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Social Research Methods

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Social Research Methods Social Research Goal: Test common sense & peoples assumptions then replace with fact & evidence and make Definition ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Research Methods


1
Social Research Methods
2
Social Research
  • Goal Test common sense peoples assumptions
    then
  • replace with fact evidence and
    make

Generalizations!!
Definition statement about a group of people or
things that is based on only a few people or
things in that group.
3
Social Research
  • Where to we do research?
  • The whole world
  • is a sociologists lab!

4
Two Types
  • Quantitative research that relies on numerical
    data

VS.
Qualitative research which uses observation and
relies upon descriptive data
5
Methods
  • Experiment research that takes place in a lab
    setting
  • (limited use in
    social research)
  • Field Research research that takes place in a
    natural
  • (non-lab)
    setting (primarily used in social research)

VS
6
Methods
  • Survey research method in which people respond
    to
  • questions (most common method
    used in research)

Two Types
  • Questionnaire asking a sample population to
    respond to a
  • to a series of
    closed-ended questions
  • Interview asking of open-ended questions in
    order to
  • gain required information

Quantitative
Qualitative
7
Methods
  • Secondary/Historical Analysis reading and
    analyzing

  • another persons data and


    r
    research on a
    topic
  • Case Study in depth examination of a single
    group,
  • problem, or community
  • Longitudinal Study type of case study that is
    conducted over a period of time.
  • Cross-sectional Study focus on data collected at
    a specific period of time.

8
Methods
  • Natural Observation research based on
    observation of people
  • in any given environment (place)
  • Participant Observation research in which the
    researcher becomes
  • involved with the group being studied

9
Theoretical Perspectives
Topic of Study School Violence
Theoretical Perspective Research Method Reasoning
Functionalist Theory Survey A questionnaire on violence in high schools is sent to a national, random sample of principals. The survey examines a possible relationship between incidence of school violence and family life.
Conflict Theory Case Study A particular high school with high levels of fights is examined with respect to the relationship between fights at school and family life at home. Researchers interview principals, teachers, and students.
Symbolic Interactionist Theory Participant Observation Concealing their identity, a researcher takes a temporary job at a high school with lots of fights at school. They attempt to observe a possible link between fights and family life.
10
The Social Research Method
Step 1 Choose a TopicANDAsk a Question
Example Topic ? Sport and School Behavior and
Grades Question ? What is the impact does playing
a high school sport have
on the behavior of student
athletes in class?
11
The Social Research Method
  • Step 2
  • Literature Review
  • What does research that has already been done
    say about this topic?
  • Example
  • I would read and review
  • American Sociological Association Journal
    Articles about Sports School
  • Books by authors who studied this topic
    previously
  • Interviews from athletes (high school and
    college)
  • Newspaper Articles about Sports and School

12
The Social Research Method
  • Step 3
  • State your Hypothesis
  • What do I think will be my answer?
  • Hypothesis proposed explanation for a
    phenomenon.

Example Hypothesis ? Students who play a high
school sport will have
better behavior in school
versus those students who do not
play a high school sport.

13
The Social Research Method
  • Step 4
  • Develop your Research Plan
  • Choose your methods to collect data (3)
  • Create a timeline for your research
  • Choose your research population

Example Methods ? Survey, Interview, Secondary
Analysis (data) Timeline ? I will conduct my
research over a period of 2
weeks Population ? I will research 50
student-athletes and 50
non-athletes grades 9-12 at SHS
14
The Social Research Method
  • Step 5
  • Collect your Data
  • Go out and perform your research!
  • Variables
  • Independent Variable varied or manipulated by
    the researcher the cause.
  • Dependent Variable response that is measured
    the effect.
  • Variable ? Playing a sport (Independent) will
    yield either good or bad behavior (Dependent)

15
The Social Research Method
  • Step 6
  • Analyze your Data
  • Analyze your data and look for the following
  • Patterns and Relationships
  • Correlations and Causations

Example Patterns ? A majority/few student
athletes have good behavior in class.
Relationship ? Being a student-athlete causes
better behavior in
class (Direct Relationship) Correlation ? I
found a positive correlation between student-
athletes and positive
behavior
16
The Social Research Method
  • Step 7
  • State your Conclusions
  • What generalizations can be drawn from the
    results of your research?
  • Was your hypothesis proven correct or incorrect?

Example Hypothesis ? My hypothesis was proven to
be correct Generalization ? Students who play
high school sports tend to
behave better in class.
17
Examining Results
  • Causation an outcome has been directly caused by
    a variable or factor.
  • Sociologists examine cause and effect by looking
    at the variables, or characteristics, involved.

18
Examining Results
  • Correlation a change in one variable regularly
    associates with a change in another variable.

19
Caveat When conducting research, either in a lab
setting or in society, outcomes do not always
match the intended results.
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