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Treatment of Psychological Disorders

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Treatment of Psychological Disorders Types of Therapy There are 3 Main Types of Therapies: 1. Insight Therapies Therapy achieved through verbal interaction 2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Treatment of Psychological Disorders


1
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
2
Types of Therapy
  • There are 3 Main Types of Therapies
  • 1. Insight Therapies
  • Therapy achieved through verbal interaction
  • 2. Behavioral Therapies
  • Learning principles applied to change maladaptive
    behaviors
  • 3. Biomedical Therapies
  • Physiological intervention to reduce symptoms

3
Insight Therapies
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Recovery of unconscious conflicts
  • motives
  • Free Association
  • patients are invited to relate whatever comes
    into their minds during the analytic session, and
    not to censor their thoughts
  • Dream Analysis
  • the process of explaining the meaning of the way
    the unconscious thoughts and emotions are
    processed in the mind during sleep
  • Interpretation
  • Patient talks therapist listens interprets

4
Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded
    and then analyzed interpreted
  • Sometimes used to examine a person's personality
    characteristics and emotional functioning

5
Insight Therapies
  • Dangers of Psychoanalysis
  • Dangers?
  • Resistance
  • Occurs when patients patients block memories from
    conscious memory
  • Transference
  • unconscious redirection of feelings from one
    person to another person or object
  • Projection
  • ascribing internal feelings on to other things or
    people

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7
Insight Therapies
  • Person (Client) -Centered Therapy
  • Carl Rogers
  • therapists create a comfortable, non-judgmental
    environment using a non-directive approach to aid
    patients in finding their own solutions to
    problems
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Aaron Beck
  • help the patient overcome difficulties by
    identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking,
    behavior, and emotional responses
  • Group Therapy
  • Simultaneous treatment of several clients
  • 6 10 individuals meet face to face with a
    trained therapist

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9
Behavioral Therapies
  • Based on 2 Assumptions
  • 1. Behavior is a product of learning
  • 2. What has been learned can be unlearned
  • Types
  • Systematic Desensitization (Counter-conditioning)
  • Aversion Therapy
  • Social Skills Training

10
Systematic Desensitization
  • Behavior therapy used to reduce phobic clients
    anxiety responses through counter-conditioning
  • Steps
  • 1. Build an Anxiety Hierarchy
  • 2. Training in Deep Muscle Relaxtaion
  • 3. Client tries to work through the hierarchy,
    learning to remain relaxed while imagining each
    stimulus
  • 4. if possible, confront the real stimulus

11
Aversion Therapy
  • Behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is
    paired with a stimulus that elicits an
    undesirable response
  • Example Emetic Drug, Electric Shock, etc.

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13
Social Skills Training
  • operant conditioning procedures for training
    social skills followed by modeling, coaching, and
    social cognitive techniques

14
Biomedical Therapies
  • Psychopharmacotherapy
  • Treatment of psychological disorders with
    medication
  • Types of Medication
  • Anti-Anxiety Drugs
  • Anti-Psychotic Drugs
  • Anti-Depressant Drugs

Please remember that medication is usually a
SHORT-TERM solution and does not treat the
underlying cause of the disorder. Medication
also comes with side effects safety concerns.

15
Anti-Anxiety Drugs
  • relieve anxiety by slowing down the central
    nervous system to relax calm you
  • Can also be prescribed as sleeping pills and
    muscle relaxants
  • Once you stop taking the drug, Anxiety symptoms
    return full force

16
Anti-Anxiety Drugs
  • Benzodiazapines/Tranquilizers
  • Fast acting take effect within 30 minutes
  • Can be taken as needed
  • Reduction in brain activity
  • Metabolize slowly - can build up over time
    causing oversedation
  • Side Effects
  • Drowsiness, lack of energy
  • Clumsiness, slow reflexes
  • Slurred speech
  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Depression
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness
  • Impaired thinking and judgment
  • Memory loss, forgetfulness
  • Nausea, stomach upset
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Common Names
  • Xanax (alprazolam)
  • Klonopin (clonazepam)
  • Valium (diazepam)
  • Ativan (lorazepam)

17
Anti-Anxiety Drugs
  • Anti-Depressant Drugs
  • Preferred because dependency is less common
  • Take a lot longer to work up to 4 6 weeks
  • Buspirone (BuSpar)
  • Newer anti-anxiety medication that doesnt impair
    memory is not as addictive
  • Slower acting takes about 2 weeks
  • Increases serotonin decreases dopamine in the
    brain
  • Beta Blockers
  • Traditionally used to tread high blood pressure
    heart problems
  • Fight stress hormones like norepinephrine
    controls physical symptoms of anxiety (heart
    rate, blood pressure, sweating, etc.)

18
Anti-Psychotic Drugs
  • used to treat psychotic symptoms found in
    Schizophrenia (hallucinations, delusion,
    paranoia, etc.)

Typical Atypical
Discovered in the 1950s for Schizophrenia treatment only Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Haloperidol (Haldol) Perphenazine (generic only) Fluphenazine (generic only) 1990s 2nd Generation Anti Psychotics Risperidone (Risperdal) Olanzapine (Zyprexa) Quetiapine (Seroquel) Ziprasidone (Geodon) Aripiprazole (Abilify) Paliperidone (Invega)
19
Anti-Psychotic Drugs
  • Side Effects
  • Most side effects go away after a few days and
    often can be managed successfully
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness when changing positions
  • Blurred vision
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Sensitivity to the sun
  • Skin rashes
  • Menstrual problems for women
  • Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)
  • Can get this from prolonged usage
  • Uncontrollable muscle movement usually around the
    mouth
  • Atypical
  • Major weight gain
  • Metabolic changes
  • Risk of Diabetes High Cholesterol
  • Typical
  • Rigidity
  • Persistent muscle spasms
  • Tremors
  • Restlessness
  • -

20
Anti-Depressant Drugs
  • 5 Major Types
  • SSRIs
  • SNRIs
  • Atypical Antidepressants
  • Tricyclic Tetracyclic
  • MAOIs
  • Very popular treatment option for moderate to
    severe depression
  • There are TONS available often specific
    combinations are concocted by doctors based on
    individual cases

21
Anti-Depressant Drugs
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • most commonly prescribed antidepressants
  • SSRIs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of the
    neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain
  • seems to help brain cells send and receive
    chemical messages, which in turn boosts mood
  • called selective because they seem to primarily
    affect serotonin, not other neurotransmitters
  • Common FDA approved SSRIs
  • Citalopram (Celexa)
  • Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac, Prozac Weekly, Sarafem)
  • Paroxetine (Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva)
  • Sertraline (Zoloft)

22
Anti-Depressant Drugs
  • Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
    (SNRIs)
  • block the absorption (reuptake) of the
    neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine
  • called dual reuptake inhibitors
  • Venlafaxine (Effexor XR)
  • Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq)
  • Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
  • Atypical Antidepressants
  • Called Atypical because they dont really fit
    into any other category
  • Mostly affect Dopamine, Serotonin
    Norepinephrine
  • Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin
    XL
  • Trazodone (Oleptro
  • Mirtazapine (Remeron, Remeron SolTab)
  • Nefazodone

23
Anti-Depressant Drugs
  • Tricyclic Tetracyclics
  • Older versions of antidepressants that have
    mostly been replaced
  • Still an effective option for some patients
  • Block reabsorption (reuptake) of Serotonin
    Norepinephrine
  • Names
  • Amitriptyline
  • Desipramine (Norpramin)
  • Nortriptyline (Pamelor)
  • Protriptyline (Vivactil)
  • Trimipramine (Surmontil)
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
  • 1st type of antidepressant developed now
    considered last resort
  • Require strict dietary restrictions
  • Can cause dangerous high blood pressure when
    combined with certain foods
  • The enzyme monoamine oxidase is involved in
    removing norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine
    from the brain. MAOIs prevent this.
  • Names
  • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Selegiline (Emsam, Eldepryl, Zelapar)
  • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

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26
Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • electric currents are passed through the brain,
    deliberately triggering a brief seizure
  • Used when other treatments are unsuccessful
  • Stigma?
  • based on past experimental treatments
  • Media attention
  • Electroconvulsive therapy is much safer today

27
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28
New Trends in Therapy
  • Eclecticism
  • Therapy that draws upon multiple theories,
    styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights
    into a subject, or application different theories
    in particular cases
  • Individualized Psychology
  • Positive Psychology
  • Martin Seligman (1998)
  • the scientific study of positive experiences,
    positive individual traits, and the institutions
    that facilitate their development
  • concerned with well-being and optimal
    functioning, positive psychology
  • aims to broaden the focus of clinical psychology
    beyond suffering and its direct alleviation

29
New Trends in Therapy
  • Light Therapy
  • The use of bright light to treat depression
    circadian rhythm disorders
  • Reverse Psychology
  • a technique involving sharing a belief or
    behavior that is opposite to the one desired
  • Hopefully will encourage what actually is
    desired the opposite of what is suggested
  • Mostly used on children teens

30
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