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GREEK THEATER, TRAGEDY, AND SOPHOCLES

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Title: GREEK THEATER, TRAGEDY, AND SOPHOCLES


1
GREEK THEATER
SOPHOCLES,
AND TRAGEDY
Warm Up Pick up handouts from the front. Get out
colorful pens and highlighters.
2
I. GREEK THEATER
3
6
7
3
4/5
4/5
2
1
4
  1. SKENE SKAY-nay (Greek tent) Building behind
    the orchestra originally used for storage but
    provided a convenient backing for performances,
    changing costumes and masks. It later developed
    into a large stage-building that provided a
    permanent backdrop
  1. STAGE the porch of the skene central
    characters often spoke from this porch.
  • ORCHESTRA (Greek dancing place) The whole
    circular performing space between the audience
    and stage

5
  • PARADOS - PÆ-roh-dawss (Greek A passageway) Side
    entrance into the orchestra of a Greek theater
    where the chorus made its grand entrance
  • EXODOS the side of the grand exit of the chorus
  1. THEATRON thay-AH-tron (Greek viewing-place)
    Refers to the audience space of the Greek theatre
  • THYMELE THIH-meh-lay Altar to the god
    Dionysos ceremonies at this altar
    came before each performance

6
THEATER OF DIONYSOS
7
DUES EX MACHINA (THE MACHINE)
  • a crane suspended from the top of the skene
    building to raise and lower flying figures and to
    introduce and remove gods.
  • used to give a formal, miraculous conclusion to a
    tragedy.
  • The god appeared to come from on high, in the
    form of a dummy suspended from the machine, to
    unravel all the unsolved problems of the play.

8
EXCLEMA
  • movable platform rolled out from behind the
    scenes to depict events which take place inside
    the building before which the action occurs.

9
GREEK THEATER
10
SEATING
11
AISLE
12
MORE SEATING
13
SPECIAL SEATING
14
CHORUS AREA
15
STAGE AND BACK STAGE
16
UPPER STAGE
17
ENTRANCES AND EXITS
18
GREEK THEATER
skene
theatron
proskenion
parodos
chorus
orchestra
19
  • Greek drama grew out of religious rituals
    honoring Dionysos, the god of wine and fertility.
  • Eventually these rituals became an annual
    festival held in Athens as a four-day
    extravaganza
  • Spectators gathered in the Theater of Dionysus to
    watch
  • Playwrights chosen by the city magistrates
    competed for prizes in tragedy and comedy

20
  • All actors were men the choruses were
    well-trained boys.
  • Masks with exaggeratedmouthpieces were used to
    amplify the actors voices.
  • By changing masks, one actor could play multiple
    parts.

21
II. TRAGEDY
22
WHAT IS TRAGEDY?
  • Theatrical term meaning a drama in verse or
    prose and of serious and dignified character that
    typically describes the development of a conflict
    between the protagonist and a superior force
    (such as destiny, circumstance, society) and
    reaches a sorrowful or disastrous conclusion.

23
  • Aristotle asserts that the purpose of TRAGEDY is
  • to arouse pity and fear in the audience so that
    we may be purged or cleansed of these unsettling
    emotions
  • The subject matter of the Ancient Greeks plays
    that they presented did not have to be tragic
    in the modern sense.
  • Most of them do feature sad or disastrous events
    this is where the modern usage comes from.

24
TRAGEDY TERMS TO KNOW
  • CATHARSIS the release of the plays tension or
    strong emotions in the audience
  • HUBRIS excessive self-pride or confidence a
    belief that one is somehow above the fates or in
    control of destiny
  • HAMARTIA an error in judgment or unwitting
    mistake that leads to disastrous consequences
  • MOIRA ones portion in life in other words
    ones fate, fortune, or destiny the Moira are
    the three sisters who personify Fate in Greek
    mythology
  • TRAGIC FLAW a flaw in the character of the
    protagonist of a tragedy that brings the
    protagonist to ruin or sorrow

25
THE TRAGIC HERO IS
  • Born into nobility
  • Responsible for their own fate
  • Endowed with a tragic flaw
  • Doomed to make a serious error in judgment

EVENTUALLY TRAGIC HEROES
  • Fall from great heights or high esteem
  • Realize they have made an irreversible mistake
  • Faces and accepts death with honor and humility
  • May meet a tragic death

26
III. SOPHOCLES
27
  • Lived from approximately 496 406 B.C.
  • Most famous Greek playwright
  • General, Political Leader, and Priest
  • He replaced existing playwright Aeschylus as most
    popular playwright.
  • Sophocles wrote over 120 tragedies. Yet only
    SEVEN survive!
  • He introduced a third actor, painted sets, and
    increased the size of the chorus.

28
  • At the Festival of Dionysos, where playwrights
    competed to have their plays performed...
  • Sophocles won first prize 24 times and second
    prize 7 times out of the 31 times he entered.
  • Dying at the age of 90, Sophocles writing
    examines his concerns about life, including
  • Finding ones place in the moral and cosmic
    orders
  • Being cautious towards pride and religious
    indifference
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