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Title: Rise of Dictators Author: jhauck Last modified by: Harold Singletary Created Date: 2/6/2004 4:21:29 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hot and Cold


1
Unit 7
  • Hot and Cold
  • World War II and the Aftermath

2
Rise of Dictators
  • Hitler---Europe
  • Mussolini---Europe
  • Hirohito---Japan

3
Reasons for Dictators
  • The depression in Europe gave rise to the
    dictators in Spain, Italy and Germany.
  • People lost hope in democracies and wanted a
    strong leader to correct the problems.
  • Strong leaders promised solutions to the problems
    in their countries.

4
Benito Mussolini
  • March 1919, he formed the Fascist Partythe
    movement proclaimed opposition to social class
    discrimination and supported nationalist
    sentiments, hoping to raise Italy to levels of
    its great Roman past

5
Fascism
  • A political movement that promotes
  • Extreme Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Dictatorial government
  • Denial of individual rights
  • One party system

6
Fascism
Blind Loyalty To the leader
State controlled economy
Strong Military
Fascism
Use of Violence and Terror
Extreme Nationalism
Use of Censorship Propaganda
7
The Rise of Mussolini
  • Italy after World War I
  • The Treaty of Versailles gave away land that had
    been promised to Italy by Britain and France.
  • Italys economy was slow
  • Men could not find work
  • Trade was slow
  • Taxes were high (pay for the war)
  • Workers went on strike

8
The Rise of Mussolini
  • Benito Mussolini
  • Mussolini took advantage of the unrest in Italy
    by
  • Gathering a following of war veterans and those
    unhappy with the conditions in Italy.
  • Mussolini called his party the Fascist and
    promised to fix the problems of Italy.

9
The Rise of Mussolini
  • Mussolini promised
  • To end unemployment
  • Gain more land for Italy
  • Outlaw communism
  • Stop workers from striking
  • Strengthen Italys military

10
The Rise of Mussolini
  • By 1922 the Fascist and Mussolini were in power.
  • They used violence and terror to win elections.
  • Once in power Mussolini ended
  • Free elections
  • Free speech
  • Free Press

11
The Rise of Mussolini
  • Many enemies of the state were killed.
  • The goals of the state were put above the rights
    of the individual.

12
Adolf Hitler
August 1934, Hitler become head of state as well
as head of government, and was formally named as
leader and chancellor. As head of state, Hitler
became supreme commander of the armed forces
13
The Rise of Hitler
  • Germany after World War I
  • The Kaiser stepped down
  • A democratic government called the Weimar
    Republic took over.
  • The Weimar Rep. was weak
  • Inflation caused a major economic problem.
  • People were poor.

14
The Rise of Hitler
  • Germany needed a leader who could fix the
    economic problems and restore pride in Germany.
  • Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party promised to fix
    Germany.

15
The Rise of Hitler
  • In 1920 Hitler becomes head of the German Workers
    Party (GWP)
  • The GWP later becomes the National Socialist
    German Workers (Nazi)
  • In 1933 Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany.
  • By 1934 Hitler was dictator of Germany

16
The Rise of Hitler
World War I Germany has to pay large war
debt. Germany loses her colonies. Germany is
bitter over blame for World War I. Reduced
military.
Weak Government Kaiser steps down Weimar
Rep. fails to end inflation Weimar Rep. signs
the Treaty of Versailles which angers many
Germans
Nazis Promise Jobs A new German super
race Rebuild the military Get back lost
land Make Germany proud
Economic Problems Inflation Depression Unemploy
ment
17
The Rise of Hitler
  • Hitler
  • Creates a new Germany called the Third Reich.

18
The Rise of Hitler
  • Hitler
  • Turns Germany into a totalitarian state.
  • Creates a one party system (Nazi Party)
  • Ends civil rights
  • Murders many of his political enemies.
  • Uses force and terror to enforce his rule.
  • Uses propaganda, art and education to promote him
    and the Nazi party.

19
The Rise of Hitler
  • Hitler
  • Puts businesses under government control.
  • Starts public works programs which employs many
    people.
  • Rebuilds the military.
  • Raises the standard of living.

20
The Rise of Hitler
  • Hitler instituted programs against Jews to
    restrict their lives in an attempt to drive them
    from Germany.
  • Many did not care about Hitlers policies many
    were just happy being employed and having a
    renewed sense of military and nationalistic
    pride.

21
Hitler and Mussolini
  • Positives
  • Both Hitler and Mussolini improved the economic
    conditions of their nations.
  • Both restored order to their countries.
  • Both brought back nationalistic pride.
  • Negatives
  • Many lost individual rights.
  • Many were driven out of the countries or
    murdered.

22
The Rise of Japanese Militarism
  • The Japanese began a program of militarism in the
    1930s
  • Japan wanted to restore its greatness
  • Get rid of western influence
  • Gain foreign lands

23
The Rise of Japanese Militarism
  • In 1931 Japan attacks Manchuria.
  • Japan withdraws from the League of Nations.
  • An increase in loyalty to the emperor.
  • Japan attempts to imperialize China.

24
Dictators Expand Territory
  • 1931 Japan attacks Manchuria in northern China
  • Japan wanted more natural resources for its
    growing population (Manchuria is rich in natural
    resources)

25
Italy invades Ethiopia
  • 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia in Africa
  • Mussolini wanted new areas to expand his empire
    in Africa

26
Germany Begins Conquests
  • 1936 Hitler moves troops into the Rhineland
    (German region near the French border)
  • WWI treaty said no German troops here
  • French Govt and League of Nations TAKE NO
    ACTION

27
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28
German-Italian Alliance
  • Germany and Italy formed the Axis Powers
  • Now two dictators with stated goals of
    expansion are good friends
  • Axis Powers help Spains Fascist military
    overthrow its elected government (Spanish Civil
    War)

Mussolini and Hitler
29
Hitler begins his own Conquests
  • 1938 Hitler and the Germans invade Austria
    (most Austrians spoke German and welcomed
    becoming a part of Germany)
  • ButHitler and the Germans were expanding and
    the WWI treaty told them not to

30
The Sudetenland
  • After taking Austria Hitler wanted more
  • His next desire is the Sudetenland in
    Czechoslovakia
  • The Czechs didnt want to give this area to
    Germany nor did France and Russia

31
Germanys Expansion
32
Appeasement at Munich
  • The British step in to offer a peace and avoid
    war
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meets
    with Hitler in Munich, Germany
  • They agree to give Hitler the Sudetenland
  • Hitler has to promise he is done seeking territory

33
Reactions to Munich
  • Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister
    who came up with the agreement, said that he had
    achieved peace in our time
  • Winston Churchill, the future Prime Minister,
    said Britain and France had to choose between
    war and shame. They chose shame. They will get
    war, too.

34
Hitler breaks his promise Germany Starts the War
  • After being given Sudetenland Hitler takes the
    rest of Czechoslovakia
  • Hitler signed a Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin
    and the Soviet Union (they agree to not make war
    on each other) now France and Britain have lost
    an ally in Stalin
  • Immediately after Germany invaded Poland
    (France Britain declare war on Germany) WWII
    officially begins

35
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36
PEARL HARBOR
  • THE DAY OF INFAMY
  • December 7, 1941

37
Causes
  • The U.S. demanded that Japan withdraw from China
    and Indochina
  • Japan thought that attacking the U.S. would
    provide them an easy win, and a territory with
    abundant land and resources to rule once they
    were victorious.
  • The U.S. oil embargo against Japan was hurting
    Japans economy

38
Major Combatants
  • Japan
  • Fleet of 6 Aircraft Carriers under the command of
    Admiral Nagumo and Admiral Yamamoto
  • Aerial Assault Force under the command of Mitsuo
    Fuchida
  • United States
  • - Pearl Harbor Naval/Army Base under the command
    of Admiral Husband E. Kimmel and Lt. General
    Walter C. Short

39
Battle Sequence
  • 5 PHASE ATTACK BY JAPANESE
  • (as noted by the U.S. Navy)
  • PHASE 1 Combined torpedo plane and dive bomber
    attacks lasting from 755 a.m. to 825 a.m.
  • PHASE 2 Lull in attacks lasting from 825 - 840
    a.m.
  • PHASE 3 Horizontal bomber attacks from 840
    915 a.m.
  • PHASE 4 Dive bomber attacks between 915-945
    a.m.
  • PHASE 5 Warning of attacks and completion of
    raid after 945 a.m.

40
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41
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42
Warfare (continued)
  • United States
  • 108 Fighter Planes (59 not available for flight)
  • 35 Army Bombers (27 not available for flight)
  • 993 Army/Navy Antiaircraft Guns

43
Casualties
  • Japan
  • Less then 100 men
  • 29 planes
  • 5 midget submarines
  • United States
  • 2,335 servicemen killed, 68 civilians killed,
    1,178 wounded
  • 188 planes
  • 18 ships (8 battleships, 3 light cruisers, 3
    destroyers, 4 other vessels)

44
Effects/Outcome
  • Japan dealt a seemingly crippling blow to the
    U.S. Pacific fleet (U.S. Pacific Fleet aircraft
    carriers Lexington, Enterprise, Saratoga were
    not in port)
  • Japan began their quest for a Pacific empire
  • The U.S. finally was forced to join World War II
    (The Sleeping Giant was awakened)
  • The U.S. Great Britain declare war on Japan
    (Dec. 8, 1941)
  • Germany Italy declare war on the U.S. (Dec. 11,
    1941)

45
December 8, 1941 FDR Speech
  • Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - A date which will live
    in infamy the United States of America was
    suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
    air forces of the Empire of Japan.
  • FDR Infamy Speech

46
D Day
  • June 6, 1944
  • 156, 000 American, British and Canadian troops
    land on the beach of Frances Normandy region
  • the largest amphibious military assaults in
    history

47
Victory in Europe
  • May 8, 1945
  • World War II Allies officially accept the
    unconditional surrender of Hitler and Nazi
    Germany.
  • Hitler had committed suicide on 30 April 1945 in
    his Führerbunker in Berlin so his successor,
    President of Germany Karl Dönitz signed the
    surrender.

48
Iwo Jima
  • The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February 26 March
    1945), or Operation Detachment, was a major
    battle in which the United States Armed Forces
    fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima
    from the Japanese Empire.

49
Iwo Jima
  • The battle was immortalized by Joe Rosenthal's
    photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top
    of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi by five
    U.S. Marines and one U.S. Navy battlefield
    Hospital Corpsman.

50
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51
The Manhattan Project
  • Los Alamos Laboratory, known as Project Y, was
    conceived during the early part of World War II.
    The United States wanted to build an atomic
    explosive to counter the threat posed by the
    German nuclear development program. The term
    Manhattan Project came about because the program
    began under the Manhattan Engineering District of
    the War Department.

52
  • Physicists, chemists, metallurgists, explosive
    experts and military personnel converged on the
    isolated plateau. At times, six Nobel Prize
    winners gathered with the other scientists and
    engineers in the weekly colloquia put on by
    Robert Oppenheimer. Meanwhile, the Army was
    charged with supporting the work, building
    buildings, keeping the commissary supplied, and
    guarding the top-secret work.

53
  • The scientists and engineers labored on for two
    years. They carried out experiments in metallurgy
    and high explosives. Finally, on July 16, 1945,
    at 530 a.m., an incredible burst of light
    exploded over the desert in south central New
    Mexico. Trinity, as the test shot was known,
    answered many of the questions the scientists had
    been asking. The bombs yield, equivalent of
    18,000 tons of TNT, astounded even the scientists
    who had spent years making painstaking
    calculations

54
Truman Makes a Decision
  • Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima on Aug. 6
    and on Nagasaki on Aug. 9. Five days later, the
    Emperor of Japan agreed to an unconditional
    surrender. World War II formally ended on Sept.
    2, 1945, when treaties were signed aboard the USS
    Missouri. The Manhattan Project, a mission to end
    the war through the use of atomic weapons, had
    accomplished its goal.

55
The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima
  • At 245 a.m. on Monday, August 6, 1945, a B-29
    bomber, the Enola Gay, took off from Tinian, a
    North Pacific island in the Marianas, 1,500 miles
    south of Japan

56
Hiroshima
  • On a hook in the ceiling of the plane, hung the
    ten-foot atomic bomb, "Little Boy.".
    Approximately fifteen minutes into the flight
    (300 a.m.), Parsons began to arm the atomic
    bomb it took him fifteen minutes. Parsons
    thought while arming "Little Boy" "I knew the
    Japs were in for it, but I felt no particular
    emotion about it."

57
Hiroshima
  • On August 6, 1945, the first choice target,
    Hiroshima, was having clear weather. At 815 a.m.
    (local time), the Enola Gay's door sprang open
    and dropped "Little Boy." Approximately 70,000
    died immediately from the explosion and another
    70,000 died from radiation within five years.

58
The Atomic Bombing of Nagasaki
  • While the people of Japan tried to comprehend the
    devastation in Hiroshima, the United States was
    preparing a second bombing mission. The second
    run was not delayed in order to give Japan time
    to surrender, but was waiting only for a
    sufficient amount of plutonium-239 for the atomic
    bomb. On August 9, 1945 only three days after the
    bombing of Hiroshima, another B-29, Bock's Car
    left Tinian at 349 a.m.

59
Nagasaki
  • At 1102 a.m., the atomic bomb, "Fat Man," was
    dropped over Nagasaki. The atomic bomb exploded
    1,650 feet above the city.

60
Nagasaki
  • Approximately 40 percent of Nagasaki was
    destroyed.. With a population of 270,000,
    approximately 70,000 people died by the end of
    the year.

61
VJ Day
  • Victory over Japan Day is a name chosen for the
    day on which Japan surrendered, in effect ending
    World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of
    that event. The term has been applied to both of
    the days on which the initial announcement of
    Japans surrender was madeto the afternoon of
    August 15, 1945, in Japan, and, because of time
    zone differences, to August 14, 1945as well as
    to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the
    surrender document occurred, officially ending
    World War II.

62
The Holocaust
  • Holocaust (holocaust) n -   
  • Great destruction resulting in the extensive loss
  • of life, especially by fire
  • 2. Greek word that means burnt whole or
  • consumed by fire

63
  • Let us learn that this may never happen again!
  • Daniels Story
  • What was the Holocaust?

64
Holocaust Victims
  • 6 million Jews
  • 1.5 million children under 12
  • Other Undesirables
  • 5 million
  • 11 MILLION KILLED

65
In the beginning.
  • The Nuremberg Laws
  • At the annual party rally held in Nuremberg in
    1935, the Nazis announced new laws which
    institutionalized many of the racial theories
    prevalent in Nazi ideology. The laws excluded
    German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited
    them from marrying with persons of "German or
    related blood."

66
The Nuremberg Laws
  • The Nuremberg Laws, as they became known, did not
    define a "Jew" as someone with particular
    religious beliefs. Instead, anyone who had three
    or four Jewish grandparents was defined as a Jew,
    regardless of whether that individual identified
    himself or herself as a Jew or belonged to the
    Jewish religious community

67
And then.
  • In 1937 and 1938, the government set out to
    impoverish Jews by requiring them to register
    their property and then by "Aryanizing" Jewish
    businesses.

68
The Final Solution
The Nazis established ghettos in occupied Poland.
Polish and western European Jews were deported to
these ghettos. During the German invasion of the
Soviet Union in 1941, mobile killing squads
(Einsatzgruppen) began killing entire Jewish
communities. The methods used, mainly shooting or
gas vans, were soon regarded as inefficient and
as a psychological burden on the killers
69
Being forced from their home
70
Badges of Hate
71
The Final Solution
  • In January 1942, the Nazis began the systematic
    deportation of Jews from all over Europe to six
    extermination camps established in former Polish
    territory -- Chelmno , Belzec, Sobibor,
    Treblinka, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Majdanek.
    Extermination camps were killing centers designed
    to carry out genocide. About three million Jews
    were gassed in extermination camps.

72
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74
The Final Solution
  • In its entirety, the "Final Solution" consisted
    of gassings, shootings, random acts of terror,
    disease, and starvation that accounted for the
    deaths of about six million Jews -- two-thirds of
    the total population of Jews living in Europe,

75
Live to Tell
  • Survivors tell their story
  • Survivors tell their story
  • Josef Alexander of Los Angeles, California
  • Alice Herz-Sommer of London England

76
The U. S. Homefront
  • After the December 7, 1941, life across the
    country was dramatically altered. Food, gas and
    clothing were rationed. Communities conducted
    scrap metal drives.

77
  • From the outset of the war, it was clear that
    enormous quantities of airplanes, tanks,
    warships, rifles and other armaments would be
    essential to beating Americas aggressors. U.S.
    workers played a vital role in the production of
    such war-related materials. Many of these workers
    were women. Indeed, with tens of thousands of
    American men joining the armed forces and heading
    into training and into battle, women began
    securing jobs as welders, electricians and
    riveters in defense plants. Until that time, such
    positions had been strictly for men only.

78
The U. S. Homefront
  • To help build the armaments necessary to win the
    war, women found employment as electricians,
    welders and riveters in defense plants. Japanese
    Americans had their rights as citizens stripped
    from them. People in the U.S. grew increasingly
    dependent on radio reports for news of the
    fighting overseas. And, while popular
    entertainment served to demonize the nations
    enemies, it also was viewed as an escapist outlet
    that allowed Americans brief respites from war
    worries.

79
  • A woman who toiled in the defense industry came
    to be known as a Rosie the Riveter... One of
    the women employed at the factory, Rose Will
    Monroe (1920-97), was a riveter involved in the
    construction of B-24 and B-29 bombers.

80
Rationing
  • What was a rationing coupon?
  • Who had to use rationing coupons?

81
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83
What was rationed?
  • All these things were rationed, which meant you
    were only allowed to buy a small amount. The
    government introduced rationing because certain
    things were in short supply during the war, and
    rationing was the only way to make sure everyone
    got their fair share.
  • During the Second World War, you couldn't just
    walk into a shop and buy as much sugar or butter
    or meat as you wanted, nor could you fill up your
    car with gasoline whenever you liked.

84
  • War ration books and tokens were issued to each
    American family, dictating how much gasoline,
    tires, sugar, meat, silk, shoes, nylon and other
    items any one person could buy.

Tires Cars Bicycles Gasoline Fuel Oil Kerosene Solid Fuels Stoves January 1942 to December 1945 February 1942 to October 1945 July 1942 to September 1945 May 1942 to August 1945 October 1942 to August 1945 September 1943 to August 1945 December 1942 to August 1945
Rubber Footwear Shoes October 1942 to September 1945 February 1943 to October 1945
Sugar Coffee Processed Foods Meats, canned fish Cheese, canned milk, fats May 1942 to 1947 November 1942 to July 1943 March 1943 to August 1945 March 1943 to November 1945 March 1943 to November 1945
Typewriters March 1942 to April 1944
85
Japanese Relocation Camps
  • In 1942 President Roosevelt signed a bill
    ordering Japanese Americans to go to internment
    camps. About 110,000 Japanese Americans were
    placed in internment camps which were very much
    like a prison. They were guarded by a guard with
    a weapon and encased in barbed wire.

86
Internment Camps
87
Internment Camps
88
Tuskegee Airmen
  • "Tuskegee Airmen" refers to the men and women,
    African-Americans and Caucasians, who were
    involved in the so-called "Tuskegee Experience",
    the Army Air Corps program to train African
    Americans to fly and maintain combat aircraft.
  • The Tuskegee Airmen included pilots, navigators,
    bombardiers, maintenance and support staff,
    instructors, and all the personnel who kept the
    planes in the air.

89
Women and World War II
  • Womens Army Corp
  • WAC
  • Womens Air Service Pilot
  • WASP
  • Womens Naval Corp
  • Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service
  • WAVES

90
The United Nations
  • The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental
    organization established on 24 October 1945 to
    promote international co-operation. A replacement
    for the ineffective League of Nations, the
    organization was created following the Second
    World War to prevent another such conflict. At
    its founding, the UN had 51 member states there
    are now 193..

91
The United Nations
  • Establishment of a world wide rule of reasonthe
    United Nations.

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