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The Civil War

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The Civil War (1861-1865) Through Maps, Charts, Graphs & Pictures AP US HISTORY UNIT 6 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil War


1
TheCivil War(1861-1865)ThroughMaps,
Charts,Graphs Pictures
AP US HISTORY UNIT 6
2
North vs. South in 1861
North South
Advantages ? ?
Disadvantages ? ?
3
Civil War
  • South early advantage North long-term advantage
  • South had some military equipment       -Calhoun
    moved military outposts to South.

4
Rating the North the South
5
Slave/Free States Population, 1861
6
Railroad Lines, 1860
7
Resources North the South
8
The Union Confederacy in 1861
9
Men Present for Duty in the Civil War
10
Ohio Military Service
11
Soldiers Occupations North/South Combined
12
Immigrantsas a of a StatesPopulationin1860
13
US Congress without the South
  • More efficient-Passed national development
    plans      
  • Homestead Act (1862)
  • Morrill Act (1862)          -created public
    trust lands         - school land - land grant
    colleges       Intercontinental railroad
    finished

14
Congress (cont.)
  • -Financial development       National Bank Act
    (1863)          Created new central
    bank          Made up of state banks holding
    federal deposits
  •        Income tax (1861)      

15
The Leaders of the Confederacy
Pres. Jefferson Davis
VP Alexander Stevens
16
Government of the Confederacy
  •  South divided over question of secession      
    Rich ?, others not as enthusiastic
  • Confederacy was a weak national
    government Favored states' rights      Some
    states failed to collect taxes
  • or enforce draft

17
The Confederate White House
18
The Confederate Seal
MOTTO ? With God As Our Vindicator
19
A Northern View of Jeff Davis
20
Overviewofthe NorthsCivil WarStrategy Anaco
ndaPlan
21
The Anaconda Plan
22
Lincolns Generals
Winfield Scott
Joseph Hooker
Ulysses S. Grant
Irwin McDowell
George McClellan
George Meade
Ambrose Burnside
George McClellan,Again!
23
McClellan I Can Do It All!
24
The Confederate Generals
Stonewall Jackson
Nathan Bedford Forrest
George Pickett
Jeb Stuart
James Longstreet
Robert E. Lee
25
Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas)July, 1861
26
The Battle of the Ironclads,March, 1862
The Monitor vs.the Merrimac
27
Damage on the Deck of the Monitor
28
A FEW GOOD MEN.
  • Draft instituted March 1863    First time the
    U.S. had used a draft   
  • Draft riots by Irish (Lincoln wanted 2
    mil. man army)
  • Copperheads No. Democrats who
  • denounced war

29
Buy Your Way Out of Military Service
30
War in the East 1861-1862
31
Battle of Antietam Bloodiest Single Day of the
War
September 17, 1862
23,000 casualties
32
1862 - Lincoln suspended Writ of Habeas Corpus
  • Allowed army to arrest civilians who interfered
    with war.
  • Maryland.NO GO

33
Steps Towards Emancipation
  • 1861 - Confiscation Act
  • Allowed Union army to seize plantations
  • Nullifies owners' claims to fugitive slaves who
    had been employed in the Confederate war
  • 1862 Gen. John C. Fremont's Emancipation
    Proclamation
  • Slaves in areas controlled by Union army would be
    free (Lincoln orders Freemont to back-off)

34
Emancipation in 1863
35
TheEmancipationProclamation
36
Jan 1, 1863 - Lincoln's Emancipation
Proclamation       Freed slaves in the 11
Confederate states
  • 13th Amendment (1865)    Made slavery illegal
  • 14th Amendment (1868)    Citizens full rights
    for all    Barred Confederates from federal
    government    Absolved the U.S. from the
    Confederacy's debts
  • 15th Amendment (1870)
  • Former slaves had full voting rights Slavery
    not immediately abolished at state level

37
African-American Recruiting Poster
38
The Famous 54th Massachusetts
39
August Saint-Gaudens Memorial to Col. Robert
Gould Shaw
40
African-Americansin Civil War Battles
41
Black Troops Freeing Slaves
42
Extensive Legislation PassedWithout the South in
Congress
  • 1861 Morrill Tariff Act
  • 1862 Homestead Act
  • 1862 Legal Tender Act
  • 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act
  • 1862 Emancipation Proclamation
    (1/1/1863)
  • 1863 Pacific Railway Act
  • 1863 National Bank Act

43
The War in the West, 1863 Vicksburg
44
The Road to Gettysburg 1863
45
Gettysburg Casualties
46
The North Initiates the Draft, 1863
47
Women's movements
  •     U.S. Sanitary Commission (Dorothea Dix)
  • Organized women as nurses for Union army
  • Joined by Clara Barton Susan B. Anthony
  • Clara Barton - Red Cross
  • Susan B. Anthony - women's suffrage

48
Recruiting Irish Immigrants in NYC
49
Recruiting Blacks in NYC
50
NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)
51
NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)
52
A Pogrom Against Blacks
53
Inflation in the South
54
The Progress of War 1861-1865
55
ShermansMarchto theSeathroughGeorgia,1864
56
1864 Election
Pres. Lincoln (R)
George McClellan (D)
57
The Peace Movement Copperheads
Clement Vallandigham
58
1864 Copperhead Campaign Poster
59
Cartoon Lampoons Democratic Copperheads in 1864
60
Presidential Election Results 1864
61
Election of 1864
  •     Lincoln
  • (Union Party pro war people from various
    parties)
  • v.
  • George McClellan
  • (Northern Dem.) 
  •   
  • McClellan (pro-peace)
  • Shermans capture of Atlanta (10/64) makes it
    clear North would win war
  • Lincoln Wins

62
The Final Virginia Campaign1864-1865
63
Surrender at AppomattoxApril 9, 1865
64
Casualties on Both Sides
65
Civil War Casualtiesin Comparison to Other Wars
66
Fords Theater (April 14, 1865)
67
The Assassin
John Wilkes Booth
68
The Assassination
69
WANTED!!
70
Now He Belongs to the Ages!
71
The Execution
72
The Atrocities of the Civil War
AP US History Unit 6
73
The Massacre at Fort Pillow, TN(April 12, 1864)
74
Nathan Bedford Forrest(Captured Fort Pillow)
  • 262 African-Americans
  • 295 white Unionsoldiers.
  • Ordered black soldiers murdered after
    theysurrendered! many white soldiers killed
    aswell
  • Became the first GrandWizard of the Ku KluxKlan
    after the war.

75
Confederate Prison Campat Point Lookout, MD
  • Planned to hold 10,000 men.
  • Had almost 50,000 at one time.

76
Point Lookout Memorialof 4,000 Dead Rebel
Prisoners
77
Union Prison Campat Andersonville, GA
78
Original Andersonville Plan
  • Planned to hold 10,000 men.
  • Had over 32,000 at one time.

79
Distributing Rations
80
Union Survivors
81
Union Prisoners RecordatAndersonville
82
Burying Dead Union POWs
83
Andersonville Cemetary
84
Reconstruction (1865-1876)
AP US HISTORY UNIT 6
85
Key Questions
How do webring the Southback into the Union?
What branchof governmentshould controlthe
process ofReconstruction?
How do we rebuild the South after
itsdestruction during the war?
How do weintegrate andprotect
newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?
86
Wartime Reconstruction
87
President Lincolns Plan
  • 10 Plan
  • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
    (December 8, 1863)
  • Replace majority rule with loyal rule in the
    South.
  • He didnt consult Congress regarding
    Reconstruction.
  • Pardon to all but the highest ranking military
    and civilian Confederate officers.
  • When 10 of the voting population in the 1860
    election had taken an oath of loyalty and
    established a government, it would be recognized.

88
President Lincolns Plan
  • 1864 ? Lincoln Governments formed in LA, TN, AR
  • loyal assemblies
  • They were weak and dependent on the Northern
    army for their survival.

89
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
  • Required 50 of the number of 1860 voters to take
    an iron clad oath of allegiance (swearing they
    had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).
  • Required a state constitutional convention before
    the election of state officials.
  • Enacted specific safeguards of freedmens
    liberties.

SenatorBenjaminWade(R-OH)
CongressmanHenryW. Davis(R-MD)
90
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
  • Iron-Clad Oath.
  • State Suicide Theory MA Senator Charles
    Sumner
  • Conquered Provinces PositionPA Congressman
    Thaddeus Stevens

PocketVeto
PresidentLincoln
Wade-DavisBill
91
Jeff Davis Under Arrest
92
13th Amendment
  • Ratified in December, 1865.
  • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except
    as punishment for crime whereof the party shall
    have been duly convicted, shall exist within the
    United States or any place subject to their
    jurisdiction.
  • Congress shall have power to enforce this article
    by appropriate legislation.

93
Freedmens Bureau (1865)
  • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned
    Lands.
  • Many former northern abolitionists risked their
    lives to help southern freedmen.
  • Called carpetbaggers by white southern
    Democrats.

94
Freedmens Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes
Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
95
Freedmens Bureau School
96
Presidential Reconstruction
97
President Andrew Johnson
  • Jacksonian Democrat.
  • Anti-Aristocrat.
  • White Supremacist.
  • Agreed with Lincolnthat states had neverlegally
    left the Union.

Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous
aristocrats, their masters!
98
President Johnsons Plan (10)
  • Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except
    Confederate civil and military officers and
    those with property over 20,000 (they could
    apply directly to Johnson)
  • In new constitutions, they must accept
    minimumconditions repudiating slavery, secession
    and state debts.
  • Named provisional governors in Confederate states
    and called them to oversee elections for
    constitutional conventions.

1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates.
2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back
to political power to control state
organizations.
EFFECTS?
3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite
were back in power in the South!
99
Growing Northern Alarm!
  • Many Southern state constitutions fell short of
    minimum requirements.
  • Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons.
  • Revival of southern defiance.

BLACK CODES
100
Slavery is Dead?
101
Black Codes
  • Purpose
  • Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks
    were emancipated.
  • Restore pre-emancipationsystem of race
    relations.
  • Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers
    tenant farmers.

102
Congress Breaks with the President
  • Congress bars SouthernCongressional delegates.
  • Joint Committee on Reconstruction created.
  • February, 1866 ? Presidentvetoed the
    FreedmensBureau bill.
  • March, 1866 ? Johnsonvetoed the 1866 Civil
    Rights Act.
  • Congress passed both bills over Johnsons vetoes
    ? 1st in U. S. history!!

103
Johnson the Martyr / Samson
If my blood is to be shed because I vindicate the
Union and the preservation of this government in
its original purity and character, let it be
shed let an altar to the Union be erected, and
then, if it is necessary, take me and lay me upon
it, and the blood that now warms and animates my
existence shall be poured out as a fit libation
to the Union.
(February 1866)
104
Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction
105
14th Amendment
  • Ratified in July, 1868.
  • Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights
    and security of freed people.
  • Insure against neo-Confederate political power.
  • Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that
    of the Confederacy.
  • Southern states would be punished for denying the
    right to vote to black citizens!

106
The Balance of Power in Congress
State White Citizens Freedmen
SC 291,000 411,000
MS 353,000 436,000
LA 357,000 350,000
GA 591,000 465,000
AL 596,000 437,000
VA 719,000 533,000
NC 631,000 331,000
107
The 1866 Bi-Election
  • A referendum on Radical Reconstruction.
  • Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour
    around the country to push his plan.
  • Republicanswon a 3-1majority in both houses
    and gained control of every northern state.

108
Radical Plan for Readmission
  • Civil authorities in the territories were subject
    to military supervision.
  • Required new state constitutions, includingblack
    suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th
    Amendments.
  • In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that
    authorized the military to enroll eligible black
    voters and begin the process of constitution
    making.

109
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
  • Military Reconstruction Act
  • Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states
    that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.
  • Divide the 10 unreconstructed states into 5
    military districts.

110
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
  • Command of the Army Act
  • The President must issue all Reconstruction
    orders through the commander of the military.
  • Tenure of Office Act
  • The President could not remove any officials
    esp. Cabinet members without the Senates
    consent, if the position originally required
    Senate approval.
  • Designed to protect radicalmembers of Lincolns
    government.
  • A question of the constitutionality of this law.

Edwin Stanton
111
President Johnsons Impeachment
  • Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868.
  • Johnson replaced generals in the field who were
    more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction.
  • The House impeached him on February 24
    before even

    drawing up the
    charges by a
    vote of 126 47!

112
The Senate Trial
  • 11 week trial.
  • Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of
    required 2/3s vote).
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