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State Survey Agency Training ASC Survey Process

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Title: State Survey Agency Training ASC Survey Process


1
State Survey Agency Training ASC Survey Process
  • May 14, 2009

2
Training Overview
  • Introduction
  • Overview of CfC Changes
  • Case Tracer Methodology
  • New Infection Control Requirements
  • Infection Control Instrument
  • Questions

3
Training Faculty
  • CMS
  • Thomas Hamilton, Director, Survey Certification
    Group
  • Marilyn Dahl, Director, Division of Acute Care
    Services, SC Group
  • Angela Mason-Elbert, MS, JD, Technical Lead,
    ASCs, Division of Acute Care Services

4
Training Faculty
  • CDC
  • Melissa Schaefer, MD, Medical Epidemiologist
  • Michael Jhung, MD, MPH, Medical Epidemiologist

5
Training Faculty
  • MD SA Surveyors from 2008 Pilot
  • Barbara Hall, Health Facilities Nurse Surveyor II
  • Luke Reich, Health Facilities Nurse Surveyor II

6
  • Introduction
  • Thomas Hamilton

7
ASC Focus
  • Rapid Growth
  • 5,175 Ambulatory Surgical Centers (ASCs)
    currently participate in Medicare
  • 61 increase from CY 2000 CY 2009

8
ASC Focus
  • Site for 43 (15 M) of all same day surgeries
  • 15 of FY 08 surveys had condition-level problems
    (4 for hospitals)
  • Only 10 resurveyed each year

9
Nevada ASC Problems
  • January, 2008 identification of hepatitis C
    cluster caused by poor infection control
    practices in a Nevada ASC heightened concern
  • Over 50,000 former patients were notified of
    potential exposure to infectious diseases

10
Nevada 2008 ASC Surveys
  • Federal surveys conducted in 28 of the 51 Nevada
    ASCs
  • CDC developed infection control survey tool to
    assist surveyors
  • 64 had condition-level problems
  • 18 (5 ASCs) terminated

11
FY 2008 ASC Pilot
  • Goals
  • Determine prevalence of ASC noncompliance in
    representative sample
  • Evaluate revised survey process

12
FY 2008 ASC Pilot
  • Maryland, North Carolina, Oklahoma
  • Total of 68 ASCs surveyed
  • Identified widespread deficiencies, particularly
    in infection control

13
  • Changes in ASC Oversight
  • Marilyn Dahl

14
Changes in ASC Oversight
  • New Conditions for Coverage, effective May 18,
    2009
  • New guidance to be released shortly

15
Changes in ASC Oversight
  • New survey process
  • Case tracer methodology
  • Infection control survey tool
  • Team approach to health surveys for medium
    large ASCs

16
Changes in ASC Oversight
  • More surveys
  • Volunteers sought for FY 2009
  • 30 of non-deemed ASCs to be surveyed in FY 2010
  • Also increasing FY 2010 ASC validation surveys

17
GAO Report
  • GAO-09-13, 2/25/08, Health-care-Associated
    Infections HHS Action Needed to Obtain
    Nationally Representative Data on Risks in ASCs

18
GAO Report
  • Findings
  • No nationwide source of data on HAIs in ASCs
  • Process data more feasible for ASCs than outcomes
    data
  • Positive view of CMS ASC Pilot

19
GAO Report
  • Recommendation
  • HHS should use ASC infection control surveyor
    worksheet developed for pilot to conduct periodic
    studies of randomly selected ASCs to assess
    infection control practices in ASCs
  • CMS considering how to implement

20
ARRA Initiative
  • 50 M to States for HAI control
  • Great timing
  • CMS pilot shows ASC infection control problems
  • GAO endorses CMS pilot approach
  • CMS requested 10 M to enhance ASC oversight

21
ARRA Initiative
  • FY 09 available to volunteers
  • FY 10 new survey process mandatory
  • ARRA may be requested for added costs
  • Application details distributed to SAs

22
CfC Changes
  • New ASC definition
  • Ambulatory surgical center or ASC means any
    distinct entity that operates exclusively for the
    purpose of providing surgical services to
    patients not requiring hospitalization

23
CfC Changes
  • New ASC definition cont. (changes in italics)
  • and in which the expected duration of services
    would not exceed 24 hours following an admission.
    The entity must have an agreement with CMS to
    participate in Medicare and must meet the
    conditions set forth in Subpart B and C of this
    part.

24
CfC Changes
  • New Conditions
  • Quality Assessment/Performance Improvement
  • Patients Rights
  • Infection Control
  • Patient Admission, Assessment Discharge

25
CfC Changes
  • Revised Conditions
  • Governing Body (Contract Services,
    Hospitalization Disaster Preparedness Plan)

26
CfC Changes
  • Revised Conditions
  • Surgical Services (Anesthetic Risk Evaluation)
  • Laboratory Radiologic Services

27
Guidance to CfCs
  • Infection Control - Today
  • New SOM Appendix L coming soon
  • In-person Training, all CfCs, October 2009

28
  • Case Tracer Methodology
  • Angela Mason-Elbert, MS, JD

29
Case Tracer Methodology
  • Surveyors required to follow at least one patient
    from admission, through surgery, recovery, to
    discharge
  • Observe for compliance with multiple CfCs
    throughout, particularly at transition points

30
Case Tracer Methodology
  • Facilitates assessing multiple CfCs
  • Infection control
  • Patient pre-op assessments
  • Informed consent
  • Discharge requirements
  • Medication administration
  • Easier with two health surveyors

31
Case Selection
  • Schedule survey to occur when ASC is operating
  • Check website, other available sources to check
    operating hours

32
Case Selection
  • Type of modality
  • Consent
  • Length of case generally lt 90 minutes operative
    time

33
Case Selection
  • Many multi-specialty ASCs have block scheduling
  • A different type of procedure each day
  • Consider partial observations of other types
  • If possible, observe a case on first day to see
    typical practices

34
Patient Consent
  • Usually provider obtains consent after surveyor
    selects a case
  • Surveyor approaches patient after consent
    obtained
  • Consent to observation must be documented in
    medical record

35
Surgeon Consent
  • Surgeon is responsible for patients care
    surveyors to seek consent to observe part or all
    of procedure
  • ASC management may be able to assist if
    surgeon(s) issue blanket refusal
  • Make clear that goal of observation is to assess
    CfC compliance, not surgical skill

36
Case Observation
  • Typically begin case observation in the
    pre-operative area

37
Pre-Operative Area
  • Focal points
  • Required assessments prior HP, update, pre-op
    assessment of anesthetic/procedural risk
  • Infection control practices
  • Informed consent

38
Pre-Operative Area
  • Focal points
  • Patient ID, site marking
  • Medication administration
  • Medical records

39
Operating Room
  • Must the surveyor remain continuously in the OR?
  • Opinions of pilot surveyors differ
  • At a minimum, must observe patient arrival in OR,
    prep, start of procedure, end of procedure and
    transfer to recovery

40
Operating Room
  • Multiple options with 2 surveyors
  • Both in the OR one observes set-up and clean-up
    of OR one follows patient out of OR or
  • One follows case up to OR and upon leaving OR
    other observes arrival in OR, procedure, and OR
    clean-up

41
Operating Room
  • If only one health surveyor (for smaller/low
    volume ASCs)
  • Let the ASC know you want to see the procedure
    start, so that they allow time for surveyor
    gowning
  • Follow patient out of OR seek other case to
    observe OR clean-up and set-up for another case

42
Operating Room
  • Focal points
  • Time out for patient and site ID
  • Medication administration
  • Patient preparation e.g., alcohol-based skin
    prep

43
Operating Room
  • Focal points
  • Physical environment
  • Design
  • Equipment
  • Sterilization/high-level disinfection

44
Operating Room
  • Observe the breakdown of the OR and the set up
    for the next procedure
  • Look for
  • High level disinfection cleaning
  • Flash sterilization

45
Recovery Room
  • Focal points
  • Recovery process (monitoring, assessment, pain
    management)
  • Medication administration

46
Recovery Room
  • Focal points
  • Medical records
  • Discharge instructions
  • Discharge

47
  • Infection Control CfC
  • Marilyn Dahl

48
Infection Control CfC
  • 416.51 consists of
  • Condition statement
  • 2 Standards
  • 416.44(a)(3) also retained

49
Condition
  • 416.51 The ASC must maintain an infection
    control program that seeks to minimize infections
    and communicable diseases.

50
ASC Infection Control Challenges
  • Patients in common areas
  • Surgical prep, recovery rooms and ORs turned
    around quickly for multiple patients

51
ASC Infection Control Challenges
  • Patients entering with communicable diseases may
    not be identified
  • Surgical site infection risks

52
ASC Infection Control Challenges
  • Patient short stay makes identifying infections
    associated with the ASC harder
  • Requires gathering information after the
    patients discharge rather than directly

53
Why Emphasize?
  • Consequences of poor infection control can be
    very serious.
  • Poor practices in some ASCs exposed thousands of
    patients potentially to hepatitis C or HIV
  • CMS pilot suggests lax practices widespread in
    ASCs

54
Standard (a)
  • The ASC must provide a functional and sanitary
    environment for the provision of surgical
    services by adhering to professionally acceptable
    standards of practice.

55
Standard (a)
  • Part 2 of infection control surveyor worksheet
    provides detailed guidance for assessing whether
    an ASC maintains a sanitary environment
  • Detailed discussion by CDC representatives

56
Standard (b)
  • The ASC must maintain an ongoing program
    designed to prevent, control, and investigate
    infections and communicable diseases. In
    addition, the infection control and prevention
    program must include documentation that the ASC
    has considered, selected, and implemented
    nationally recognized infection control
    guidelines. The program is

57
Standard (b), cont.
  • (1) Under the direction of a designated and
    qualified professional who has training in
    infection control
  • (2) An integral part of the ASCs quality
    assessment and performance improvement program
    and

58
Standard (b), cont.
  • (3) Responsible for providing a plan of action
    for preventing, identifying, and managing
    infections and communicable diseases and for
    immediately implementing corrective and
    preventive measures that result in improvement.

59
416.44(a)(3)
  • The ASC must establish a program for
    identifying and preventing infections,
    maintaining a sanitary environment, and reporting
    the results to appropriate authorities.

60
Guidelines
  • ASC must select nationally recognized guidelines
    to be used for its infection control program
  • CMS does not prescribe specific guidelines
  • ASC must document its choice(s)

61
Guideline Sources
  • CDC/HICPAC (www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/guidelines.htm
    l)
  • Isolation Precautions
  • Hand Hygiene
  • Surgical Site Infection Prevention
  • Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare
    Facilities
  • Environmental Infection Control in Healthcare
    Facilities

62
Guideline Sources
  • AORN Perioperative Standards and Recommended
    Practices
  • www.aorn.org/PracticeResources/AORNStandardsAndRec
    ommendedPractices/
  • Guidelines issued by a specialty surgical
    society/organization ASC must identify
  • Others ASC must identify

63
Program Leadership
  • Health care professional, qualified by training
    in infection control
  • Certification desirable, but not required
  • Ongoing training required to maintain competency
  • ASC must designate infection control programs
    director in writing

64
Program Leadership
  • Leadership must be on-site
  • National chain corporate infection control
    director not sufficient
  • Consultant may be used
  • On-site time not specified must be sufficient to
    ASCs program size

65
Program Components
  • Components of ongoing program to prevent,
    control, and investigate infections/communicable
    diseases
  • Development and implementation of infection
    control activities related to ASC personnel,
    i.e., all ASC medical staff, employees, and
    on-site contract workers (e.g., housekeeping
    staff, etc)

66
Program Components
  1. Mitigation of risk of healthcare-associated
    infections (HAIs)
  2. Identifying infections

67
Program Components
  1. Monitoring infection control program compliance
    and
  2. QA/PI program evaluation and revision of the
    program, when indicated.

68
Personnel-related Activities
  • Training in methods to prevent exposure to and
    transmission of infections
  • New staff
  • Regular updates

69
Personnel-related Activities
  • Evaluating staff immunization status, per
    guidelines selected or State law
  • Policies governing
  • Screening
  • Limiting direct patient care

70
Risk Mitigation
  • Surgery-related measures
  • Appropriate prophylaxis to prevent surgical site
    infection (SSI)
  • Aseptic technique practices

71
Risk Mitigation
  • Other ASC HAI measures
  • Hand hygiene
  • Safe practices for injecting medications and
    saline or other infusates

72
Risk Mitigation
  • Other ASC HAI measures
  • Use of facility medical equipment, e.g., air
    filtration equipment, UV lights, to control the
    spread of infectious agents
  • Appropriate sterilization or high-level
    disinfection of instruments/equipment

73
Risk Mitigation
  • Other ASC HAI measures
  • Using disinfectants and germicides per
    manufacturers instructions
  • Educating patients and visitors about infections
    and communicable diseases and methods to reduce
    transmission

74
Identifying Infections
  • Infection detection through ongoing data
    collection and analysis
  • includes patient follow-up after discharge
  • ASC must document, including measures selected,
    and collection and analysis methods

75
Monitoring Compliance
  • Infection control program must have ongoing
    system to monitor internal compliance with
    guidelines, policies procedures
  • ASC must be able to show how it actively monitors
    compliance

76
QAPI
  • Infection control data and program activities are
    ongoing part of the ASCs QAPI program
  • ASC must take immediate action in response to
    data analyses that ID areas needing improvement

77
Reportable Diseases
  • ASC must follow up with patients after discharge,
    to identify possible HAIs
  • May delegate to ASC physicians who see the
    patients post-discharge, if the results of the
    follow-up are reported back to the ASC and
    documented in the medical record

78
Reportable Diseases
  • Any infections identified which are subject to
    reporting under State law must be reported by the
    ASC to the appropriate State authorities

79
Resources
  • QAPI regulation at 416.43(e)(5) requires ASC to
    allocate sufficient staff, time, information
    systems and training for QAPI
  • This includes the ASCs infection control program

80
Assessing Compliance
  • Part 2 of Infection Control Surveyor Worksheet
    addresses requirements of Standard (a)
  • Part 1 of Worksheet addresses most of the
    requirements of Standard (b)

81
Worksheet Part 1
  • Qs 1 -14 20 ASC Characteristics
  • Important to collect for data analyses

82
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • ASC name
  • 2) Address
  • 3) 10-digit CMS Certification Number
  • 4) What year did the ASC open for operation?

83
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • 5) Please list date(s) of site visit
    (mm/dd/yyyy) to (mm/dd/yyyy)
  • 6) What was the date of the most recent previous
    federal (CMS) survey (mm/dd/yyyy)

84
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • 7) Does the ASC participate in Medicare via
    accredited deemed status?
  • ? YES ? NO
  • 7a) If YES, by which CMS-recognized
    accreditation organization? (Check only ONE)
  • ? AAAHC
  • ? AAAASF
  • ? AOA
  • ? TJC

85
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • 7b) If YES, according to the ASC, what was the
    date of the most recent accreditation survey?
  • (mm/dd/yyyy)

86
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • 8) What is the ownership of the facility?
  • ? Physician-owned
  • ? Hospital-owned
  • ? National corporation (including joint ventures
    with physicians)
  • ? Other (please specify)

87
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • 9) What is the primary procedure performed at the
    ASC (i.e., what procedure type reflects the
    majority of procedures performed at the ASC).
    Check only ONE
  • ? Dental ? Orthopedic
  • ? Endoscopy ? Pain
  • ? Ear/Nose/Throat ? Plastic/reconstructive
  • ? OB/Gyn ? Podiatry
  • ? Ophthalmologic ? Other

88
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • 10) What additional procedures are performed at
    the ASC (Check all that apply)?
  • ? Dental ? Orthopedic
  • ? Endoscopy ? Pain
  • ? Ear/Nose/Throat ? Plastic/reconstructive
  • ? OB/Gyn ? Podiatry
  • ? Ophthalmologic ? Other

89
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • Who does the ASC perform procedures on? (Check
    only ONE)
  • ? Pediatric patients only
  • ? Adult patients only
  • ? Both pediatric and adult patients

90
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • 12) What is the average number of procedures
    performed at the ASC per month?
  • 13) How many Operating Rooms (including procedure
    rooms) does the ASC have?
  • of rooms
  • actively maintained

91
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • 14) Please indicate how the following services
    are provided (check all that apply)
  • Anesthesia ?Contract ? Employee ? Other____
  • Environmental Cleaning ?Contract ? Employee ?
    Other ____
  • Linen ?Contract ? Employee ? Other ____
  • Nursing ?Contract ? Employee ? Other ____
  • Pharmacy ?Contract ? Employee ? Other ____
  • Sterilization/Reprocessing ?Contract ? Employee
    ? Other ____
  • Waste Management ?Contract ? Employee ? Other
    ____

92
ASC Characteristics Qs
  • How many procedures were observed during the site
    visit
  • ?1 ?2 ?3 ?4 ?Other

93
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 15) Does the ASC have an explicit infection
    control program? ? YES ? NO
  • NOTE! If the ASC does not have an explicit
    infection control program, a condition-level
    deficiency related to 42 CFR 416.51 must be cited.

94
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 16) Does the ASCs infection control program
    follow nationally recognized infection control
    guidelines?
  • ? YES ? NO
  • NOTE! If the ASC does not follow nationally
    recognized infection control guidelines, a
    deficiency related to 42 CFR 416.51(b) must be
    cited. Depending on the scope of the lack of
    compliance with national guidelines, a
    condition-level citation may also be appropriate.

95
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 16a) Is there documentation that the ASC
    considered and selected nationally-recognized
    infection control guidelines for its program?
  • ? YES ? NO

96
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 16b) Which nationally-recognized infection
    control guidelines has the ASC selected for its
    program (Check all that apply)?
  • NOTE! If the ASC cannot document that it
    considered and selected specific guidelines for
    use in its infection control program, a
    deficiency related to 42 CFR 416.51(b) must be
    cited. This is the case even if the ASCs
    infection control practices comply with generally
    accepted standards of practice/national
    guidelines. If the ASC neither selected any
    nationally recognized guidelines nor complies
    with generally accepted infection control
    standards of practice, then the ASC should be
    cited for a condition-level deficiency related to
    42 CFR 416.51

97
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 17) Does the ASC have a licensed health care
    professional qualified through training in
    infection control and designated to direct the
    ASCs infection control program?
  • ? YES ? NO
  • NOTE! If the ASC cannot document that it has
    designated a qualified professional with training
    (not necessarily certification) in infection
    control to direct its infection control program,
    a deficiency related to 42 CFR 416.51(b)(1) must
    be cited. Lack of a designated professional
    responsible for infection control should be
    considered for citation of a condition-level
    deficiency related to 42 CFR 416.51.

98
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • If YES,
  • 17a) is this person an (check only ONE)
  • ? ASC employee
  • ? ASC contractor

99
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 17b) Is this person certified in infection
    control (i.e., CIC) (Note 416.50(b)(1) does
    not require that the individual be certified in
    infection control.)
  • ? YES ? NO
  • 17c) If this person is NOT certified in
    infection control, what type of infection control
    training has this person received?
    ______________________________________

100
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 17d) On average how many hours per week does
    this person spend in the ASC directing the
    infection control program? _______
  • Note 416.51(b)(1) does not specify the amount
    of time the person must spend in the ASC
    directing the infection control program, but it
    is expected that the designated individual spends
    sufficient time directing the program, taking
    into consideration the size of the ASC and the
    volume of its surgical activity.)

101
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • Does the ASC have a system to actively identify
    infections that may have been related to
    procedures performed at the ASC? ? YES ? NO
  • 18a) If YES, how does the ASC obtain this
    information? (Check ALL that apply)

102
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 18b) Is there supporting documentation
    confirming this tracking activity?
  • ? YES ? NO
  • NOTE! If the ASC does not have an identification
    system, a deficiency related to 42 CFR
    416.44(a)(3) and 42 CFR 416.51(b)(3) must be
    cited.

103
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 18c) Does the ASC have a policy/procedure in
    place to comply with State notifiable disease
    reporting requirements?
  • ? YES ? NO
  • NOTE! If the ASC does not have a reporting
    system, a deficiency must be cited related to 42
    CFR 416.44(a)(3). CMS does not specify the means
    for reporting generally this would be done by
    the State health agency.

104
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 19) Do staff members receive infection control
    training? ? YES ? NO
  • If YES,
  • 19a) How do they receive infection control
    training (check all that apply)?
  • ? In-service
  • ? Computer-based training
  • ? Other (specify

105
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 19b) Which staff members receive infection
    control training? (check all that apply)
  • ? Medical staff
  • ? Nursing staff
  • ? Other staff providing direct patient care
  • Staff responsible for on-site sterilization/high-
  • level disinfection
  • ? Cleaning staff
  • ? Other (specify)

106
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 19c) Is training
  • the same for all categories of staff
  • ? different for different categories of staff

107
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 19d) Indicate frequency of staff infection
    control training (check all that apply)
  • ? Upon hire
  • ? Annually
  • ? Periodically/as needed
  • ? Other (specify)

108
Worksheet Standard (b) Assessment
  • 19d) Is there documentation confirming that
    training is provided to all categories of staff
    listed above? ? YES ? NO
  • NOTE! If training is not provided to appropriate
    staff upon hire/granting of privileges with some
    refresher training thereafter, a deficiency must
    be cited in relation to 42 CFR 416.51(b)and
    (b)(3). If training is completely absent, then
    consideration should be given to condition-level
    citation in relation to 42 CFR 416.51,
    particularly when the ASCs practices fail to
    comply with infection control standards of
    practice.

109
Worksheet Part 2
  • Tool for assessing compliance with Standard (a)
    i.e., that the ASC provides a functional and
    sanitary environment by adhering to
    professionally acceptable standards of practice

110
CMS Citation Instructions
  • CMS also added the citation instructions on Part
    2 of the worksheet
  • Unless otherwise indicated in the body of the
    worksheet (highlighted in yellow), a No
    response to any question in Part 2 must be cited
    as a deficient practice in relation to 42 CFR
    416.51(a).

111
Worksheet Retention
  • All completed worksheets to be retained in survey
    file
  • Some/all may be collected for national analysis
  • process to be developed

112
Assessing ASC Infection Control Practices
Melissa Schaefer, MD, Medical Epidemiologist Mich
ael Jhung, MD, MPH, Medical Epidemiologist
113
Disclaimer
  • The findings and conclusions in this
    presentation are those of the authors and do not
    necessarily represent the views of the Centers
    for Disease Control and Prevention/the Agency for
    Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

114
Outline
  • Survey process
  • Core infection control components
  • Hand hygiene
  • Injection practices
  • Instrument reprocessing
  • - High-level disinfection
  • - Sterilization
  • Environmental cleaning
  • Point of care devices (e.g., glucometers)

115
Survey Process
  • Tracer methodology
  • Focus on staff who perform procedures
  • Injection practices Nurses
  • Physicians
  • Instrument reprocessing Reprocessing
    technicians

116
Survey Process
  • 2 information sources
  • Emphasis on observation
  • Supplement with interview

117
Survey Process
  • Circle responses
  • If N/A circled, surveyor should explain
  • Comments and additional breaches at end of each
    core section

Practice assessed Was practice performed? Manner of confirmation
Needles are used for only one patient Yes No N/A Observation Interview Both
118
Hand Hygiene
Page 7 of Survey Tool
119
Hand Hygiene
  • Cornerstone of infection control
  • Single most effective method to prevent the
    spread of communicable disease
  • Includes
  • Hand washing use of plain or antimicrobial soap
    and water to remove microorganisms and soil
  • Use of waterless hand gel to clean hands

120
Hand Hygiene
  • Soap and water
  • Always used when hands are visibly soiled
  • Alcohol-based hand rub
  • At least 60 ethanol or isopropanol
  • Can be used for routine disinfection of hands
    except when visibly soiled

121
Hand Hygiene
  • Challenging to assess
  • Observations in patient-care areas
  • Pre-operative area
  • Post-operative area
  • Focus on
  • Nurses
  • Physicians

122
Hand Hygiene Adherence
  • Focus on high-risk activities
  • After direct patient contact
  • After removing gloves
  • Before performing invasive procedures
  • After contact with blood, body fluids, or
    contaminated surfaces (even if gloves are worn)

Page 7 of Survey Tool
123
Gloves
  • Healthcare providers should wear (non-sterile)
    gloves
  • For procedures that might involve contact with
    blood or body fluids
  • When handling potentially contaminated patient
    equipment

124
Gloves
  • Healthcare providers should remove gloves (and
    immediately perform hand hygiene) before moving
    to the next task and/or patient

Page 8 of Survey Tool
125
Injection Practices
Page 8 of Survey Tool
126
Unsafe Injection Practices Outbreaks
127
Unsafe Injection Practices Disease Transmission
Same Syringe
Southern Nevada Health District
128
Injection Safety
  • Observations in patient care and medication
    preparation areas
  • Pre-operative area
  • Operating/Procedure rooms
  • Anesthesia cart
  • Focus on
  • Nurses (e.g., RN, CRNA)
  • Physicians (e.g., anesthesiologists)

129
Injection Safety
  • Needles are used for only one patient
  • Syringes are used for only one patient
  • Medication vials are always entered with
  • New needle
  • New syringe

130
Pre-drawing Medications
  • If medications are pre-drawn, they are labeled
    with
  • Date/time the medication was drawn
  • Initials of person drawing
  • Medication name
  • Strength (mg/ml)
  • Expiration date or time

131
Single-dose and Multi-dose Medications
  • Single-dose medications
  • One patient
  • One procedure
  • Multi-dose medications
  • Ideally dedicated to one patient
  • If used for more than one patient, must follow
    strict parameters

132
Single-dose Medications
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133
Handling of Single-dose Medications and Supplies
  • Single-dose medication vials
  • Manufacturer-prefilled syringes
  • Bags of IV solution
  • Medication administration tubing and connectors

All used for a single patient only!
134
Medications Used for Multiple Patients
  • Identify medications commonly used for multiple
    patients

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135
Multi-dose Medications
Page 9 of Survey Tool
A No answer is not necessarily a breach in
infection control . . .
136
Multi-dose Medications
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137
Handling of Multi-dose Medications
  • If used for more than one patient
  • Rubber septum is disinfected with alcohol prior
    to each entry
  • Vials are dated when opened and discarded within
    28 days or according to manufacturer
    instructions, whichever comes first
  • Vials are not stored or accessed in the immediate
    areas where direct patient contact occurs (e.g.,
    at patient bedside)

138
Sharps Disposal
  • Sharps are disposed of in a puncture-resistant
    sharps container
  • Sharps containers replaced when fill line is
    reached

139
Single-use Devices, Sterilization and High-level
Disinfection
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140
Device Reprocessing
Reprocessed and reused
Medical Device
Used once and discarded
141
Device Reprocessing
Reprocessed and reused
Cleaning
1st
Sterilization or High-level Disinfection
2nd
Storage
3rd
142
Categories of Reprocessed Equipment
  • Critical devices items that enter normally
    sterile tissue or the vascular system
  • Surgical instruments
  • Semi-critical devices items that come in
    contact with non-intact skin or mucous membranes
  • Endoscopes
  • Laryngoscope blades

143
Equipment Reprocessing
  • Observations in
  • Reprocessing room
  • Clean storage room
  • Focus on
  • Reprocessing technician
  • Surgical technician
  • Check
  • Log books

144
Cleaning
1st
  • Performed with
  • Detergent and water
  • Enzyme cleaner and water
  • Must be performed
  • As soon as possible after use
  • Prior to sterilization or disinfection
  • Removes bioburden and foreign material that can
    interfere with sterilization or high-level
    disinfection process

145
Sterilization
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2nd
146
Sterilization
2nd
  • All critical equipment must be sterilized
  • Examples of sterilization techniques
  • Steam autoclave
  • Peracetic acid
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Hydrogen peroxide gas plasma

147
Sterilization
  • Chemical indicator
  • Indicates item has been exposed to the
    sterilization process
  • Placed inside sterile pack
  • Performed with every load
  • Biologic indicator
  • Directly monitors lethality of sterilization
    process
  • Performed at least weekly and with all loads
    containing implantable devices

148
Sterilization
  • Mechanical indicator
  • Monitors the sterilization process (e.g., time,
    temperature, and pressure)
  • Recommended documentation includes
  • Contents of each load
  • Results of mechanical, chemical, and biological
    monitoring

149
Storage and Handling
3rd
  • Items should be handled and contained during
    sterilization process to assure sterility not
    compromised prior to use
  • Sterile items should be stored in a clean area so
    sterility is not compromised
  • Sterile packages should be inspected to assure
    integrity

150
High-level Disinfection
2nd
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151
High-level Disinfection
2nd
  • All semi-critical equipment must be high-level
    disinfected (at a minimum)
  • High-level disinfection can be
  • Manual
  • Automated (e.g., Automated Endoscope Reprocessor
    AER)

152
High-level Disinfection
  • High-level disinfection equipment should be
    maintained according to manufacturer instructions
  • Chemicals for high-level disinfection must
  • Be prepared appropriately
  • Be tested for appropriate concentration
  • Be replaced appropriately
  • Have documentation of preparation and replacement

153
High-level Disinfection
  • Equipment subjected to high-level disinfection
    is
  • Disinfected for an appropriate length of time
  • Disinfected at an appropriate temperature
  • Allowed to dry before use
  • Stored in a designated clean area

3rd
154
Reprocessing Single-use Devices
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155
Reprocessing Single-use Devices
  • If reprocessed, single-use devices are
  • Approved by the FDA for reprocessing
  • Sent to an FDA-approved reprocessor
  • http//www.fda.gov/cdrh/reprocessing/

156
Environmental Cleaning
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157
Environmental Cleaning
  • Observation in
  • Operating/procedure rooms
  • Pre-operative area
  • Post-operative area
  • Focus on
  • Surgical technicians
  • Nurses

158
Environmental Cleaning
  • Operating rooms are cleaned and disinfected after
    each surgical or invasive procedure with an
    EPA-registered disinfectant
  • Operating rooms are terminally cleaned daily
  • Performed at completion of daily schedule
  • Cleaning of all surfaces, including floor

159
Environmental Cleaning
  • High-touch surfaces in patient care areas are
    cleaned and disinfected with an EPA-registered
    disinfectant
  • Facility has a procedure to decontaminate gross
    spills of blood

160
Point of Care Devices
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161
Point of Care Devices
  • Diagnostic testing at or near the site of patient
    care
  • Glucometers
  • Portable INR monitor
  • Portable ultrasound

162
Point of Care Devices
  • Observation in
  • Pre-operative area
  • Post-operative area
  • Focus on
  • Nurses

163
Glucose Testing Fingerstick Devices
  • A new single-use, auto-disabling lancing device
    is used for each patient

164
Glucose Testing Fingerstick Devices
Lancing penlet devices should NOT be used for
multiple patients
165
Glucometers
  • Glucometer is not used on more than one patient
    unless manufacturers instructions indicate this
    is permissible
  • Glucometer is cleaned and disinfected after every
    use

Image courtesy of FDA
166
Summary
  • Survey tool meant to focus on key aspects of
    infection control
  • Not exhaustive list
  • Breaches not identified by the tool still
    important and worthy of notation
  • CMS and CDC will be analyzing survey tools
  • Identify common breaches
  • Target prevention strategies

167
Surveyor Feedback
  • Convey feedback through supervisors or written
    comments on the tool regarding
  • Areas that warrant additional questions or
    explanations
  • Introduction of new sections

168
Resources
  • Disinfection and Sterilization
  • http//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/guidelines/Disi
    nfection_Nov_2008.pdf
  • Environmental Cleaning
  • http//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/gl_environinfection
    .html
  • Hand Hygiene
  • http//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/gl_handhygiene.html

169
Resources
  • Isolation Precautions
  • http//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/gl_isolation.html
  • Injection Safety
  • http//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/injectionsafety.htm
    l
  • Glucometers
  • http//www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Populations/GlucoseMo
    nitoring.htmsection1

170
Thank You!
171
Conclusion
  • Questions can be posed now and/or
  • E-mail questions to
  • Angela.mason-elbert_at_cms.hhs.gov
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