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LESSONS FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE APRM NATIONAL PROGRAMMES OF ACTION Afeikhena Jerome Governance Assessment for Accountable Politics Windhoek, Namibia – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Jerome Governance Assessment for Accountable
Politics Windhoek, Namibia 2 to 5 November 2009

Overview of the APRM
  • Africa entered the new millennium with optimism
    and a commonly derived and broadly supported
    roadmap of how to overcome the development
    challenges of the last decades that were
    exacerbated by a range of factors including
    conflict, institutional decay, leadership and
    managerial deficit, endemic corruption and
    economic mismanagement.
  • The Africas agenda for renewal and overcoming
    these development deficits includes advancing the
    basic values of democratization and good
    governance, which together constitute the key
    requirements for sustainable development.
  • The APRM which is turning out to be the most
    innovative aspect of NEPAD is a self-monitoring
    instrument voluntarily agreed to by member states
    of the African Union.

Overview of the APRM
  • Its primary purpose is
  • To foster the adoption of policies, standards
    and practices that lead to political stability,
    high economic growth, sustainable development and
    accelerated sub-regional and continental economic
    integration through sharing of experiences and
    reinforcement of successful and best practice,
    including identifying deficiencies and assessing
    the needs of capacity building.
  • It is unprecedented in scope and mandate, even
    compared to the OECD that invented modern Peer
    Review. It covers four broad areas, namely
  • Democracy and Political Governance
  • Economic Governance and Management
  • Corporate Governance and
  • Socio-Economic Development.

APRM Principles
  • National ownership and leadership by the
    participating country are essential factors
    underpinning the APRM process.
  • It is designed to be open and participatory. The
    core guiding principles are transparency,
    accountability, technical competence, credibility
    and it should be free from manipulation.
  • The APRM is not a score-card exercise, meant to
    exclude or punish countries. There is no
    conditionality attached to the mechanism.

African Countries Participating in NEPAD and the
    APR Forum

Burkina Faso Benin Djibouti Lesotho Malawi Sierra
Leone Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia
Algeria Angola Republic of Cameroon Congo Egypt Et
hiopia Ghana Gabon Kenya
Mali Mauritius Nigeria Mozambique Rwanda Sao Tome
Principe Senegal South Africa
Tunisia Libya Botswana
The APR Processes
  • Stage One comprises the establishment of the
    national focal point sending out of the
    questionnaire by the APR Secretariat the
    development of the countrys self assessment
    based on the questionnaire and preliminary
    Programme of Action and the submission of these
    to the APR Secretariat. At this stage the
    Secretariat also prepares a Background Paper on
    the Country for comparison with the self
  • Stage Two the country review team visits the
    country to undertake wide consultations with
  • Stage Three is the drafting of the report by the
    country review team.
  • Stage Four is the submission of the Country
    Review Teams report to the APR Secretariat and
    the APR Panel and Review by the Forum
  • Stage Five which is the final stage of the APR
    process involves making public the countrys
    report and related actions.

Stages of the APRM
Operational Structure of the APRM
  • The overall responsibility of the APRM is vested
    in the Committee of Participating Heads of State
    and Government of the Member States of the APRM
    (APRM Forum.
  • A Panel of Eminent Persons APRM Panel appointed
    by the Heads of States oversees the conduct of
    the APRM process and ensures its integrity.
  • The APR Secretariat provides the secretarial,
    technical, coordinating and administrative
    support services for the APRM.

Structures of the APRM
APR Forum
National APRM Commission
National APRM Focal Point
APR Panel
APR Secretariat
National APRM Secretariat
Strategic Partner Institutions
  • Country Level

Continental Level
Structures to manage the process at country level
  • A National Commission with broad stakeholder
    representation should ideally be in place to
    interact with the support mission team.
  • A trend seems to emerge that includes a Focal
    Point and Governing Council supported by a
    Secretariat as well as Technical Research
  • While uniformity may not be easy to achieve
    based on the contexts of countries, national
    ownership and broad-based stakeholder
    representation are key features required for
    these institutions.

APRM Master Questionnaire
Democracy and Good Political Governance (9 Objectives) Economic Governance and Management (5 Objectives) Corporate Governance (5 Objectives) Socio-Economic Governance (6 Objectives)
30 International instruments and Standards/ 16 Regional instruments and Standards 15 Standards and codes 9 Standards and codes 10 Standards and codes
1. Prevent and reduce intra- and inter-country conflicts. 1. Promote macroeconomic policies that support sustainable development 1. Promote an enabling environment and effective regulatory framework for economic activities 1. Promote self-reliance in development and build capacity for self-sustaining development
2. Constitutional democracy, including periodic political competition and opportunity for choice, the rule of law, a Bill of Rights and supremacy of the Constitution. 2. Implement sound, transparent and predictable government economic policies 2. Ensure that corporations act as good corporate citizens with regards to human rights, social responsibility and environmental sustainability 2. Accelerate socio-economic development to achieve sustainable development and poverty eradication
3. Promotion and protection of economic, social and cultural rights, civil and political rights as enshrined in African and international human rights instruments 3. Promote sound public finance management 3. Promote adoption of codes of good business ethics in achieving the objectives of the corporation 3. Strengthen policies, delivery mechanisms and outcomes in key social areas including education and combating HIV/AIDS and other communicable diseases
4. Uphold the separation of powers, including the protection of the independence of the judiciary and of an effective parliament 4. Fight corruption and money laundering 4. Ensure that corporations treat all their stakeholders (Shareholders, employees, communities, suppliers and customers) in a fair and just manner 4. Ensuring affordable access to water, sanitation, energy, finance (including micro-finance), markets, ICT, shelter and land to all citizens, especially the rural poor
5. Ensure accountable, efficient and effective public office holders and civil servants 5. Accelerate regional integration by participating in the harmonization of monetary, trade and investment policies 5. Provide for accountability of corporations, directors and officers 5. Progress towards gender equality in all critical areas of concern, including equal access to education for girls at all levels
APRM Master Questionnaire
Democracy and Good Political Governance Economic Governance and Management Corporate Governance Socio-Economic Governance
6. Fighting corruption in the political sphere 6. Encourage broad-based participation in development by all stakeholders at all levels
7. Promotion and protection of the rights of women
8. Promotion and protection of the rights of children and young persons
9. Promotion and protection of the rights of vulnerable groups including internally displaced persons and refugees
Status of Implementation of the APRM thus Far
Cape Verdes accession in June 2009 brings to 30
the total number of AU member countries that have
so far acceded. Mauritania was suspension on 25
October 2008 for the unconstitutional change of
government following the 6 August 2008 coup that
ousted its democratically elected President This
represents about 76 per cent of the African
population. We look forward to the 23 other
African countries joining the fold.

Green Reviewed Countries Orange Other
Participating Member Countries Grey
Non-Participating Countries Red- Suspended
APRM Member Countries by Region
Region Countries
Central Africa (5) Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Rwanda and São Tomé and Principe
East Africa (5) Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
North Africa (3) Algeria, Egypt, Sudan
Southern Africa (7) Angola, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique,South Africa, Zambia
West Africa (9)10 Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mauritania, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Cape Verde
  • So far, 17 out of the 30 member countries have
    launched the process.
  • Twelve countries have been peer reviewed by the
    APR Forum. (Ghana, Rwanda, Kenya, South Africa,
    Algeria, Benin, Uganda, Nigeria and Burkina Faso,
    Mali and Mozambique and Lesotho)
  • Mauritius and Ethiopia has just completed their
    Country Review Missions. Kenya II is scheduled
    for November 2009.
  • Tanzania has submitted its CSAR and NPOA to the
    Secretariat. Zambia is also slated on the Work
    Plan for Peer Review this year.

APRM Country Review Missions
APRM Country Review Missions
Examples from the Pioneer Countries- Ghana
  • 6 Best Practices including
  • An oasis of peace and tranquility in a sub-region
    perpetually in turmoil.
  • Unique processes for fostering democracy such as
    the Annual Governance Forum and the Peoples
  • Main Challenges
  • Low representation of women in politics
    corruption decentralisation and chieftaincy
    disputes which have been quite rife in recent
  • Others are bloated cabinet - 88 ministers in
    all weak internal capacity for economic policy
    making weak oversight by Parliament and heavy
    dependence on external aid.

Rwanda Review Process

Best Practices including The highest proportion
of Women in Parliament (49) in the in the world
efforts in providing social services especially
free education and using ICT strategy to
transform the country into a service-based
economy. Main Challenges Aid dependence - about
90 of the capital expenditure funded externally
Relations with its neighbours in the Great Lakes
region which has been a source of conflict and
the issue of legitimacy and trust in the
Kenya Review Process
  • 9 Best Practices including
  • Kenyas role in pacifying her neighbours
    considerable degree of freedom in exercising
    political and civil rights promotion of
    decentralisation reduction in the prevalence
    rate of HIV/AIDS and firing of 29 judges to
    clean up the Judiciary.
  • Main Challenges
  • Delay in adopting a new constitution to replace
    the colonial era charter inability to redress
    the colonial legacies ethnicity endemic
    corruption weak parliamentary oversight poor
    representation of women in key positions and
    high incidence of poverty.

Overview Progress So Far Lessons
Learnt Challenges
South Africa Review Process
  • In addition to some remarkable feats by South
    Africans, the report identified 18 Best Practices
  • Taking the parliament to the people the budget
    formulation process, self-reliance in funding
    development the JSE and triple bottom reporting
    and gender empowerment (Women constitute about 45
    of Parliament).
  • Main Challenges
  • Violent crime, violence against women and
    children capacity constraint and poor service
    delivery Racism and Xenophobia.

Overview Progress So Far Lessons
Learnt Challenges
The National Programme of Action
  • A major deliverable of the Review Process is the
  • Real progress can only be guaranteed if NPOAs
    are implemented hence for the first time, Forum
    meeting in January 2009 was dedicated to progress
    in implementing NPOA .

The National Programme of Action
  • Inter alia, the POA is expected to present among
  • Clear, time-bound commitments on key governance
    and socio-economic development priorities over
    the next three 3 years, including the
    identification of key stakeholders for
    implementation, and the estimated budgetary
    implications and allocations
  • Description of the national consultations that
    have taken place in developing the National
    Programme of Action
  • Outline the feedback mechanism established to
    keep local stakeholders involved in the process
  • Description of the capacity building and resource
    mobilization requirements for undertaking the
    Programme of Action and,
  • Outline the implementation, monitoring and
    evaluation mechanisms for the Programme of

Budget of the NPOA in Reviewed Countries
Democracy and Political Governance Economic Governance and Management Corporate Governance Socio-Economic Development Total USD
Ghana 118,982,083 (2.4) 235,305,000 (4.7) 2,684,361,693 (54.7) 1,867,150,000 (37.3) 5,000,000,000
Rwanda 2,235,000 (1.4) 20,484,000 (13) 107,750,000 (67) 31,269,000 (19) 161,738,000
Kenya 8,829,000 (0.2) 45,772,000 (0.8) 4,946,658,000 (91.8. ) 387,145,000 (7.2) 5,388,404,000
South Africa R1.003 billion (7.2) R1.5335 billion (11.0) R 0.204 billion (1.5) R 11.161 billion (83.5) R13.9015 billion
Algeria 2,378,000,000 (40.5) 936,000,000 (16.0) 751,000,000 (12.8) 1,800000,000 (30.7) 5,865,000,000
Benin 586,370,000 (24.8) 7,340,000 (0.3) 1,004,260,000 (42.6) 758,120,000 (32.2) 2,356,090,000
Uganda 101,930,205 (2.1) 388,506,686 (8.0) 324,369,895 (6.7) 4,035,295,788 (83.1) 4,857,102, 574
Nigeria 5 billion (40) 4 billion (25) 3 billion (20) 8 billion (15) 20 billion
Burkina Faso 413,705,000 (10.5) 160,060,000 (3.3) 2,750,390,000 (56.0) 1,583,060,000 (32.3) 4,907,215,000
Experience in implementing the NPOAs
  • Demonstrable commitment by all countries that
    have gone through the review process. They are
    enthusiastically implementing the NPOA, in spite
    of several formidable challenges, some even
    before they were peer reviewed
  • There are daunting challenges, including the
    establishment of appropriate national structures
    to monitor the NPOA, proper costing and ensuring
    that it is not a wish list (need for
    prioritization). No format until recently.
  • Capturing key findings and conclusions of the
    peer review processes (overarching issues)
  • Overlap between the NPOAs and other national
    initiatives sometimes, resulting in double
    costing of interventions. While NPOAs are not
    designed to be a substitute to other ongoing
    national initiatives such as the PRSPs or
    National Development Strategies (NDS), the
    comparative value added must be captured and

Key Challenges
  • Rrequisite institutional mechanism are lacking
    in some countries to take forward the post-review
    process, since the Governing Council was
    disbanded immediately after the peer review
    exercise. In others, key stakeholders are not
    kept informed about the APRM process after the
    review process
  • The monitoring and evaluation component needs a
    lot of development. (Country specific) and,
  • Perhaps the major challenge is the capacity and
    resource gaps which are pervasive and there is
    need for additional resources to support the
    implementation of the NPOA.


Key Lessons The APRM is a unique African
instrument that is trial-blazing and has great
potential as a tool to promote and strengthen
good governance. It is African in origin, African
inspired and African-owned. The experiences
from the APRM implementation process are very
encouraging. The process has been empowering in
ways that were not envisaged when it started. It
has spawned and strengthening a culture of
political dialogue in the countries .
  • The APRM is making it possible for countries to
    benchmark good governance in Africa on shared
    African and international norms and standards as
    well as for citizens to participate in the
    evaluation of how they are governed.
  • It is show-casing African innovative thinking in
  • An area where the rest of the world can learn
    useful lessons from Africa.

Thank you for your attention WWW.