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Cultural Diversity


Cultural Diversity Chapter 2 Section 2 Cultural Variation Cultural Variation What do we have in common? Variation among Societies Studying Variation Variation within ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cultural Diversity

Cultural Diversity
  • Chapter 2
  • Section 2 Cultural Variation

Cultural Variation
  • What do we have in common?
  • Variation among Societies
  • Studying Variation
  • Variation within societies

What do we have in Common?
  • We all have the same basic needs but cultures are
    very different
  • Some needs are basic that all societies must
    develop certain features to ensure their
    fulfillments cultural universals.
  • George Murdock examined hundreds of cultures in
    an attempt to determine what general traits are
    common to all cultures.
  • Examples cooking, dancing, family, feasting
    funeral ceremonies, housing, languages, music,
    myths, religions.

George Murdock
  • In all cultures the need for families is the
  • Family
  • Ensures new members will be added to society
  • Members will be cared for until they can fend for
  • Introduces children to the components of their
  • The makeup of families from culture to culture

Variation Among Societies
  • Margaret Mead
  • Conducted research to find out if our temperment
    is based on what we learn or inherited
    characteristics or from cultural influences.
  • She observed several cultures from New Guinea.
  • The Arapesh
  • The Mundugumor
  • Comparing the two societies
  • Class Activity

Comparing Tribes
  • Arapesh
  • Compassionate
  • Love
  • Traditional
  • Trusting
  • Close
  • Kind
  • Content
  • Family
  • Peaceful
  • Idealic
  • Caring
  • Mundugumor
  • Hostile
  • Aggressive
  • Violent
  • Hate
  • Cruel
  • Power
  • Distant
  • Jealous
  • Scattered
  • Warriors

Studying Variation
  • Ethnocentrism
  • Have you ever felt negative feelings toward
    another culture.
  • We often feel this way about cultures that are
    different from their own
  • Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view ones own
    culture and group as superior.
  • Ethnocentrism is seen in all cultures, but when
    taken to the extreme it does not allow a culture
    to grow and accept new ideas, it also runs the
    risk of alienating certain members of its group.

Cultural Relativism
  • It is important to keep an open mind toward
    cultural variation.
  • Cultural Relativism is the belief that cultures
    should be judged by their own standards rather
    then by applying the standards of another culture.
  • It is an attempt to understand cultural practices
    from the points of view of the members of the
    society being studied.

Variation Within Societies
  • Variation exist among all societies.
  • You share a common culture with all other
  • American culture is collection of traits,
    complexes and patterns that are distinct from
    those is other societies.
  • Subculture some groups in society share values,
    norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the
    entire population.
  • Give examples and support them.

  • Examples
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Ethnic
  • Religious
  • Poltical
  • Geographic
  • Social Class and occupational

  • In some cases, however, subculture practices are
    consciously intended to challenge the values of
    the larger society.
  • Counterculture are groups that reject the major
    values, norms, and practices of the larger
    society and replaces them with a new set of
    cultural patterns.
  • Examples
  • Organized crime family
  • Punk movement
  • Hippies
  • Anarchists