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Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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Title: Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology


1
Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and
Physiology
2
What is anatomy and physiology?
3
Anatomy
  • Describes the structures of the body
  • Name
  • Location
  • Composition

4
(No Transcript)
5
Physiology
  • Is the study of
  • functions of anatomical structures

6
(No Transcript)
7
What do anatomists and physiologists do?
8
Specialties of Anatomy (1 of 3)
  • Gross anatomy, or macroscopic anatomy examines
    large, visible structures
  • surface anatomy
  • exterior features
  • regional anatomy
  • body areas

9
Specialties of Anatomy (2 of 3)
  • systemic anatomy
  • groups of organs working together
  • developmental anatomy
  • from egg (embryology) to maturity
  • clinical anatomy
  • medical specialties

10
Specialties of Anatomy (3 of 3)
  • Microscopic anatomy examines cells and molecules
  • cytology
  • cells and their structures
  • cyt cell
  • histology
  • tissues and their structures

11
Specialties of Physiology
  • Cell physiology
  • processes within and between cells
  • Special physiology
  • functions of specific organs
  • Systemic physiology
  • functions of an organ system
  • Pathological physiology
  • effects of diseases

12
How are living things organized?
13
From Simple to Complex
  • Atoms
  • are the smallest chemical units
  • Molecules
  • are a group of atoms working together
  • Organelles
  • are a group of molecules working together

14
From Simple to Complex
  • Cells
  • are a group of organelles working together
  • Tissues
  • are a group of similar cells working together
  • Organs
  • are a group of different tissues working together

15
From Simple to Complex
  • Organ systems
  • are a group of organs working together
  • Organism
  • is an individual

16
The 11 Organ Systems
  • The body is divided into 11 organ systems
  • All organ systems work together
  • Many organs work in more than 1 organ system

17
KEY CONCEPT
  • Homeostasis All body systems working together to
    maintain a stable internal environment
  • Systems respond to external and internal changes
    to function within a normal range (body
    temperature, fluid balance)

18
KEY CONCEPT
  • Failure to function within a normal range results
    in disease

19
Mechanisms of Regulation
  • Autoregulation (intrinsic)
  • automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ
  • Extrinsic regulation
  • responses controlled by nervous and endocrine
    systems

20
Maintaining Normal Limits
Figure 13
21
Maintaining Normal Limits
  • Receptor
  • receives the stimulus
  • Control center
  • processes the signal and sends instructions
  • Effector
  • carries out instructions

22
Negative Feedback
  • The response of the effector negates the stimulus

Figure 14
23
Positive Feedback
  • The response of the effector reinforces the
    stimulus

Figure 15
24
Working Together
Table 11
25
Working Together
  • Systems integration
  • systems work together to maintain homeostasis

26
KEY CONCEPT
  • Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium
  • opposing forces are in balance
  • Physiological systems work to restore balance
  • Failure results in disease or death

27
What are the anatomical terms used to describe
body sections, regions, and relative positions?
28
Anatomical Landmarks
Figure 16
29
KEY CONCEPT
  • Anatomical position
  • hands at sides, palms forward
  • Supine
  • lying down, face up
  • Prone
  • lying down, face down

30
Quadrants and Regions (1 of 3)
  • 4 abdominopelvic quadrants around umbilicus

Figure 17a
31
Quadrants and Regions (2 of 3)
  • 9 abdominopelvic regions

Figure 17b
32
Quadrants and Regions (3 of 3)
  • Internal organs associated with abdominopelvic
    regions

Figure 17c
33
Which Direction?
Figure 18
34
Which Direction?
  • Lateral
  • side view
  • Frontal
  • front view
  • Anatomical direction
  • refers to the patients left or right

35
3 Dimensions
Figure 19
36
3 Dimensions
  • Plane
  • a 3-dimensional axis
  • Section
  • a slice parallel to a plane

37
What are the major body cavities and their
subdivisions?
38
The Ventral Body Cavity
  • Coelom
  • divided by the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity
    and the abdominopelvic cavity

Figure 110a
39
Isolating the Organs
  • Serous membranes
  • consist of parietal layer and visceral layer

Figure 110b
40
Dividing the Cavities
  • Thoracic cavity
  • divided by the mediastinum into 2 pleural cavities

Figure 110c
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