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African Step Towards Development


African Step Towards Development Challenges of Newly Independent African Nations Challenges to building governments Building national unity Loyalty was with family ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: African Step Towards Development

African Step Towards Development
  • Challenges of Newly Independent African Nations

Challenges to building governments
  • Building national unity
  • Loyalty was with family, village, and ethnic
    group rather than distant government
  • Tribalism regionalism
  • Artificial boundaries splintered large ethnic
  • Tension between tradition and modernity
  • Economic differences
  • Conflict
  • Radical Islam John Green Boko Haram Video
  • Debt
  • Corruption to hold power

  • Problems in Building Governments
  • Civil War
  • 1. Economic divisions and ethnic conflict has led
    to civil war in many areas of Africa.
  • 2. Many ethnic groups have tried to secede or
    break away from countries.
  • 3. In 1994, ethnic tensions between Hutus and
    Tutsis in Rwanda resulted in the massacre of
    800,000 people.
  • 4. Civil Wars have also broke out in countries
    like Ethiopia, Somalia, Rwanda, and Liberia in
    the 1980s and 1990s.

Rwandan Genocide Video background (1)
400 314 Video Video 318 Reaction
(2) Reconciliation Vid 300 (3)
  • From April to July 1994,
  • Members of the Hutu ethnic majority in the
    east-central African nation of Rwanda murdered as
    many as 800,000 people, mostly of the Tutsi
  • Begun by extreme Hutu nationalists in the capital
    of Kigali, the genocide spread throughout the
    country with staggering speed and brutality, as
    ordinary citizens were incited by local officials
    and the Hutu Power government to take up arms
    against their neighbors.
  • By the time the Tutsi-led Rwandese Patriotic
    Front gained control of the country through a
    military offensive in early July, hundreds of
    thousands of Rwandans were dead and many more
    displaced from their homes.
  • The RPF victory created 2 million more refugees
    (mainly Hutus) from Rwanda, exacerbating what had
    already become a full-blown humanitarian
    crisis. Explanation Article

Parliamentary System
  • system of government
  • where in the ministers of the executive branch
    are drawn from the legislature
  • the executive and legislative branches are
  • the party (or a coalition of parties) with the
    greatest representation in the parliament
    (legislature) forms the government
  • its leader becoming prime minister
  • Political parties hold power to appoint Prime
  • Prime minister may be removed from power whenever
    he loses the confidence of a majority of the
    ruling party or of the parliament
  • Parliamentary Republics
  • Should be democratic

purpose of one-party rule
  • Build national unity
  • one-party system could achieve democracy
    reflected African tradition of consensus
  • Other parties limited
  • Supported by Julius Nyerere
  • Dominant Party Rule

While the United States is trying to reach the
moon, Tanzania is trying to reach its Villages
Julius Nyerere
military rule
  • Government controlled by the military
  • Used to restore order
  • Get rid of corrupt leaders
  • Short term results
  • Creates personal rule
  • General Joseph Mobutu

autocratic rule
  • Rule with absolute authority
  • Seen as necessary because of general weaknesses
    many African nations
  • Robert Mugabe video 510

  • 1980s
  • Movement towards a free system of government
  • Article Why Western-style Democracy is not
    suitable for Africa - link

Government stabilityprogress
Establishing Economic Systems
Key issue and goal
  • How much government control over the economy
  • Economic self reliance

  • State control to best meets need of people
  • Way to end privilege/rejected colonialism
  • Reflected African Traditions
  • Government owns and operate major businesses and
    controls other parts of the economy
  • Few successes

(No Transcript)
mixed economies
  • Most African nations today
  • Promote private ownership
  • Build factories and produce good for their own
  • Multinational companies

Economic Choices and Challenges
  • Structural Legacies
  • --Economies based on raw material exports
  • --Aid/dependency
  • --Migrant labor/labor compounds
  • Cultural Legacies
  • --Public Health
  • --Education
  • --Tension between tradition and modernity

Challenges to developing agriculture
  • Focus on cash crops for export not food crops
  • Artificially low food prices by governments
  • so people can afford food
  • Population growth
  • Drought

economic dependence and trade
  • Try to diversify agriculture and industry
  • Reduce dependence and limit expensive imports
  • Influenced by external factors especially world
    Market prices for products
  • Debt, drought, conflict

Controlling Population
  • cause of population explosion
  • Tradition and health care
  • Strains on government
  • Need for school, jobs, housing, healthcare,
    family planning

Closure Quiz Section 2
  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. B
  5. A
  • 6. D
  • 7. A
  • 8. B
  • 9. D
  • 10. A