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ENERGY MANAGEMENT: PSYCHING UP WITHOUT PSYCHING OUT

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ENERGY MANAGEMENT: PSYCHING UP WITHOUT PSYCHING OUT Damon Burton University of Idaho AROUSAL DEFINED Arousal the general physiological and psychological ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ENERGY MANAGEMENT: PSYCHING UP WITHOUT PSYCHING OUT


1
ENERGY MANAGEMENT PSYCHING UP WITHOUT PSYCHING
OUT
  • Damon Burton
  • University of Idaho

2
  • What is arousal?

3
AROUSAL DEFINED
  • Arousal the general physiological and
    psychological activation of the body that varies
    on a continuum from deep sleep to intense
    excitement.

4
AROUSAL CONTINUUM
  • Low
    High
  • Arousal
    Arousal
  • Coma
    Frenzy
  • couch potato
    working out

5
COMPONENTS OF AROUSAL
  • Intensity amount of activation of the Autonomic
    Nervous System.
  • Direction interpretation of activation as
    positive and facilitating performance or negative
    and detrimental to performance.

6
PHYSIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF AROUSAL
  • Under stress, the Autonomic Nervous System is
    activated.
  • The sympathetic component of the ANS pumps
    adrenaline into bloodstream to help the body
    prepare to handle demanding situation.
  • The Fight or Flight Syndrome is a survival
    mechanism built into our caveman ancestors.

DQ 1 How often do we need Fight or Flight in
todays U.S.?
7
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING MAXIMAL AROUSAL
  • Heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
    increase.
  • Muscles develop anticipatory tension.
  • Glucose is released from the liver to provide
    extra energy.
  • Through vasodilatation, blood is shunted away
    from the digestive system to the large muscles of
    arms and legs.
  • The kidneys shut down and the bladder is emptied.
  • Brain activity increases, enhancing alertness.
  • Our cooling system engages to prepare for
    vigorous activity.

8
WHAT TRIGGERS ACTIVATION OF THE ANS?
  • Life-threatening situations that trigger the
    Fight or Flight Syndrome.
  • Psychological stress such as preparing for a big
    test, an important speech, a crucial job
    interview or a major sport competition.

9
MENTAL COMPONENTS OF AROUSAL
  • Self talk.
  • Imagery.
  • Attentional focus.
  • Perceptions of control.

DQ 2 When dealing with perceptions of control
What is more important, the athletes perception
or reality?
10
Does arousal help or hurt performance?
11
Relationships Between Physical and Mental
Components of Arousal
High Physical Arousal
  • excitement
  • challenge
  • readiness
  • somatic anxiety
  • anger

Facilitative
Debilitative
  • boredom
  • fatigue
  • lethargy
  • relaxation

Low Physical Arousal
12
FACILITATIVE AROUSAL
  • High arousal that is interpreted positively as
    optimal challenge, readiness or excitement.
  • Leads to a constructive approach to competition
    in which athletes are highly-focused, thinking
    positively, feeling prepared and in control, and
    imagining successful process and outcome.
  • Prompts performers to rise to the occasion,
    attain personal excellence and promote Flow.

13
DEBILITATIVE AROUSAL
  • High arousal that is interpreted negatively as
    threat, worry, and fear of failure.
  • Leads to a detrimental approach to competition in
    which athletes are highly-distracted, thinking
    negatively, feeling ill prepared and totally
    overwhelmed, and imagining disastrous performance
    and outcome.
  • Prompts choking and poor performance, thus
    blocking Flow.

DQ 3 Describe a situation that you found to be
F.A. and you knew someone that viewed it as D.A.?
14
  • How does arousal
  • relate to anxiety?

15
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AROUSAL AND ANXIETY
  • Anxiety a negative emotional state
    characterized by feelings of nervousness, worry
    and apprehension associated with activation of
    the body.
  • Anxiety is a negative emotion that has a
    detrimental impact on performance.
  • Trait anxiety is the tendency to view
    situations negatively and respond with higher
    levels of state anxiety.
  • State anxiety is a momentary anxiety experience
    that includes both autonomic arousal and specific
    cognitions of worry and apprehension.

16
Model of Competitive Emotions
Facilitative
  • excitement
  • readiness
  • self-confidence

self
Physical
Mental
  • somatic anxiety
  • cognitive anxiety

Debilitative
17
DIMENSIONS OF ANXIETY
  • Cognitive Anxiety is negative expectations of
    success or worrying about the negative
    consequences of failure.
  • Symptoms include self-doubts, concerns about
    doing well, lack of control, inability to
    concentrate and images of failure or disaster.
  • Somatic Anxiety is the physiological and
    affective component of anxiety that develops
    directly from autonomic arousal and is
    interpreted negatively.
  • Symptoms include muscular tension, butterflies
    in the stomach, shortness of breath, sweaty
    palms, cotton mouth, frequent urination, and
    increased heart rate.

18
POSITIVE COMPETITIVE EMOTIONS
  • Self-Confidence is positive expectations of
    success that should facilitate performance.
  • Symptoms include feelings of control,
    perceptions of being highly prepared, few
    concerns about doing well, extreme belief in
    talent and ability, and images of success.
  • Excitement/Readiness reflects a positive
    interpretation of autonomic arousal symptoms that
    should facilitate performance.
  • Symptoms include muscular tension, butterflies
    in the stomach, shortness of breath, sweaty
    palms, cotton mouth, frequent urination, and
    increased heart rate.

19
  • How does arousal impact performance?

20
DRIVE THEORY HOW ARE AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE
RELATED?
  • Performance

  • Arousal

High
High
Low
21
INVERTED-U THEORY HOW ARE AROUSAL AND
PERFORMANCE RELATED?
  • Performance 1
    2 3
  • Individualized ZOF

Arousal
22
CATASTROPHE THEORY WHEN COGNITIVE ANXIETY IS
HIGH?
  • High Cognitive Anxiety
  • Performance 1
    2 3
  • Arousal

23
HOW UNDERAROUSAL IMPAIRS PERFORMANCE
  • Arousal is insufficient to prepare body for
    challenging competitive demands.
  • Insufficient oxygen is pumped to the working
    muscles.
  • The bodys cooling system is not adequately
    readied.
  • Nonessential systems such as digestion and
    excretion are not put on standby.
  • Glucose has not been released from the liver to
    fuel activity.
  • Brain activity increases, heightening alertness.

24
HOW OVER AROUSAL IMPAIRS PERFORMANCE
  • Excessive muscular tension and coordination
    problems
  • Index finger example.
  • Attentional problems
  • Attentional narrowing.
  • Inability to shift attention.
  • Brain specialization problems
  • Excessive analyzer control.
  • Adoption of an outcome rather than a process
    orientation.

25
  • How do task and
  • personality variables
  • influence optimal arousal?

26
OPTIMAL AROUSAL SIMPLE VERSUS COMPLEX TASKS
  • Attentional demands.
  • Decision-making requirements.
  • Nature of the motor response.

27
ATTENTIONAL DEMANDS
  • The number of stimuli in the environment.
  • The number of cues you need to attend to.
  • The duration and intensity of the stimuli.
  • The conflicting nature of cues.

28
DECISION-MAKING REQUIREMENTS
  • Number of decisions necessary.
  • Number of choices per decision.
  • Speed at which decisions have to be made.
  • The sequence of those decisions.

29
NATURE OF THE MOTOR RESPONSE
  • The number of muscles involved.
  • The amount of coordination required.
  • The precision and steadiness needed.
  • The fine motor skills required.

30
OPTIMAL AROUSAL TASK DURATION
  • Long-duration events require execution of the
    skill as efficiently as possible to minimize
    energy expenditure through good technique and
    correct pace.
  • Short-duration events require sharply-focused,
    explosive arousal for a few moments when athletes
    perform.

31
  • Does the inverted-U hypothesis still effectively
    explain how arousal influences performance?

32
RECONCEPTUALIZING THE INVERTED-U
  • Facilitative arousal conditions cognitive
    anxiety is low, self-confidence is high, and
    athletes adopt a process orientation.
  • Debilitative arousal conditions cognitive
    anxiety is high, self-confidence is low, and
    athletes adopt an outcome orientation.
  • Neutral arousal conditions low-moderate
    cognitive anxiety, moderate to high
    self-confidence, and a moderate outcome
    orientation.

33
AROUSAL-PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP FACILITATIVE
CONDITIONS
  • Performance

  • Arousal

High
High
Low
34
AROUSAL-PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP NEUTRAL
CONDITIONS
  • Performance 1
    2 3
  • Individualized ZOF

Arousal
35
AROUSAL-PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP DEBILITATIVE
CONDITIONS
  • High Cognitive Anxiety
  • Performance 1
    2 3
  • Arousal

36
SPORT ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
  • Education Phase
  • General Education.
  • Personal Education through Awareness.
  • Acquisition Phase
  • Develop Energy Management Skills.
  • Adjust Your Optimal Energy Zone.
  • Practice and Rehearsal Phases

37
AWARENESS TRAINING
  • First step in energy management program.
  • Use imagery to vividly recall your best
    performance
  • Evaluate performance states.
  • Next use imagery to recall your worst
    performance
  • Evaluate performance states.
  • Compare your responses.
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