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Learning Disabilities


Learning Disabilities Speech/Language Disorders: by Holly Schools, Malikah Lawson, Charles Crawford and Berniece Taylor – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Disabilities

Learning Disabilities
  • Speech/Language Disorders
  • by
  • Holly Schools, Malikah Lawson, Charles Crawford
    and Berniece Taylor

Speech/Language Disorder What is it?
  • Difficulties pronouncing sounds, or articulation
    disorders, and stuttering are examples of speech
  • Speech disorders may be problems with the way
    sounds are formed, called articulation or
    phonological disorders, or they may be
    difficulties with the pitch, volume or quality of
    the voice.

Characteristics of Speech/Language Disorders
  • Improper use of words and their meanings.
  • Inappropriate grammatical patterns
  • Inability to express ideas.
  • Inappropriate grammatical patterns.
  • Reduced vocabulary.
  • Inability to follow directions.

  • Some children exhibit behaviors that fall outside
    of the normal, or expected, range of development.
    These behaviors emerge in a way or at a pace that
    is different from their peers.

Behaviors cont
  • Atypical behaviors should be noted and carefully
    recorded. They may be isolated events that have
    little or no impact on later development. They
    might, however, be early warning signs of later
    and more significant problems

Who are these students?
  • Families and teachers should be concerned if a
    childs language is noticeably not at the same
    level as the language of peers of the same age.
  • In the Fall of 2003, students aged 3 to 21 that
    were being served under Individuals with
    Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part B numbered
    1,460,583, which translates to 5 of the
    school-aged population.

Who are these students continued
  • Studies show that between 28 and 60 of students
    with language and/or communication disabilities
    have a sibling or parent that also are affected
    by language and/or communication disability
    (Compiled by Castrogiovanni, 2008).
  • Most students with language difficulties are
    identified before they begin school, however some
    students may not be identified until they begin
    school (Compiled by Castrogiovanni, 2008).

Students continued
  • All teachers (both general education and special
    education teachers) should be aware of language
    and communication disabilities as this is a
    problem that we will see and that will, at some
    point in time, need to be addressed in our

What should parents do?
Early detection of speech/language disorder is
important to getting treatment started early.
Language is known before the child speaks as a
result of the environment they are in. Parents
should talk to their child in regular language as
well as read to their child regularly.
What should parents do? cont
  • Other activities such as reading books aloud,
    singing songs, and encouraging but not forcing
    children to interact, is another way parents can
    promote speech and language development.

What should teachers do?
  • Keep lectures clear, simple, pronounced, and in
    proper language syntax (no slang) to keep the
    attention of the student. Proper eye contact
    with the student while listening and speaking
    also keeps the student engaged and also allows
    the student to participate regularly in the

Recommendations for teaching
  • Dudley-Marling and Searle (1998) identified four
    suggestions for working with students who have
    language disabilities
  • (1) the physical setting must promote talk
  • (2) the teacher must provide opportunities for
    children to interact as they learn
  • (3) the teacher needs to provide opportunities
    for children to use language for a variety of
    purposes for a variety of audiences
  • (4) the teacher needs to respond in ways that
    encourage the student to continue the

Recommendations for teaching contd
  • Working in small groups, students can learn to
    use context clues to understand difficult words
    and learn to ask questions about how the word may
    be used (Kuder, 2008).
  • The ability to communicate and converse with
    peers helps open up the communication beyond just
    one word answers.

Recommendations for identification
  • Language disabilities are very difficult to
    assess and as educators we must make sure that we
    are aware of these difficulties when trying to
  • For example with screening, we must keep in mind
    that the results tend to over-identify or
    under-identify (Kuder, 2008).

Recommendations for identification contd
  • The best way to identify language issues is to
    observe in a classroom setting.
  • When we watch students converse with their peers,
    this will give us the most realistic view of
    their communication abilities.
  • It is important to keep in mind that adolescents
    speak differently with their peers, meaning they
    are more relaxed, more talkative and more
    concerned that their conversation partners
    understand what they are staying (Kuder, 2008).

  • Almost 1.5 million students are identified as
    having language and communication disabilities.
    Educators and family members must be aware of the
    warning signs of language and communication
    disabilities. For the success of children with
    language and communication disabilities, early
    identification and effective intervention is

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
    (2005). Helping Children with Communication
    Disorders in Schools. Reading Rockets.
    Retrieved from http//www.readingrockets.org/artic
  • Cazden, C. B. (1986). Classroom discourse. In
    M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on
    teaching (pp. 432-464). New York Macmillan
  • Compiled by Castrogiovanni, A. (2008). Incidence
    and Prevalence of Communication Disorders and
    Hearing Loss in Children 2008 Edition.
    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
    Retrieved from http//www.asha.org/research/repo
  • Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Retrieved
    from http//childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-
  • Early Identification Normal and Atypical
    Development Retrieved from http//www.ldonline.or
  • Dudley-Marling, C., Searle, D. (1988).
    Enriching language learning environments for
    students with learning disabilities. Journal of
    Learning Disabilities, 21, 140-143.
  • Kuder, S. J. (2008). Teaching Students with
    Language and Communication Disabilities
    (272-331). Boston Pearson Education.
  • NICHY Disability Fact Sheet (2011). Speech and
    Language Impairments. National Dissemination
    Center for Children with Disabilities.
    Retrieved from http//nichcy.org/disability/specif
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