward also acquired the
    Midway Islands that same year.

8
Hawaii "Crossroads of the Pacific"
9
Case Study Hawaii and Gilded Age Expansionism
  • 1870s American businessmen invested in
    Hawaiian sugar
  • 1875 the sale of Hawaiian sugar in the U.S.
    became duty-free.
  • Over the years American businessmen increased
    their investments and control over the Hawaiian
    economy.
  • 1887 Hawaiians forced to sign the Bayonet
    Constitution
  • a) forced King Kalakaua to change the Hawaiian
    constitution only allowing wealthy (American!)
    landowners voting rights
  • b) allowed for the construction of Pearl Harbor
  • - to protect American businessmen and their
    business interests.
  • 1890 McKinley Tariff eliminated duty-free
    Hawaiian sugar, thus creating
    more competition for sugar in
    the American market . . . And Americans in
    Hawaii were NOT happy . . .

10
U. S. View of Hawaiians
11
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani
Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
12
The Hawaiian Republic
  • 1893 Sugar planters, already upset at the
    tariff, revolted against the Queen when she
    suggested drafting a new constitution that would
    take voting rights away from America.
  • USS Boston sailed into Honolulu Marines on shore
    to protect American interests.
  • US took control of the government and sets up a
    provisional government led by Sanford B. Dole.
  • Stevens immediately recognized Doles government
    and sent it to Washington asking to annex the
    island.
  • Cleveland said no to annexation, but recognized
    Republic of Hawaii.
  • 1898 McKinley ? Hawaii becomes a territory

13
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii
Sanford B. Dole
14
1. Commercial/Business Interests
U. S. Foreign Investments 1869-1908
15
2. Military/Strategic Interests
Alfred T. Mahan -- The Influence of Sea Power on
History 1660-1783
16
3. Social Darwinist Thinking
The White Mans Burden
The Hierarchy of Race
17
4. Religious/Missionary Interests
American Missionaries in China, 1905
18
5. Closing the American Frontier
19
Frederick Jackson Turners Frontier Thesis
20
Cuba
21
Spanish Misrule in Cuba
  • Since the 1860s, Cuba sought independence from
    Spain
  • 1895 Jose Marti began a guerilla war rebellion
    to obtain Cuba independence from Spain.
  • Valeriano Weyler (Span. Com.) adopted a round
    then up (concentration camp) style response.

22
Valeriano The Butcher Weylers Reconcentration
Policy
23
Causes of The Spanish- American War
24
1. Yellow Journalism Jingoism
Joseph Pulitzer New York World
Hearst to Frederick Remington You furnish the
pictures, and Ill furnish the war!
  • Pres. McKinley was more concerned about the
    disruption of business and called for the war to
    end in Cuba immediately or else.
  • Jingoismextreme nationalism marked by a
    belligerent foreign policy.

William Randolph Hearst New York Journal
25
2. De Lôme Letter
  • Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.
  • Criticized President McKinley as weak and
    a bidder for the admiration of the crowd!

26
3. Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
27
The Spanish-American War Causes
  • 3) The USS Maine Explodes
  • 260 seamen dead
  • McKinley now had to look at war as a possibility
  • Tried to negotiate with Spain, but they rejected
    the peace offering
  • War hawks in Congress pushed for war
  • McKinley reluctantly went to war eventually saw
    it as an opportunity for American expansion

28
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley
    administration.
  • Imperialist and American nationalist.
  • Criticized President McKinley as having the
    backbone of a chocolate éclair!
  • Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

29
But first . . .
30
The Philippines
31
The Spanish-American War (1898) That Splendid
Little War
  • BEFORE TR headed to Cuba, he gave orders to
    attack Philippines.
  • U.S. destroyed Spanish fleet in a matter of
    hours.
  • Dewey received help on the mainland from rebel
    leader Emilio Aguinaldo.

32
Dewey Captures Manila!
33
Meanwhile . . .the War in Cuba
  • U.S. issued Teller Amendment promised to allow
    Cuba to govern itself once freed from Spain.
  • Wool uniforms and mess kits from Civil War slowed
    efforts!
  • Rough Riders (on foot) charged San Juan Hill.
  • In less than 4 months, Spain was defeated.

34
The Treaty of Paris 1898
  • Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.
  • Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam.
  • U.S. agreed to pay 20 million for Philippines.
  • The U. S. becomes an imperial power!


35
Annexing the Philippines
  • Having been promised independence for fighting
    alongside the Americans against Spain, Filipinos
    expected independence.

36
Is He To Be a Despot?
37
The American Anti-Imperialist
League
  • Founded in 1899.
  • Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and
    William Jennings Bryan among the leaders.
  • Campaigned against the annexation of
    the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.

38
The Philippines
  • US refused to acknowledge the Filipino request
    for independence.
  • Feeling betrayed, Emilio Aguinaldo Filipino
    rebels enter a war against the U.S.
  • Jan. 1899 Aguinaldo proclaimed the Philippines
    independent?
  • Philippine-American War (18991902) U.S.
    deaths 4,200
  • Filipino deaths 20,000
  • Long-drawn out conflict with the use of some
    brutal tactics by both sides.

39
William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the
Philippines
Taft (governor-general) promised indep. and high
degree of self-rule.
The Philippines would not be granted independence
until 1946.
40
Cuban Independence?
  • Teller Amendment (1898)
  • Platt Amendment (1903)
  • Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with
    foreign powers that would endanger its
    independence.
  • The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if
    necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
    govt.
  • Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for
    naval and coaling station.

Senator Orville Platt
41
Our Sphere of Influence
42
America as a Pacific Power
43
That damned cowboy is in the White House!!!
44
Panama
45
The Background Story
46
  • How Did Panama Become Independent?
  • In 1903, French canal builders agreed to sell
    their holdings/materials in their bankrupt Panama
    company to the United States for 40 millionbut
    the U.S. still needed the rights from Colombia.
  • Colombia (of which Panama was a province),
    rejected the U.S. treaty offer of 10 million
    250,000 yearly.
  • Unwilling to give up . . . and recognizing
    Panamas desire for independence (there was a
    small, established movement for independence),
    the United States (TR) quietly encouraged Panama
    to rebel.
  • The ensuing four-hour revolution,
    under the watchful eye of two U.S.
    gunboats, created the Republic of
    Panama.
  • A few days later, the United States and
    Panama signed a treaty to build the
    canal.. .
  • I took the Isthmus, started the canal and
    then left Congress not to debate the
    canal, but to debate me." --Theodore
    Roosevelt

47
Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!
48
Panama Canal
TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
49
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
1905
Chronic wrongdoing may in America, as
elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by
some civilized nation, and in the Western
Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to
the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States,
however reluctantly, . . . to the exercise of an
international police power.
50
U. S. Interventions in Latin America 1898-1920s
51
America's New Role
52
The Cares of a Growing Family
53
Constable of the World
54
The Great White Fleet 1907
55
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy
  • Improve financial opportunities for American
    businesses.
  • Use private capital to further U. S.
    interests overseas.
  • Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and
    order abroad that would best promote Americas
    commercial interests.

56
Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
  • The U. S. should be the conscience of the world.
  • Spread democracy.
  • Condemn colonialism, but . . .

57
Uncle Sam One of the Boys?
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