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African Step Towards Development


African Step Towards Development Challenges of Newly Independent African Nations Challenges to building governments Building national unity Loyalty was with family ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: African Step Towards Development

African Step Towards Development
  • Challenges of Newly Independent African Nations

Challenges to building governments
  • Building national unity
  • Loyalty was with family, village, and ethnic
    group rather than distant government
  • Tribalism regionalism
  • Artificial boundaries splintered large ethnic
  • Tension between tradition and modernity
  • Economic differences
  • Conflict
  • Ethnic minorities civil war - genocide
  • Radical Islam John Green Boko Haram Video
  • Debt
  • Corruption to hold power - Kleptocracy

  • Problems in Building Governments
  • Civil War
  • 1. Economic divisions and ethnic conflict has led
    to civil war in many areas of Africa.
  • 2. Many ethnic groups have tried to secede or
    break away from countries.
  • 3. In 1994, ethnic tensions between Hutus and
    Tutsis in Rwanda resulted in the massacre of
    800,000 people.
  • 4. Civil Wars have also broke out in countries
    like Ethiopia, Somalia, Rwanda, and Liberia in
    the 1980s and 1990s.

Rwandan Genocide
  • Who Are the Hutu and Tutsi? Origins of a
    conflict video 330
  • Ethnic groups of Rwanda
  • Tutsi owned most cattle
  • Hutu everyone else
  • Germans colonize Rwanda 1894
  • Gave Tutsi responsibility
  • Belgians took control of Rwanda after WWI
  • identity cards in 1933, "arbitrarily
    classifying the whole population as Hutu, Tutsi
    or Twa"
  • by measuring qualities such as height, length of
    nose and eye shape
  • Tutsi were about 10 percent of population
  • the Belgians gave the Tutsi all the leadership
  • Hutu nearly 90 percent
  • Caused issues

Rwandan Genocide
  • Rwanda independence from Belgium 1962
  • Rwanda and Burundi become two separate and
    independent countries.
  • In Burundi, Tutsis retain power
  • Direct elections put the Hutus in charge of the
    new government in Rwanda
  • majority of Rwanda's population,
  • This upset the Tutsi, and the animosity between
    the two groups continued for decades
  • Event That Sparked the Genocide
  • April 6, 1994, President Juvénal Habyarimana
  • a surface-to-air missile shot his plane out of
    the sky
  • 100 Days of Slaughter Hutu extremists kill
    800,000 Tutsi and others

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Rwandan Genocide
  • The World Stood By and Just Watched
  • UN Failed Rwanda slow, too few troops
  • Video 318 Reaction (2)
  • Slaughter Inside Churches, Hospitals, and Schools
  • One of the worst massacres of the Rwandan
    Genocide took place on April 15 to 16, 1994 at
    the Nyarubuye Roman Catholic Church, located
    about 60 miles east of Kigali. Here, the mayor of
    the town, a Hutu, encouraged Tutsis to seek
    sanctuary inside the church by assuring them they
    would be safe there. Then the mayor betrayed them
    to the Hutu extremists.
  • Genocide ends
  • when the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) took over
    the country
  • trained military group consisting of Tutsis who
    had been exiled in earlier years, many of whom
    lived in Uganda.
  • Reconciliation Vid 300 (3)

Rwandan Genocide Video background (1)
400 314 Video Video 318 Reaction
(2) Reconciliation Vid 300 (3)
  • From April to July 1994,
  • Members of the Hutu ethnic majority murdered as
    many as 800,000 people, mostly of the Tutsi
  • Extreme Hutu nationalists in the capital of
  • ordinary citizens were incited by local officials
    and the Hutu Power government to take up arms
    against their neighbors.
  • By the time the Tutsi-led Rwandese Patriotic
    Front gained control of the country through a
    military offensive in early July, hundreds of
    thousands of Rwandans were dead and many more
    displaced from their homes.
  • The RPF victory created 2 million more refugees
    (mainly Hutus) from Rwanda
  • Explanation Article

Parliamentary System
  • system of government
  • where the executive branch is drawn from the
  • the executive and legislative branches are
  • Form of government in which power lies in the
    hands of the political party that wins a majority
    of seats in parliament
  • the party (or a coalition of parties) with the
    greatest representation in the parliament
    (legislature) forms the government
  • its leader becoming prime minister
  • Political parties hold power to appoint Prime

Parliamentary System
  • Prime minister may be removed from power whenever
    he loses the confidence of a majority of the
    ruling party or of the parliament
  • Parliamentary Republics - Should be democratic

purpose of one-party rule
  • Build national unity
  • one-party system reflected African tradition of
  • Other parties limited
  • Supported by Julius Nyerere
  • Multi-party today
  • Sometimes Dominant Party Rule

While the United States is trying to reach the
moon, Tanzania is trying to reach its Villages
Julius Nyerere Example unite the
country provide basic services end foreign
military rule
  • Government controlled by the military
  • Used to restore order
  • Get rid of corrupt leaders
  • Short term results
  • Creates personal rule
  • General Joseph Mobutu

autocratic rule
  • Rule with absolute authority
  • Seen as necessary because of general weaknesses
    many African nations
  • Robert Mugabe video 510

  • 1980s
  • Movement towards a free system of government
  • Article Why Western-style Democracy is not
    suitable for Africa - link

Government stabilityprogress
Establishing Economic Systems
Key issue and goal
  • How much government control over the economy
  • Economic self reliance
  • Improve agriculture and build industry

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  • State control to best meets need of people
  • Way to end privilege/rejected colonialism
  • Reflected African Traditions
  • Government owns and operate major businesses and
    controls other parts of the economy
  • Economic benefits should be equitable throughout
  • Few successes

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mixed economies
  • Most African nations today
  • Promote private ownership
  • Build factories and produce good for their own
  • Multinational companies money leaves Africa

Economic Choices and Challenges
  • Structural Legacies
  • --Economies based on raw material exports
  • --Aid/dependency
  • --Migrant labor/labor compounds
  • Cultural Legacies
  • --Public Health
  • --Education
  • --Tension between tradition and modernity

Challenges to developing agriculture
  • Focus on cash crops for export not food crops
  • Artificially low food prices by governments
  • so people can afford food
  • Population growth
  • Drought, overuse
  • Solutions?

economic dependence and trade
  • Try to diversify agriculture and industry
  • Industry faces competition from Asia and Latin
  • Reduce dependence and limit expensive imports
  • Influenced by external factors especially world
    Market prices for products
  • Debt, drought, conflict
  • Solutions?

Controlling Population
  • cause of population explosion
  • Tradition and health care
  • Each extra mouth comes attached two extra hands
  • Strains on government
  • Need for school, jobs, housing, healthcare,
    family planning
  • Solution?

Human Development Index
  • The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite
    statistic of life expectancy, education, and
    income per capita indicators, which are used to
    rank countries into four tiers of human
  • Measured from 0-1 closer to 1 the better

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Country of Population Under 25 Life expectancy Total Population Male Female Literacy Rate Total Population Male Female Per Capita Income HDI
Democratic Republic of Congo 64 T57.3 M55.8 F58.9 T63.8 M78.1 F50 800 .435
Ghana 56.86 T66.6 M64.1 F69.1 T76.6 M82 F71 4,400 .579
Kenya 59.7 T64 M62.6 F65.5 T78 M81.1 F74.9 3,400 .555
Tanzania 63.77 T62.2 M60.8 F63.6 T70.6 M75.9 F65.4 3,100 .531

A few ways to fix an ailing government 13
The leaders who ruined Africa, and the generation
who can fix it 1300
Closure Quiz Section 2
  1. C
  2. D
  3. E
  4. B
  5. A
  • 6. D
  • 7. A
  • 8. B
  • 9. D
  • 10. A