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Separation of Powers


Separation of Powers The United States government is divided into three branches, each with different powers. Each branch is given some powers which enables it to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Separation of Powers

Separation of Powers
The United States government is divided into
three branches, each with different powers. Each
branch is given some powers which enables it to
check or limit the power of the other two
  • The Legislative Branch
  • Congress, makes our laws
  • The Executive Branch
  • The President, enforces our laws
  • The Judicial Branch
  • The Supreme Court and Federal Courts,
    interpret our laws

Executive Branch
The White House, Home of the President and his
  • The nations Chief Executive is the President
  • of the United States. Article 2 of the
  • outlines the Powers and duties of the President.
  • The Presidents Cabinet is a group of people who
  • head 14 executive departments. They serve as
  • advisors to the President and help him carry out
    his duties.
  • Learn about some Famous Past Presidents.

George Washington
Chief Executive
  • President of The United States
  • Barack Obama
  • Vice President of the United States
  • Joseph Biden

Four Year Term of Office Qualifications 35
Years Old Natural born Citizen 14 year resident
of the US
Presidential Powers and Duties
  • Primary Powers
  • Chief Executive- decides how laws are enforced,
  • Chief of State - oversees running of the federal
  • Chief Diplomat - Directs relations between the US
    and other nations
  • Makes treaties
  • Appoints ambassadors
  • Commander in Chief

Continued on next page
Presidential Powers and Dutiespage 2
  • Additional Powers
  • Approves or vetoes(rejects) laws passed by
  • Appoints Supreme Court Justices and all Federal
  • Chooses cabinet members and officials to help run
    the government
  • Reports annually to Congress on the State of the

The Presidents CabinetHeads of 14 Executive
DepartmentsAppointed by the President to help
him carry out his duties
  • Secretary of Defense
  • National defense
  • Secretary of State
  • Foreign affairs

Chuck Hagel
John Kerry
  • Attorney General
  • Enforces laws
  • Heads Department of Justice
  • Secretary of Treasury
  • National finances

Eric Holder
Jack Lew
Continued on next page
The Presidents Cabinetpage 2
  • Secretary of Agriculture
  • Farming issues and policies
  • Secretary of Transportation
  • Coast Guard, air traffic and highways
  • Secretary of Labor
  • Working conditions for the nations workforce
  • Secretary of Education
  • Education policies and student assistance
  • Secretary of Commerce
  • Business and trading

Continued on next page.
The Presidents Cabinetpage 3
  • Secretary of Health and Human Services
  • Medical and social programs
  • Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
  • Urban planning and housing regulation
  • Secretary of Energy
  • Energy resource use and conservation
  • Secretary of Veterans Affairs
  • Issues related veterans and veteran benefits
  • Secretary of the Interior
  • National parks and natural resources

Checks on Presidential Power
  • All treaties and Presidential appointments
    require approval by a 2/3 vote in the Senate
  • Budget - is allocated by Congress
  • Supreme Court can declare laws and actions
  • Veto of bill passed by Congress can be overridden
  • by a 2/3 vote of both houses of Congress

Continued on next page.
Checks on Presidential Power Impeachment
  • Can be Impeached chargedwith misconduct in
  • treason, bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors
    are impeachable offenses
  • The House of Representatives has the power to
    impeach the President.
  • An impeached President is tried by the Senate,
    with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
    sitting as judge, to decide if he shall be
    removed from office.
  • Impeach means brought to trial, it does not mean
    removed from office

Legislative Branch
The Capitol, meeting place of Congress
  • Congress, the lawmakers
  • Senate
  • House of Representatives
  • Primary Powers of Congress
  • Additional Powers of Congress
  • Checks on Congressional Power

Legislative Branch
  • Senate
  • Led by the Vice President of the United States
  • 100 Members , 6 year term
  • 2 Senators elected from each state
  • Majority Leader Harry Reid
  • Leading and most important Senator
  • Approves treaties with foreign nations
  • Approves all Presidential appointments
  • Tries impeached officials

Majority Leader Harry Reid
  • Qualifications
  • 30 years old citizen for 9 years

Legislative Branch
  • House of Representatives
  • Speaker of the House John Boehner
  • elected by majority party to lead the House
  • 435 members, 2 year terms
  • state representation based on population
  • adjusted according to Census, taken every ten
  • Originates all tax laws
  • Votes to impeach all federal officials

John Boehner
  • Qualifications
  • 25 years old citizen for 7 years

Powers of Congress
  • Primary Power Making Laws
  • Laws passed by Congress apply to all people
    living in the United States
  • Both Houses of Congress must agree on all laws.
  • The President must approve all bills passed by
    Congress before they become laws.

Additional Powers of Congress
  • Declare War
  • Establish Post Office
  • Create Courts
  • Coin and Print Money
  • Establish Citizenship guidelines
  • Regulate Foreign Trade
  • Control Interstate Trade
  • Elastic, or necessary and proper clause
  • Congress has the power to do anything necessary
    and proper to carrying out its duties. Congress
    has been able to expand its power to deal with
    issues unforseen in 1789.

Checks on Congressional Power
  • Presidential Veto Power
  • Presidential power of Line Item Veto
  • power to veto items in spending bills that do not
    support national interests (declared
    unconstitutional in 1998).
  • Supreme Court power of Judicial Review
  • the power to interpret laws and declare them

Since Congress is such a large group, it is less
likely to abuse its powers than the the other two
branches and requires fewer checks.
The Judicial Branch
  • The Judicial Branch of the United States
    Government is composed of one Supreme Court and
    lower federal Courts. The Supreme Court
    interprets laws using a power called Judicial
    Review. The Jurisdiction of the Judicial Branch
    includes original cases and appeals. Both the
    President and Congress have powers to check the
    Judicial Branch.

The Judicial BranchSupreme Court Justices
The Supreme Court is made up of one Chief Justice
and 8 associate justices
Chief JusticeJohn Roberts
Justices Back row (left to right)Sonia
Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito,
and Elena Kagan. Front row (left to right)
Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice
John G. Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth Bader
Ginsburg . .
Continued on next page.
The Judicial BranchJustices and Judges
  • Qualifications
  • Candidates are chosen by the President are
    subject to approval by the Senate.
  • Experience, legal views and political views are
    considered during the approval process
  • Once appointed, federal judges hold their
    position during good behavior, for life.

The Judicial BranchJudicial Review
  • Primary Function
  • to interpret the Constitution and the meaning of
    laws of the United States
  • Judicial Review
  • The power of the Supreme Court to interpret the
    meaning and Constitutionality of laws passed by

Once a law has been declared unconstitutional by
the Court, it can be made legal by an amendment
to the Constitution or by a new Supreme Court
The Judicial BranchJurisdiction
  • Original Jurisdiction
  • Cases heard first by the Supreme Court
  • cases involving ambassadors, states and foreign
  • Appellate Jurisdiction
  • appeals from state courts, federal circuit courts
    of appeals, and courts of Puerto Rico and the
    District of Columbia

Checks onThe Judicial Branch
  • Justices are appointed by the President and
    approved by a 2/3 vote in the Senate.
  • Congress determines the number of judges on the
    Supreme Court and created new lower courts as
  • Judges can be impeached by the House of
  • The President can pardon people convicted in
    Federal Court.

Checks and Balances
Congress must approve Presidential appointments
and treaties
Laws passed by Congress can be declared
unconstitutional by the Court
Congress Makes laws
The President can veto bills passed by Congress
The Senate must approve the Presidents choices
for judges
Congress can impeach Judges
Congress can impeach the President
Justices are appointed by the President
Presidential actions can be declared
The President Approves and enforces laws
The Supreme Court Interprets and
judges laws
Famous Past Presidents
  • George Washington
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Andrew Jackson
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Franklin Roosevelt
  • John F. Kennedy
  • Richard Nixon

George Washington
  • Revolutionary War General
  • Elected in 1789
  • First President
  • Inaugurated in New York
  • Set example for future Presidents
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • No ties to political party

Abraham Lincoln
  • Elected in 1860, 64
  • Events
  • Secession of Southern States
  • Formation of the Confederacy
  • Civil War 1861-65
  • Assassination April 14, 1865 John Wilkes Booth

Richard Nixon
  • Elected in 1968, 1972
  • Vice President 1952-60
  • Events
  • Détente with USSR
  • Diplomatic relations with China
  • Ended Vietnam War
  • Apollo 11 Moon landing
  • Economic Inflation
  • Watergate
  • Resignation

Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Elected 1932, 36, 40, 44
  • Events
  • The Great Depression
  • New Deal Program
  • Fireside Chats
  • Support of England fighting Hitler
  • Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • World War II
  • Died in Office

John F. Kennedy
  • Elected in 1960
  • Promised a New Frontier
  • Inaugural Address
  • Events
  • Cuban missile Crisis
  • Civil Rights Crisis in
  • Little Rock, Arkansas
  • Created the Peace Corps
  • Encouraged the Space Program
  • Assassinated Nov. 22, 1963
  • in Dallas, Texas

Click to hear President Kennedy Speak
Thomas Jefferson
  • Author of the Declaration of Independence
  • Elected in 1800 and 1804
  • Peaceful transition of power from the Federalist
  • to the Republican Party
  • Louisiana Purchase
  • Doubled the Size of the US
  • Explored by Lewis and Clark
  • Added vast new farmlands and natural resources
  • Foreign Affairs dominated by Napoleonic Wars

Andrew Jackson
  • Hero of the Battle of New Orleans War of 1812
  • Elected in 1824 and 1828
  • Democratic Party
  • Opponents formed the Whig Party
  • First President from a western state
  • Tennessee
  • Introduced the Spoils System
  • Champion of the Common Man
  • Events of his Presidency
  • Removal of the Indians Trail of Tears
  • Battle over Tariff and States Rights
  • South Carolina threatened Secession
  • Destruction of the Bank of the United States

Theodore Roosevelt
  • Governor of New York
  • Assumed Presidency on the death of McKinley in
  • Elected in 1904
  • Trustbuster suits against monopolies
  • Conservation
  • Protected forests and water sites from
  • public sale
  • Policeman of the Caribbean
  • corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick
  • Winner of Nobel Peace Prize
  • Negotiated end to the Russo Japanese War