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Ancient Greece

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Ancient Greece Chapter 5 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Greece


1
Ancient Greece
  • Chapter 5

2
Geography
  • Land islands, many miles of coastline, inlets,
    bays, deep harbors
  • Seas Aegean, Mediterranean, Ionian
  • Poor resources on land (couldnt farm)
  • Led to increased sea travel, trade, imports

3
Geography
  • Land - very mountainous (Mt. Olympus)
  • Difficult to unite under one government, divided
    the people, became fiercely independent
  • Climate moderate (Mediterranean) temperature,
    led to outdoor activities shopping, civic
    meetings, athletics, interaction

4
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5
First Greeks
  • Minoans from Crete
  • Wealthy traders, large homes, fancy clothes,
    jewelry
  • Ended by earthquake, volcano, tidal wave?

6
Mycenaeans
  • Mycenae built on steep hills
  • Fortified with stone walls, bronze age
  • Trojan War (1200 BCE)
  • Greek kings attacked Troy in Asia Minor
  • Greeks wife stolen by Trojan man
  • Archaeological evidence that this was true

7
Dorians
  • 1200 BCE 800 BCE
  • Mycenaean civilization collapsed
  • From North of Greece came with iron weapons
  • Little skill, less advanced
  • Trade and progress stand still
  • Skill of writing lost
  • Dark Ages

8
Homer
  • Blind poet
  • Depended on spoken word (bards storytellers)
  • Wrote long epics ideals of heroism, excellence
    , courage, honor
  • Interested in individuals heroes compete for
    glory
  • The Iliad and The Odyssey (750 BCE) about the
    Trojan War

9
Early Greek Leaders
  • Draco 621 BC - codified Athenian laws provided
    severe punishments (draconian harsh or
    severe)
  • Solon 594 BC canceled land mortgages, freed
    people enslaved for debt, allowed male citizens
    to serve on juries, granted commoners right to
    vote in Assembly

10
Leaders cont.
  • Cleisthenes 508 BC expanded democracy by
    extending citizenship began practice of
    ostracism banishing any citizen deemed
    dangerous to the state
  • Pericles 461 BC popular leader opened
    government to all men, paid salaries to public
    officials The Age of Pericles or The Golden Age
    height of democracy art, science, trade,
    manufacturing thrived

11
Types of governments in Greece
  • Monarchy one-man rule (king)
  • Aristocracy rule by a small group of nobles
  • Oligarchy rule by few
  • Tyranny rule by one man who seized power,
    favored by some people (unlike todays
    definition)
  • Democracy rule by the people

12
  • Athens
  • Polis - city-state (basic political unit)
  • Acropolis hill, central meeting place
  • Agora below hill, open place for meetings
  • Citizens - those who took part in govt.
  • Hoplites heavily armed infantry soldiers
  • Phalanx marching formation shoulder to shoulder

13
Athens cont.
  • Democratic society
  • The Assembly was the major political body
  • All male citizens belonged all were equal had
    freedom of speech
  • Jury system for court cases
  • Had to educate sons - participate in govt.
  • 2 years military service at age 18

14
  • SPARTA
  • Military society aristocracy
  • Harsh life
  • Invaded other cities to fulfill needs greatest
    warriors in Greece
  • If a child was born sickly or deformed, they were
    left in hills to die

15
Sparta
  • At age 7, boys were sent to military at 60 they
    could retire girls got rigorous physical
    training also
  • Women strong and fit to become mothers
  • Suspicious of new ideas - NO CHANGE
  • Sparta lagged far behind other cities in economic
    development

16
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17
Persian Wars
  • 499 BC Persians control largest empire
  • Darius attacks Greece at (1) Marathon
  • Greeks outnumbered but win battle
  • Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens (26
    miles) to announce victory died modern day
    marathon
  • Minor defeat for Persia but showed they could be
    beaten

18
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19
Greek hoplite (soldier)-6th c. BC
20
Persian Wars
  • 480 BC-Xerxes, son of Darius, invades
  • Sparta leads the Greeks (united)
  • To delay Persia, the Spartans slow them at (2)
    THERMOPYLAE (a mountain pass)

21
Persian War cont.
  • Greeks lose (betrayed) Athens burned all
    Spartans die
  • Greeks lure Persian navy into the shallow waters
    of (3) SALAMIS - Greeks victorious
  • (4) PLATAEA war finally ends

22
Leonidas the Spartans hold the Persians at
Thermopylae pass
23
Battle of Salamis, 480 BC
24
Persian War Turning Point
  • End of Persian expansion west
  • Persians dont conquer Europe
  • Ushers in the Golden Age of Athens Classical age
    begins art, literature, commerce flourish
  • Greek city-states maintain their independence
    Athens dominates

25
Golden Age of Athens
  • Pericles led Athens in this period (461 BC)
  • Delian League defensive alliance Athens led
  • Athens stood for all that was the best in Greek
    civilization
  • Deeply committed to democracy Assembly

26
The Agora
27
Classical Greece
  • Writers
  • Philosophers
  • Pottery
  • Olympics
  • Religion
  • Philosophers
  • Historians
  • Sculpture
  • Architecture

28
Philosophy Love of Wisdom
  • Socrates used questioning method (Socratic
    method)
  • Examine ones life
  • Convicted of corrupting youth killed (drank
    hemlock)
  • Plato Student of Socrates (427-347 BC) started
    The Academy
  • The Republic first book on political science
    (did not favor democracy )

29
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30
Philosophy cont.
  • Aristotle (384-322 BC) wrote on philosophy,
    science, govt.
  • Tutored Alexander the Great.

31
History
  • Herodotus father of history described the
    Persian invasion embellished with fable and
    superstition not very accurate
  • Thucydides accurate account of Peloponnesian
    War eyewitness accounts facts

32
Theatre
  • Dramas, outdoor amphitheatres
  • Tragedies
  • Aeschylus Agamemnon Persian Wars gods
    provided justice
  • Euripedes Medea, criticized war, prejudice,
    greed
  • Comedies
  • Aristophanes satirized political leaders

33
Architecture
  • Parthenon most famous temple to Athena
    (Wisdom) atop the Acropolis in Athens
  • Use of columns Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
    (elaborate, curly)

34
Science and Math
  • Pythagoras important principals of geometry
  • Hippocrates father of medicine, attributed
    disease to natural, not superstitious causes
  • Hippocratic Oath uphold medical standards do
    no harm

35
The Olympics
  • 776 BC held every 4 years
  • Athletes traveled to Mt. Olympus to honor Zeus
  • Glory in athletic competition
  • Pentathlon most important event (5) long jump,
    javelin, discus, foot race, wrestling
  • Men only (naked)
  • Prize honor and fame for your c-s

36
Religion The Greek Gods
  • Lived on Mt. Olympus (12)
  • Were immortal
  • They were human-like fought, had human
    weaknesses
  • Oracles to worship the gods

37
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38
Democracy
  • GREECE
  • Direct Democracy citizens were members of
    legislature
  • Citizenship based on Athenian ancestry
  • Women denied political rights
  • Slavery permitted
  • U.S.
  • Representative Democracy citizens elect
    representatives
  • Citizenship based on American birth or
    naturalization
  • Women equal rights
  • Slavery prohibited

39
Peloponnesian War (431 BC-404 BC)
  • Series of battles between Athens and Sparta
  • Sparta eventually wins (military superiority)
  • Greece weakened over next century by fighting
  • Growing power to the North, Macedonia goes
    unnoticed
  • End of classical Greece

40
Alexander the Great
  • Philip II of Macedonia, Alexanders father, had
    conquered most of Greece by the time of his death
  • 336 BC-Alexander from Macedonia (north of Greece)
    becomes King (age 20)
  • 334 BC-Alexander invades Persian empire wins
    major victory in Asia Minor

41
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42
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43
Alexander the Great
  • Conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt founded
    Alexandria
  • 331 BCE defeated Persians again and ended
    Persian rule
  • 327 BCE Wants to reach Indus River after 3
    years his men say no more
  • 323 BCE Dies at age 32

44
Alexander the Great
  • Global view believed non Greeks were equal
    encouraged men to marry Persians
  • Hellenistic mix of Greek and Middle Eastern
    culture
  • Alexandria, Egypt key city home to poets,
    scholars, writers, scientists, philosophers
    great library
  • Built temples, baths, theatres, statues, etc.

45
Contributions - Hellenistic
  • Eratosthenes believed earth was round
  • Archimedes pi, lever and pulley
  • Epicurianism (philosophy) humans were free to
    follow self-interest, pursuit of pleasure and
    happiness
  • Stoicism live in harmony with god daily
    problems would not disturb you, bear whatever
    life offers (stoic)
  • Sculpture Colossus of Rhodes 100 ft. bronze

46
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