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Chapter 31 Notes The Nervous System

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Chapter 31 Notes The Nervous System The Nervous System: is a rapid communication system using electrical signals. enables movement, perception, thought, emotion and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 31 Notes The Nervous System


1
Chapter 31 NotesThe Nervous System
2
The Nervous System
  • is a rapid communication system using electrical
    signals.
  • enables movement, perception, thought, emotion
    and learning.
  • consists of a network of specialized cells called
    neurons.

3
Neuron structure
  • Cell Body central part of neuron, maintains cell
    function, relays signals from one part of cell to
    another.
  • Dendrites extend from cell body, receive
    information from other cells.

4
  • Axon long extension from the cell body,
    transmits signals to other neurons, ends in an
    axon terminal. Many axons are insulated with
    myelin which improves the efficiency of signal
    transmission.
  • Synapse where the axon terminal connects with
    another neuron, separated by a gap called the
    synaptic cleft.

5
Axon terminal
axon
Cell body
dendrites
6
  • Neuron function
  • Neurons transmit signals down axons by altering
    the flow of sodium and potassium ions across
    their membranes in response to chemical signals.
    The resulting imbalance of electrical charges
    inside vs. outside the axon creates an electrical
    voltage potential (an action potential) that is
    propagated down the length of the axon.
  • Nerve A bundle of several neurons and supporting
    cells.

7
  • When an electrical impulse reaches the axon
    terminal, it stimulates the release of
    neurotransmitters from the pre-synaptic neuron
    into the synaptic cleft. These chemical
    messengers bind receptors on the surface of the
    post-synaptic neuron and either stimulate or
    inhibit an action potential in it.

8
  • Most psychoactive drugs function by mimicking or
    interfering with the function of
    neurotransmitters and/or their receptors.

9
Structure of the Nervous System
  • Divided into two parts
  • Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Interprets and responds to information
  • Consists of the Brain Spinal Cord

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10
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), which contains
  • Sensory neurons that send info (sight, smell,
    touch, sound, taste, pain) to the CNS.
  • Motor neurons that send commands from CNS to
    muscles and other organs. Divided into
  • Somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscles
    that are under conscious control
  • Autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscles
    that are not under conscious control (i.e. the
    heart, diaphragm, digestive system)

11
  • Parts of the Brain
  • Cerebrum (green)
  • Largest part of the brain, divided into two
    hemispheres.
  • Handles learning, memory, perception and
    intellectual functions.
  • Left hemisphere processes sensations from and
    controls movement on the right side of the body,
    the right hemisphere does the same for the left
    side of the body.

12
  • Cerebellum (blue)
  • Regulates balance, posture and movement
  • coordinates the moving of several muscles
    together (i.e. for walking)

13
  • Brain Stem a collection of several structures at
    the base of the brain. (yellow)
  • Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata relays
    information and regulates homeostasis and vital
    body functions.
  • Thalamus central relay center for all sensory
    information traveling from the body to the brain.
  • Hypothalamus regulates homeostasis and the
    endocrine system.

14
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