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Chapter 2 Minerals

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Chapter 2 Minerals Matter anything w/ volume and mass 3 states of matter Solid Liquid Gas Elements A) building blocks of minerals B) can t be broken ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Minerals


1
Chapter 2 Minerals
  • Matter anything w/ volume and mass
  • 3 states of matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Elements
  • A) building blocks of minerals
  • B) cant be broken down into simpler substances

2
  • C) each element represented by 1-2 letters
  • D) 8 elements make up most of earths crust.
  • Metals malleable, ductile, good conductors of
    heat/electricity
  • left side of periodic table
  • Non-metals brittle and poor conductors
  • right side of the periodic table

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Atoms
  • Atom the first man
  • Atom smallest particle of matter that contains
    the characteristics of the element
  • Are neutral
  • Equal s protons and electrons

5
Atom Parts
  • Protons positively charged
  • 1 amu mass
  • Found in nucleus
  • Neutrons no charge (neutral)
  • 1 amu mass
  • Found in nucleus
  • Electrons negatively charged
  • Very little mass
  • Outside of nucleus in energy levels

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  • Each peak is 7 nm across

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  • C2(CN)4

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  • Atomic number of protons in the nucleus
  • Sequentially numbered
  • Mass number - of protons and neutrons in the
    nucleus
  • Isotope atom with same of protons but a
    different of neutrons
  • Used for dating rocks/fossils/etc
  • EX 12C and 14C
  • Ion atoms that gained or lost electrons giving
    them a charge ( or -)

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Mixtures, Solutions, Compounds
  • Mixture combination of substances
  • Dont lose identities (of components)
  • Easy to separate components
  • Not in a set ratio
  • Solutions special type of mixture
  • Compounds 2 or more elements chemically
    combined
  • Components lose their identity
  • Components cant be separate out easily
  • Components in a specific, set ratio

15
Atomic Bonds
  • Atoms without a full outer energy level are
    likely to bond chemically. 3 types
  • Ionic formed when electrons are transferred
    between atoms
  • - between metals and non-metals
  • Covalent when electrons are shared between the
    atoms of non-metals
  • Metallic when electrons are shared by metal
    ions.

16
Minerals
  • 5 characteristics
  • Naturally occurring (not man-made)
  • Solid at normal surface temperatures
  • Inorganic (not from living things)
  • Definite and orderly crystal structure
  • Definite chemical composition

17
Mineral Formation
  • Crystallization from magma
  • From cooling magma
  • Precipitation from water
  • Like evaporated salt water
  • Pressure and temperature
  • Forms new minerals (metamorphism)
  • Hydrothermal solutions
  • From hot solutions

18
Mineral Groups
  • Silicates
  • Most common group
  • Must contain silicon and oxygen
  • Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (SiO4)
  • Non silicates
  • Cannot contain both silicon and oxygen
  • Much less common
  • 6 subgroups
  • Carbonates, oxides, sulfates, sulfides, halides,
    native elements

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Mineral Properties
  • Color its color!
  • Poor test alone
  • Minerals may be many colors
  • Many minerals can be the same color
  • Streak color of the powdered mineral
  • Produced by rubbing mineral on the streak plate
  • Cleavage tendency of a mineral to cleave
    (split) along flat, even surfaces
  • Fracture jagged, uneven breaking of a mineral

32
Mineral Properties
  • Luster the way light reflects from its surface
  • Metallic
  • Non-metallic
  • Glassy (vitreous)
  • Pearly
  • Earthy
  • Greasy
  • waxy

33
Mineral Properties
  • Crystal form geometric shape of minerals
  • Density the ratio of its mass to its volume
  • Hardness resistance of a mineral to being
    scratched, like, dude, scratchability
  • Mohs hardness scale from 1 10
  • See table page 52talc, quartz, diamond
  • Fingernail 2.5
  • Penny 3.5
  • Glass plate 5.5
  • Streak plate 7

34
Unusual Mineral Properties
  • Taste salty (halite)
  • Smell rotten eggs (sulfur)
  • Feel greasy/slick (talc, graphite)
  • Writes on paper (graphite)
  • Magnetic magnetite (lodestone)
  • Radioactive triggers a Geiger counter,
    (uranium)
  • Reactive reacts with HCl acid (calcite)
  • Double refraction see 2 images through it
    (calcite Icelandic spar)
  • Optical fiber can see through it (ulexite TV
    rock)
  • Fluorescent changes color under UV light
    (fluorite)
  • Gemstones precious or semi-precious, page 56/57
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