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THEORIES AND FOUNDATIONS OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION M

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Title: THEORIES AND FOUNDATIONS OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION M


1
THEORIES AND FOUNDATIONS OF SECOND LANGUAGE
ACQUISITIONMÀSTER DE FORMACIÓ DE PROFESSORAT
DE SECUNDÀRIA BATXILLERATS I EOIs
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN MULTILINGUAL CATALONIA
  • Helena Roquet Pugès
  • Departament de Traducció i Ciències
    del Llenguatge
  • Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Oct 2013
  • Grup dAdquisició de Llengües des de la Catalunya
    Multilingüe (ALLENCAM)

2
OUTLINE
  • Foreign Language Acquisition paradigms (L2/L3)
  • Structuralist Behaviorist period
  • Contrastive analysis
  • Chomskyan period
  • Acquisition studies. Interlanguage.
  • Environmentalist period
  • Language and communication THE COMMUNICATIVE
    APPROACH

3
LA RESEARCH PARADIGMS
  • Structuralist/ Behaviorist period
  • Contrastive analysis
  • Chomskyan period
  • Acquisition studies
  • Environmentalist period
  • Language and communication

4
Structuralist/Behaviourist (1)
  • Skinner. 1957. Verbal behaviour
  • L learning is a process of habit formation, a
    stimulus-response-reaction mechanism
  • Imitation, repetition, memorisation, practise and
    reinforcement
  • Properties of L1 influence L2 learning
    Positive/negative transfer (interference). Errors
    are avoided!
  • CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ERRORS

5
Structuralist/Behaviourist (2)
  • Positive contribution
  • Attention to oral language (emphasis on spoken L
    and pronunication)
  • Identification of factors present in LA
  • Imitation
  • Repetition
  • Memory of strategies
  • Explanation of some types of errors
  • Transfer errors
  • Language distance (affecting achievement)

6
Structuralist/Behaviourist (3)
  • Negative contribution
  • Attention to form and not to meaning
  • Learner is a passive recipient
  • Learning proceeds by analogy
  • Creativity is not allowed

7
LA RESEARCH PARADIGMS
  • Structuralist/ Behaviorist period
  • Contrastive analysis
  • Chomskyan period
  • Acquisition studies. Interlanguage
  • Environmentalist period
  • Language and communication

8
The Chomskyan period (1)
  • N. Chomsky. 1957. Syntactic Structures. 1959
    Review of Verbal Behaviour
  • Acquisition Rule-governed behaviour
  • Learning by analysis and not by analogy
  • Creativity in L Generate an infinite number of
    sentences from a finite number of rules

9
The Chomskyan period (2)
  • I goed.
  • I eated it.
  • She no can go.
  • She doesnt wants to go.
  • I saw these mans.
  • She cans come.

10
The Chomskyan period (5)
  • Research strands
  • 1. Stages of acquisition and INTERLANGUAGE
  • 2. Variability (Sociolinguistic approaches)
  • 3. Input studies
  • 4. Linguistic universals (Aurora Bel)

11
INTERLANGUAGE (1)
  • Each of the stages the learner goes through on
    his/her way towards mastery of the target
    language. Each stage is a linguistic system in
    its own right, with specific features which
    characterize it, known as interlanguage.

12
INTERLANGUAGE (2)
  • It is different from the target language.
  • It has its own internal structure.
  • Errors are systematic.
  • It is permeable to input.
  • At each given moment a particular stage of
    acquisition is apparent.
  • Each stage includes forms typical of a previous
    stage and forms anticipating the next one
    (Variability).

13
Past morpheme interlanguage development
  • John eat a banana yesterday.
  • (ref. past no morf.)
  • She went. She broke. She jump. She walked.
  • (sporadic use)
  • She goed. She eated. John breaked.
  • (overegularitzation)
  • She went. She walked
  • (correct use)

14
Legacy of the period
  • Several models among which
  • Krashen (1983. The Natural Approach) Monitor
    model.
  • Based on 5 principles
  • Comprehension precedes production
  • Production emerges in stages (students are not
    forced to speak before they are ready)
  • Communicative goals (classroom activities
    organised by topics, not by grammatical
    structures)
  • The instructor must create a good atmosphere

15
The Natural Approach (1983, Krashen)
  • 5 hypothesis
  • The Acquisition/Learning hypothesis
  • The Monitor hypothesis
  • The Natural Order hypothesis
  • The Input hypothesis (emphasis on what the L
    learners here before they try to produce L)
  • The Affective Filter hypothesis

16
LA RESEARCH PARADIGMS
  • Structuralist/ Behaviorist period
  • Contrastive analysis
  • Chomskyan period
  • Acquisition studies. Interlanguage
  • Environmentalist period
  • Language and communication

17
Environmentalist period (1)
  • Language acquisition
  • Complex interaction between the linguistic
    environment (input) and the learner's internal
    mechanisms, with neither viewed as primary.
    Verbal interaction is of crucial importance

18
Sociolinguistics (2)
  • Hymes (1971) Different levels of competence
    involved in language
  • Structural
  • Discourse
  • Communicative
  • Strategic
  • ALL USED IN CONTEXT Situation where discourse
    arises

19
Discourse Analysis (3)
  • Austin (1975) Speech act theory
  • How language is used to do things
  • YOU CAN SAY ONE SAME MEANING WITH A VARIETY OF
    FORMS, AND ONE SAME FORM CAN HAVE A VARIETY OF
    MEANINGS

20
  • LANGUAGE IN USE IS COMMUNICATIVE
  • Real communication is based on interaction. It
    gives information which the person engaged in
    conversation with the speaker does not have.
  • Real communication is always with a purpose.
  • Real communication contains an element of
    unpredictability of choices of words. Only in
    very restricted formulaic expressions language is
    predictable.

21
The Communicative Approach
  • Language is seen as a tool for communicating
  • Real language practice in the classroom
  • To develop communicative competence in real
    communicative context
  • To develop communicative strategies through
    interaction
  • Language is communicative as well as linguistic
  • grammar pronunciation social
    rules
  • Focus on functions, not on structures
  • View that students acquire a language when
    focusing on meaning, not only in form

22
The role of grammar in the CA
  • COMMUNICATIVE TEACHING
  • Focus on meaning
  • Group work interaction
  • Genuine questions
  • Opportunities to use lang. creatively
  • Opportunities to participate in task
    negotiations of topics

23
ENVIRONMENTALISM
  • Interaction
  • Negotiation of meaning
  • Noticing new forms in the input

24
Instructional Implications?
  • Use of authentic materials and tasks
  • Communicative activities such as games and role
    plays
  • Group and pair work
  • Small number of students interacting
  • Emphasis on functions and meaning, not forms
  • Tolerate errors of form

25
CONCLUSION
  • Learning a second/foreign language it is not
    completely different from learning a first
    language, yet it is not entirely the same..
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