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Chapter 1: Basic Concepts


YOU FOUND IT! Chapter 1: Basic Concepts The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Relocation Diffusion: Example Figure 1-31 The End. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1: Basic Concepts

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts
You found It!
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  • The Cultural Landscape
  • An Introduction to Human Geography

Taking Notes
  • In your notebook, you will take notes from the
    PowerPoint and from your readings in each
    chapter. The PowerPoint notes go on the left
    hand side of each page, and your reading notes
    will go on the right hand side of each page. The
    PPT notes and your reading notes about the same
    topic/concept should align with each other on the
    page. Any unknown vocabulary and its definition
    will go at the bottom of the page.
  • (This is kind of Cornell Note Takingbut kind of
  • If you have any questions, email me. I will get
    back to you as quickly as I can. If you do not
    hear from me within two days, send me a reminder.

Thorough Reading
  • Have you ever read something where you are ten
    pages into it and have no idea what you have just
    read? I know I have, and it is so frustrating
    because I just had to start over. We do not want
    to do that here (or anywhere as far as that is
    concerned) because it is a waste of our time. I
    dont know about you, but I would rather be doing
    something else than reading the same thing over,
    and over, and over again.

Thorough Reading--Continued
  • So the way you get it done the first time is by
    having a strategyor in this case, several
    strategies. The following strategies have been
    used by many of us over the years, but Salisbury
    University in Maryland put them together in a
    nice checklist that you will find along with
    explanations at the following link

Thorough Reading
  • Ora summary is on the next few pages
  • 1.  Previewing Learning about a text before
    really reading it.
  • A. How it is organized ? B. What you can
    learn from the head notes or other introductory
    material? C. Skim to get an overview of the
    content and organization D. Identify the
    rhetorical situation.
  •  2.  Contextualizing Placing a text in its
    historical, biographical, and cultural contexts.
  • When you read a text, you read it through
    the lens of your own experience. Your
    understanding of the words on the page and their
    significance is informed by what you have come to
    know and value from living in a particular time
    and place. This will not figure so much in Human
    Geography because much of our material is

Thorough Reading
  • 3.  Questioning to understand and
    remember Asking questions about the content.
    (History and Science books are great for turning
    the titles of each section into a question. Then
    you can answer the question as you read, and you
    wont be wasting your time). Especially in
    difficult academic readings, you will understand
    the material better and remember it longer if you
    write a question for every paragraph or brief
    section. Make sure you answer it in your own
  • 4.  Reflecting on challenges to your beliefs and
    values Examining your personal responses.
  • The reading that you do for this class
    might challenge your attitudes, your
    unconsciously held beliefs, or your positions on
    current issues. As you read a text for the first
    time, mark an X in the margin at each point where
    you feel a personal challenge to your attitudes,
    beliefs, or status. Make a brief note in your
    notes about what you feel or about what in the
    text created the challenge. Now look again at the
    places you marked in the text where you felt
    personally challenged. What patterns do you

Thorough Reading
  • 5.  Outlining and summarizing Identifying the
    main ideas and restating them in your own words.
  • Outlining and summarizing are especially
    helpful strategies for understanding the content
    and structure of a reading selection. The main
    ideas form the backbone, the strand that holds
    the various parts and pieces of the text
    together. If you take good notes as you read,
    you should not have to reread the text you will
    be able to study from your notes.
  • -Summarizing begins with outlining, but
    instead of merely listing the main ideas, a
    summary recomposes them to form a new text.
    Whereas outlining depends on a close analysis of
    each paragraph, summarizing also requires
    creative synthesis. Putting ideas together again
    -- in your own words and in a condensed form --
    shows how reading critically can lead to deeper
    understanding of any text. 

Thorough Reading
  • 6.  Evaluating an argument Testing the logic of
    a text as well as its credibility and emotional
    impact. (We will not have to deal with this too
    muchbut you may find some writer bias it is
    difficult to find a written manuscript without
    some bias).
  • 7.  Comparing and contrasting related
    readings Exploring likenesses and differences
    between texts to understand them better. You will
    find as we read ongoing chapters in the book how
    they much of what we read will relate back to a
    previous chapter. So do not skip a chapter or you
    may find yourself struggling later on.

Thorough Reading
  • As you open your book, do not skip those sections
    in the front that tell you about your book. The
    entire format and logic behind that format is
    explained. This will make finding information
    much easier on you in the long run. So look over
    that table of context to see the types of things
    which are covered in each chapter notice that
    each chapter begins and ends with a case study,
    has four sections referred to as key issues,
    vocabulary referred to as key terms, and a higher
    thinking skills section Thinking
    Geographically. The book, furthermore, has a
    map appendix, key terms section, and an index (do
    you remember how to use one?).
  • We also have access to an online textbook and
    study site, which is more current than our
    textbook and will be used often.
  • Internet access will make this class much easier
    on you however, if you do not have it, plan a
    couple of days a week to arrive early and stay
    late to use a computer in my room or visit the
    public library.

Defining Geography
  • Your notes should begin with the introduction
    even before Key Issue 1.
  • Word coined by Eratosthenes
  • Geo Earth
  • Graphia writing
  • Geography thus means earth writing

Contemporary Geography
  • Geographers ask where and why
  • Location and distribution are important terms
  • Geographers are concerned with the tension
    between globalization and local diversity
  • A division physical geography and human geography

Geographys Vocabulary
  • Place
  • Region
  • Scale
  • Space
  • Connections

  • Two purposes
  • As reference tools
  • To find locations, to find ones way
  • As communications tools
  • To show the distribution of human and physical

Early Map Making
Figure 1-2
Maps Scale
  • Types of map scale
  • Ratio or fraction
  • Written
  • Graphic
  • Projection
  • Distortion
  • Shape
  • Distance
  • Relative size
  • Direction

Figure 1-4
U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Township and range system
  • Township 6 sq. miles on each side
  • Northsouth lines principal meridians
  • Eastwest lines base lines
  • Range
  • Sections

Township and Range System
Figure 1-5
Contemporary Tools
  • Geographic Information Science (GIScience)
  • Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
  • Remote sensing
  • Geographic information systems (GIS)

Figure 1-7
A Mash-up
Figure 1-8
Place Unique Location of a Feature
  • Location
  • Place names
  • Toponym
  • Site
  • Situation
  • Mathematical location

Place Mathematical Location
  • Location of any place can be described precisely
    by meridians and parallels
  • Meridians (lines of longitude)
  • Prime meridian
  • Parallels (lines of latitude)
  • The equator

The Cultural Landscape
  • A unique combination of social relationships and
    physical processes
  • Each region a distinctive landscape
  • People the most important agents of change to
    Earths surface

Types of Regions
  • Formal (uniform) regions
  • Example Montana
  • Functional (nodal) regions
  • Example the circulation area of a newspaper
  • Vernacular (cultural) regions
  • Example the American South

  • Origin from the Latin cultus, meaning to care
  • Two aspects
  • What people care about
  • Beliefs, values, and customs
  • What people take care of
  • Earning a living obtaining food, clothing, and

Cultural Ecology
  • The geographic study of humanenvironment
  • Two perspectives
  • Environmental determinism
  • Possibilism
  • Modern geographers generally reject environmental
    determinism in favor of possibilism

Physical Processes
  • Climate
  • Vegetation
  • Soil
  • Landforms
  • These four processes are important for
    understanding human activities

Modifying the Environment
  • Examples
  • The Netherlands
  • Polders
  • The Florida Everglades

Figure 1-21
  • Globalization
  • Economic globalization
  • Transnational corporations
  • Cultural globalization
  • A global culture?

Space Distribution of Features
  • Distributionthree features
  • Density
  • Arithmetic
  • Physiological
  • Agricultural
  • Concentration
  • Pattern

SpaceTime Compression
Figure 1-29
Spatial Interaction
  • Transportation networks
  • Electronic communications and the death of
  • Distance decay

Figure 1-30
  • The process by which a characteristic spreads
    across space and over time
  • Hearth source area for innovations
  • Two types of diffusion
  • Relocation
  • Expansion
  • Three types hierarchical, contagious, stimulus

Relocation Diffusion Example
Figure 1-31
The End.
  • Up next Population