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Sudan: Civil War, Independence

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Title: Sudan: Civil War, Independence


1
Sudan Civil War, Independence Darfur
2
Interactive Map
Ethnicity
Religion
3
MAPS as of 7/2011
  • Republic of Sudan
  • South Sudan

-1899-1956 Egypt and UK have joint authority on
Sudan (Egypt- North, UK- South) -Independence
1956 from UK -UK gave power to Islamic Khartoum
4
1st Civil War
  • 1956-1972
  • Cause
  • General Ibrahim Abboud tried to Islamize South
  • Police force/ guerilla forces Anya-Nya (snake
    poison) resisted
  • 1969 Jaafar al-Nimeiri military coup in North
  • Cold War
  • USSR-North, USA-South
  • Peace
  • 1972
  • Addis Ababa Peace Agreement
  • Power sharing between North and South
  • BUT wealth and power in the NORTH

5
2nd Civil War
  • Years 1983-2002(3)
  • Cause
  • Nimeiri-
  • Encouraged forced Islam-ization of South and
    allowed exiled Islamic leaders terrorists back
    in country.
  • Issued the September Laws
  • Sudan became an Islamic state (Arabic official
    language, Sharia Law)
  • Oil discovered in South!
  • Major Players
  • SPLA
  • Major Southern Army/ Resistance group
  • Sudanese Peoples Liberation Army
  • Led by John Garang of the Dinka Tribe
  • Omar Al-Bashir
  • Sudanese President from 1989-today
  • Violent crackdown on South
  • Lost Boys
  • Refugees from the 2nd Sudanese Civil War (1980s)
  • Peace Treaty
  • North/South Peace Process- 2002

6
Lost Boys of Sudan
  • Since 1983, the Sudan People's Liberation Army
    (SPLA) and the Sudanese Government have been at
    war in southern Sudan. The conflict has already
    claimed more than 500,000 lives and displaced
    huge numbers of people. Among these were at least
    20,000 children, mostly boys, between 7 and 17
    years of age who were separated from their
    families. These 'lost boys' of the Sudan trekked
    enormous distances over a vast unforgiving
    wilderness, seeking refuge from the fighting.
    Hungry, frightened and weakened by sleeplessness
    and disease, they crossed from the Sudan into
    Ethiopia and back, with many dying along the way.
    The survivors are now in camps in Kenya, the
    Sudan and Uganda.
  • Documentary
  • 60 minutes

7
2002/2003 Peace Agreement Referendum on
Independence
  • South Sudan takes first steps to independence
  • Historic election is marked by new fears of
    Khartoum-inspired violence. Daniel Howden reports
    from Bor
  • Monday, 12 April 2010
  • Bashir wins Sudan election. Now what?
  • Sudan announced today that President Omar
    al-Bashir won the April 11-15 Sudan election n
    that Critics call a sham. Supporters say it gives
    the longtime military ruler new legitimacy.
  • By Scott Baldauf, Staff writer / April 26, 2010
  • Sudan's Bashir promises southern independence
    vote on time
  • Khartoum. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir vowed
    a promised referendum on independence for the
    south will go ahead as planned in January next
    year after he was declared winner of a landmark
    national election, AFP reports. "I assure (you)
    the referendum in south Sudan will take place on
    schedule," Bashir said in an address carried by
    state television.
  • 26 April 2010 1841 FOCUS News Agency

8
(No Transcript)
9
Independence and beyond
  • Important Facts
  • January 9th, 2011 South Sudan begins voting on
    Independence video
  • January 15th, 2011 Voting for independence
    closes article
  • February Independence confirmed article
  • Q A
  • Article
  • Independence July 9th, 2011
  • Today
  • Brink of war (CNN explains)
  • The South Sudanese government and military,
    dominated by the Dinka ethnic group of President
    Salva Kiir, is fighting rebels allied with former
    Vice President Riek Machar of the Nuer ethnic
    group
  • At stake for now is control of oil-rich regions
    responsible for more than 95 of the country's
    economy, and perhaps leadership of the country.

10
(No Transcript)
11
Genocide
Darfur
  • UN
  • The government of Sudan and militias have acted
    together in committing widespread atrocities in
    Darfur that should be prosecuted by an
    international war crimes tribunal, but the
    violent acts do not amount to genocide, a U.N.
    commission has said. (CNN)
  • US
  • The United States was the first to label the
    killing genocide. In Sept. 2004, then-Secretary
    of State Colin Powell said, "This was a
    coordinated effort, not just random violence."

12
Darfur
  • The genocide in the Darfur region of
    western Sudan began in 2003, when the government
    of Sudan began sponsoring attacks against the
    people of Darfur. The genocide has claimed
    400,000 lives and displaced over 2,500,000
    people.
  •          About the size of Texas, the Darfur
    region is home to racially mixed tribes of
    settled peasants, who identify as African, and
    nomadic herders, who identify as Arab. The
    majority of people in both groups are Muslim.
  •        In February 2003, frustrated by poverty
    and neglect from the government in Khartoum (the
    Sudanese capital), two Darfurian rebel groups
    launched an uprising against the Khartoum
    government. Claiming to be putting down the
    insurrection, the government responded with a
    scorched-earth campaign against the innocent
    civilians of Darfur, enlisting the janjaweed, a
    militia drawn from members of Arab tribes in the
    region, to perpetrate the attacks.
  •        Since February 2003, the
    government-sponsored Janjaweed have used rape,
    displacement, organized starvation, threats
    against aid workers, and mass murder.
  •            

Refugees in Menawashi, Darfur
  • TIMELINE
  • In March 2003, violence broke out  between the
    government and rebels from Darfur. Nearly 300
    thousand people were killed over a decade of
    fighting and famine.
  • In 2009, the rebels signed a peace agreement with
    the government during talks in the Qatari capital
    but not everyone accepted the deal.
  • April 2013, world leaders begin rebuilding
    process at a conference in Doha, Qatar

13
The International Criminal Court is accepting
supporting evidence of children's drawings of the
alleged crimes committed in Darfur. This sketch
by Abdul Maggit depicts a typical scene of
destruction.
14
Omar Al-Bashir President of Sudan Charged with
genocide by ICC
  • On March 4, 2009 Sudanese President Omar al
    Bashir, became the first sitting president to be
    indicted by ICC for directing a campaign of mass
    killing, rape, and pillage against civilians in
    Darfur. The arrest warrant for Bashir follows
    arrest warrants issued by the ICC for former
    Sudanese Minister of State for the Interior Ahmad
    Harun and Janjaweed militia leader Ali Kushayb.
    The government of Sudan has not surrendered
    either suspect to the ICC.
  • 2009
  • We will NOT bow to colonialists!
  • 2011
  • Conflict in Darfur my responsibility

15
Doha Accords
  • Agreement between JEM (largest rebel group) and
    Khartoum Feb 2009.
  • step in the right direction to ending the
    six-year conflict, but there is still a long way
    to go
  • But Some experts have serious doubts about
    whether the accord can be turned into a
    significant peace settlement for Darfur
  • "The proof will be in what happens next," says
    Sudan expert Alex De Waal.
  • SLA Khartoum wants opposition fragmentation.
  • These talks, he claims, are a government tactic
    to avoid the International Criminal Court
    indicting the country's president.
  • With the signing of a ceasefire agreement between
    the Justice and Equality Movement and Sudan's
    president, the BBC's James Copnall considers if
    Darfur will find real peace.

16
Doha 2013
  • Rebuilding Darfur Should international
    donations be spent on building infrastructure or
    on facilitating peace keeping measures?
  • CNN STORY
  • Ten years after the start of the fighting in
    Darfur, world leaders say it is time to rebuild.
  • Delegates from around the world have arrived in
    Doha, Qatar's capital, with the objective to
    raise billions of dollars to pay for
    infrastructure, food and clean water.
  • The UK took a lead role on Sunday, pledging
    16.5m before the conference began but other
    countries still have a long way to go to reach
    their goal of more than 7bn.
  • The UN says it needs more than 170m a year to
    provide humanitarian assistance to refugees
    displaced by the conflict - hundreds of thousands
    of Darfur refugees are still living in
    neighbouring Chad. And while many say they dream
    of going home, they are also afraid of what
    awaits them. 
  • This conference will address a major question,
    that after 10 years of war and destruction, let
    us take Darfur to another step from relief, from
    emergency - let them take these people to
    development, to reconstruction and let them have
    a positive message for the people of Darfur,
    that the entire world is with you and that
    through peace and stability you can rebuild your
    country and you can make Darfur again powerful
    and prosperous.
  • Atta al-Mannan Bakhait, the Organisation of
    Islamic Cooperaton

17
How to Prevent the Next Darfur
  • The world's worst man-made disaster highlights
    the potentially catstrophic effects of climate
    change on Africa (see TIME article)
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