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A Time of Transition


A Time of Transition The middle decades of the 1600s brought dramatic political and economic changes worldwide. The Age of Absolutism Age of Absolutism The splendor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Time of Transition

(No Transcript)
A Time of Transition
  • The middle decades of the 1600s brought dramatic
    political and economic changes worldwide.

EUROPE The Thirty Years War ends in 1648 Thus,
ending a prolonged period of conflict in Germany
and surrounding areas Louis XIV Ascends the
Throne He remained the dominant political figure
until 1715
ASIA CHINA The Manchu people establish their
Qing dynasty by 1644. A reign that lasts until
1911 JAPAN The Tokugawa clan cements power and
closes Japan to foreign traders after 1641 only
a small Dutch trading post in Nagasaki remains.
Japan remains in isolation for the next 200

SOUTH EAST ASIA The Mughal Empire. Reaches its
height under absolutist monarch Aurangzeb.
The Age of Absolutism
Absolutist monarchs in Louis XIV in France, Peter
I in Russia, and Babur in the Mughal Empire
The Palace of Versailles. Eric Pouhier This
file is licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution ShareAlike 2.5 License.
The Palace of Versailles. Eric Pouhier This
file is licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution ShareAlike 2.5 License.
The Age of Absolutism Mughal Empire
(Picture taken by Kaiser Tufail during visit to
Agra, 3-5-08) This work is licensed under the
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The Taj Mahal exterior (left) the interior
(bottom right).
The Age of Absolutism
In frequent wars over succession and religion
monarchs, especially Louis XIV, spent
The Treaty of Utrecht ended the War of Spanish
The Age of Absolutism
An absolutist monarch, Aurangzeb, extended the
empire and tried to unify realm under Islam,
causing his Hindu subjects to revolve repeatedly
in the face of their persecution. Similarly in
France, Louis XIV would try to unify his kingdom
under Catholicism, causing French Protestants to
flee in the thousands many of whom were
enterprising manufacturers and artisans causing
serious damage to his economy.
Age of Absolutism
  • The splendor of these courts was underwritten by
    a growing middle class of traders and
  • Congregated in towns
  • Known as burgers or bourgeois
  • Provided new sources of wealth beyond agriculture
  • Favored self-government over absolutism
  • Increasingly proposed laws, not monarchs

The Ottoman Empire, 1672
Between the 15th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman
Empire achieved great cultural and social
developments in terms of wealth, literary output,
and architectural monuments. Then, power
shifted from palace to grand viziers office, and
signs of decline became apparent. Nonetheless,
the Ottomans retained significant influence
throughout their long decline. -Constantinople
was a major link in trade and cultural exchange
between West and East
Commerce and Industry
  • A new type of empire emerged.
  • Developed and maintained less by governments and
    guns than by companies and invoices
  • The world had (and continued to) open through
    exploration. New trading opportunities increased
    the outlook of the middle class
  • I.E. The East India Company became the de-facto
    ruler of the Indian subcontinent

Commerce and Industry
Trade increased steadily between Europe, Africa,
and America. Traders would bring slaves from
Africa to the Americas and Europe raw
(slave-produced) goods like sugar and cotton from
the Americas to Europe and manufactured goods
from Europe to Africa and America.
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Japan was closed to foreign traders (except for a
small Dutch outpost). Nonetheless internal
culture was still undergoing significant changes.
For example, unlike Noh (medieval drama staged
for the elite) Japanese puppet theater was aimed
at a wide audience.
Illustration of positions of players on a noh
stage. Center shite (main actor) wearing mask
and holding fan. Front right waki. Right
eight-person jiutai (chorus). Back four
hayashi-kata (musicians), from right to left fue
(flute), kozutsumi (shoulder drum), ohzutsumi
(hip drum) and taiko. Left rear two kohken
(stage hands). Image created by Toto-tarou.
Science and Technology
  • The growth of commerce and industry was fed by
    rapid developments in science and technology
  • The scientific revolution that was inaugurated in
    the early modern period really took off in the
    17th century.
  • Newton theory of gravitation, calculus, white
    light is composed of rays
  • Flying shuttle, spinning jenny mechanized cloth
  • James Watt Steam power

Watt Steam Engine
  • Thurston Robert H History of the Growth of the
    Steam engine, D. Appleton Co 1878

Science and Technology
  • The rapidly increasing grasp of the laws of
    nature prompted major shifts in religious
  • What was the role of the divine in this new,
    rational world?

The Enlightenment
This is a panoramic view of the Pantheon in
Paris. (c) Jean-Pierre Lavoie, 2005 (). This is
an edit of imagePantheon_wider.jpg. This file
is licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution ShareAlike license versions 2.5, 2.0,
and 1.0
The Enlightenment
  • In Europe, this broad movement became known as
    the Enlightenment
  • Also known as the Age of Reason
  • Extends roughly from the English revolution to
    the French Revolution or the beheading of Charles
    I (1649) to the beheading of Louis XVI (1793)
  • Note the change in technology between the use of
    the sword (an aristocratic implement) and the
    guillotine (the democratizing machine).

The Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment centered in England and France
  • France Catholic, absolutist, favored deductive
    and abstract systematizing
  • England Protestant, more democratic monarchy,
    favored positivism and inductive reasoning from
    empirical observation

The Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment emerged as a response to
    earlier, bloody conflicts over freedom of belief
  • The idea of religious toleration, freedom of
    thought, and a role for human reason in
    understanding revealed religious truths
  • Religious reformation often tied to political
  • Questioning the divine right of kings (social
    contract, etc)

Enlightenment thinkers sought to organize and
compile all knowledge around humankind not God.
These references often called (especially
descriptions of non-European cultures) called
norms into question and anatomical drawings
offended conservatives.
Frontispiece to DAlembert and Diderots
The Enlightenment
Travel and travel chronicles exposed readers to
new cultures
The Enlightenment
  • Monarchs tried to control philosophes through
  • Science and literature were in constant danger of
    becoming embroiled in social controversy.
  • Advances posed serious challenges to traditional
    religious and political authority

Satire and Revolution
  • Literature played a crucial role in the
  • Dangerous because it can spread radical ideas
  • Closely censored by royal agents (no such things
    as free speech)
  • Satire flourished as a way to critique

The Battle of the Books
  • Ancients and Moderns.
  • Should literature imitate the classic models or
    should innovation be key?

The World in 1700
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