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Improving the basis for MPA planning

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Title: Improving the basis for MPA planning


1
Improving the basis for MPA planning
  • INCOFISH WP5

2
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
Objectives
Improving the basis for MPA planning with
emphasis on sizing and placement of MPAs, and
reconciling fishery and biodiversity objectives.
  • D5.1 Review of the similarities and differences
    of planning, stakeholder involvement and
    effectiveness of selected MPAs.
  • D5.2 Analysis of size and placement of selected
    MPAs using spatial ecosystem models provided by
    WP4.
  • D5.3 Conceptual model for MPA planning in
    offshore continental shelf waters.
  • D5.4 WP5 report.
  • D5.5 Five publications.

3
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
D 5.1 Review of MPA Effectiveness
Case Study Regions Northern Gulf of
California, Campeche Bank - Gulf of Mexico,
East China Sea, North Sea
4
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
Northern Gulf of California
Upper Gulf of California and Colorado River
Biosphere Reserve Size 9348km2 Established
1993 MPA Type Biosphere Reserve Protection Ban
on all commercial fishing in core, except limited
traditional practices. Limited fishing allowed in
buffer zone. Vaquita Conservation Refuge Size
1264km2 Established 2005 MPA Type Biodiversity
Conservation Protection Exclusion of gears with
high risk of vaquita bycatch. Shallow Water
Shrimp Trawl Exclusion Size ???km2 Established
1993 MPA Type Fisheries Management Protection
Prohibition of shrimp trawling.
5
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
Campeche Bank
Términos Lagoon Flora and Fauna Protected
Area Size 7061km2 Established1994 MPA Type
Biodiversity conservation Protection Limited
controls on fishing, no modification to the water
flow. Shallow Water Shrimp Trawl
Exclusion Size ???km2 Established 1993 MPA
Type Fisheries management Protection
Prohibition of shrimp trawling. Proposed Red
Grouper Management Area Size Established
MPA Type Protection
6
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
East China Sea
Nanji Island National Nature Reserve Size
201km2 Established 1990 MPA Type Biodiversity
conservation Protection Zoned
protection. Xiamen Rare Marine Species Nature
Reserve Size 33km2 Established 2000 MPA Type
Biodiversity conservation Protection Zoned
protection. Dongtan Chongming Nature
Reserve Size 242km2 Established 1998 MPA
Type Biodiversity conservation/fishery mgt
Protection Zoned protection
7
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
North Sea
Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation Size
151km2 Established 1996/2005 MPA Type
Biodiversity conservation Protection No specific
activities banned, relevant authorities obliged
to protect well being of focal species and
habitats Plaice Box Size 38 000km2
Established 1989 MPA Type Fisheries
management Protection Vessel, catch and gear
restrictions. Sandeel Box Size 18 000km2
Established 2000 MPA Type Fisheries
Management Protection Exclusion of industrial
fishery vessels.
8
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
9
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
D 5.1 Review of MPA Effectiveness
  • MPAs show great similarities in objectives and
    application across a diverse range of marine
    ecosystems and political settings.
  • Limited and sporadic monitoring and assessment
    critically compromises the ability to determine
    MPA effects.
  • There is only limited evidence for biodiversity
    conservation benefits and no evidence for
    improved fishery yields from the case studies.
  • Non-compliance is widespread and compromises MPA
    success.
  • MPAs are established reactively rather than as
    true networks.

10
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
D 5.1 Review of MPA Effectiveness
  • There is only limited use of MPAs for
    biodiversity conservation and fisheries
    management.
  • Static MPAs are vulnerable to spatiotemporal
    variation in species distribution.
  • Resource use rules within MPAs strongly
    influence success.
  • Political undermining of MPA designation occurs.
  • Socio-political considerations are as important
    to MPA success as biophysical considerations.

11
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
D 5.2 Analysis of size and placement of selected
MPAs using spatial ecosystem models
Case Study Regions Northern Gulf of
California, Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico, East
China Sea, North Sea, Benguela Namibia, Gulf of
Thailand
12
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
D 5.2 Analysis of size and placement of selected
MPAs using spatial ecosystem models
  • Work just about to commence following the
    completion of the Ecosystem models. Ready next
    week..
  • Simulation of existing and proposed MPAs in
    each ecosystem
  • Comparison of MPAs for biodiversity conservation
    and fisheries management.
  • Single species population models.
  • Sedentary species
  • Mobile Species
  • Are Bad MPAs any good?

13
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
  • Interaction of MPAs and traditional management
  • Are MPAs part of optimal management?
  • How large Should MPAs be?

14
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
  • YPR Model
  • Minimum basic Yield-Per-Recruit (YPR) model
  • Based on abalone Haliotis laevigata
  • Sedentary species with fully mixed larval
    dispersal
  • Protecting reproductive output
  • Spawning Stock Biomass-Per-Recruit (SSBPR)
  • Egg production-Per-Recruit (EPR)
  • Long term constant maximum recruitment if
  • reproductive output gt30 unexploited
    reproductive output
  • Increasing relative fecundity with age
  • Undersize Gear Induced Mortality (UGIM)

Model Assumptions
15
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
  • Policy Scenarios
  • Vary management controls to maximise YPR while
    protecting 30 of unexploited reproductive
    output
  • Management Controls
  • Proportion of area protected
  • Minimum landing size (mm)
  • (Fishing mortality (F) / Effort)

16
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
F 1.0 UGIM 0
YPR (g)
Proportion Protected
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
17
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
SSBPR (g)
F 1.0 UGIM 0
Proportion Protected
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
18
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
F 1.0 M 0.2
F 1.0 M 0.2
YPR (g)
SSBPR (g)
Proportion Protected
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
19
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
F 1.0 UGIM 0
F 1.0 UGIM 0
SSBPR (g)
YPR (g)
Proportion Protected
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
20
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
F 1.0 UGIM 0
YPR (g)
Proportion Protected
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
21
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
F 1.0 UGIM 0
YPR (g)
Proportion Protected
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
22
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
YPR (g)
F 1.0 UGIM 0.25F
Proportion Protected
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
23
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
YPR (g)
F 1.0 UGIM 0.75F
Proportion Protected
Minimum Landing Size (mm)
24
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
MPA Coverage for Optimal Management
F(yr-1) 0.4 1.0 1.6
UGIM 0 SSBPR gt30 X X X
UGIM 0 EPR gt30 X X X
UGIM 0.25F SSBPR gt30 10 25 30
UGIM 0.75F SSBPR gt30 25 30 30
25
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
  • The role of MPAs for protecting mobile dispersing
    species.
  • How do extent of mobility and required MPA
    size interact?
  • Does the distance of larval dispersal affect the
    conclusions?

26
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
  • Dynamic Model
  • Age structured population model
  • Beverton-Holt stock recruitment function
  • Term for relative fecundity
  • 1-d diffusion dispersal model
  • Varying levels of mobility D
  • Larvae either fully mixed or non-dispersing
  • Looped model space
  • Gravity based fishing model
  • Max effort applied to areas with highest
    exploitable biomass

27
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
  • Scenarios
  • Examined the response of yield to varying
  • F, D and MPA
  • Single large or several small MPAs
  • scenarios run with 1, 2 or 8 MPAs

28
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
Diffusion Dispersal Plots
t 365 , D as specified
29
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
30
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
Yield Plots Mixed larval pool
31
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
Single Large or Several Small?
D 0.001 D
0.1
F 0.6yr-1
32
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
Outputs
Papers Le Quesne, Shepherd Hawkins (in press)
A comparison of no-take zones and traditional
fishery manaagement tools for managing site
attached species with a mixed larval pool. Fish
and Fisheries. Hui, Xu, Jun, Le Quesne, Sweeting
Polunin (final draft) An overview of spatial
management and marine protected areas in the East
China Sea. Conservation Biology? Le Quesne
Codling (draft) The role of no-take zones as a
fishery management tool for mobile dispersing
species. Zetina-Rejón MJ, Arreguín-Sánchez F
Crúz-Escalona VH (draft) An integral trophic
model of two interdependent ecosystems at the
southern Gulf of Mexico. Lercari, D.,
Arreguín-Sánchez, F. (draft) Deriving viable
harvesting strategies from Mass balance trophic
models to contribute to multispecies management
in the northern Gulf of California. Le Quesne
(draft) Are bad marine protected areas any good,
or just a new way of making old
mistakes? Reports Review of similarities and
differences of planning, operation, stakeholder
involvement and effectiveness of selected MPAs.
Deliverable 5.1.
33
WP5 Improving the basis for MPA planning
Outputs
Conference Presentations International
Conference on Coastal Ecosystems Towards an
integrated knowledge for an ecosystem approach,
Campeche, México, 2006. Zetina-Rejón MJ,
Arreguín-Sánchez F, Crúz-Escalona VH. Towards
an integration of the Campeche bank ecosystem
dynamics for ecosystem-based fisheries
management. Le Quesne WJF, Shepherd JG,
Hawkins SJ. The implications to management of the
relationship between the spatial extent of MPAs,
and management regime outside of MPAs. 41st
European Marine Biology Symposium, Cork, Ireland,
2006 Lercari D Arreguín-Sánchez F. Temporal and
spatial ecosystem scenarios towards conservation
and exploitation conciliation in the northern
Gulf of California. Le Quesne WJF. Using MPAs to
control the age groups targeted by a fishery can
yield be increased? Zetina-Rejón MJ,
Arreguín-Sánchez F, Crúz-Escalona VH. Towards
an MPA strategy on the Campeche Bank for
ecosystem-based fisheries management. European
Symposium on Marine Protected Areas as a Tool for
Fisheries Management and Biodiversity
Conservation, Murcia, Spain, 2007 At least 6
presentations have been, or will be, submitted by
members of WP5.
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