BIOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – BIOLOGY PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 78b9d7-MzY2Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

BIOLOGY

Description:

BIOLOGY Second Semester Review – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:156
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 92
Provided by: Laura652
Learn more at: http://whs.whitnallschools.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: BIOLOGY


1
BIOLOGY
  • Second Semester Review

2
  • Study Tips
  • Refer to the review sheet.
  • 2. Organize your assignments.
  • Highlight learning targets.
  • Focus your studies on learning targets you
    struggled with.
  • 5. Make flash cards for vocab.
  • 6. Review this ppt. on-line
  • 7. Study longer then you want to.
  • 8. Get a good nights sleep.
  • 9. Eat healthy.

3
DNA
  • Unit Target Explain why individuals of the same
    species vary in how they look, function and
    behave.

4
Learning Target Compare and contrast the
structures and function of DNA and RNA. (K)
  • DNA or RNA?
  • Made of
  • Phosphate group
  • Deoxyribose
  • Nitrogen bases
  • DNA
  • DNA or RNA?
  • Made of
  • Phosphate group
  • Ribose
  • Nitrogen bases
  • RNA

5
  • DNA or RNA?
  • Nitrogen bases include
  • C G A T
  • DNA
  • DNA or RNA?
  • Shape is a double helix
  • DNA

6
  • DNA or RNA?
  • Undergoes replication.
  • DNA
  • DNA or RNA?
  • Is transcribed.
  • RNA

7
Learning Target Explain and model how the
information contained in DNA is copied. (R)
  • DNA is unzipped by an enzyme called
  • DNA polymerase
  • Helicase
  • RNA polymerase
  • B.

8
  • Truth or baloney?
  • DNA replication occurs in the nucleus.
  • True
  • DNA replication occurs during mitosis.
  • Baloney- during interphase
  • DNA replication allows daughter cells to obtain
    the same genetic information.
  • True
  • DNA replication is semi-conservative.
  • True- one old and one new strand

9
Learning Target Use the genetic code to
construct a proteins amino acid sequence. (skill)
  • DNA CGA TTC
  • mRNA? GCU AAG
  • Polypeptide chain?
  • Alanine-lysine

10
Learning Target Explain Biologys Central
Dogma. (knowledge)
  • Truth or Baloney?
  • Biologys central dogma refers to the flow of
    information through a cell.
  • True

11
EVOLUTION
  • Unit Target Describe how evolution explains the
    unity and diversity of species.

12
Learning Target Define key terms associated with
evolution. (knowledge)
  • True or False?
  • Evolution is defined as change in a population of
    organisms over time.
  • True
  • Individual organisms can evolve.
  • False. Individuals cannot change their genetic
    information.

13
Learning Target Define key terms associated with
evolution. (knowledge)
  • the ability of an organism to survive and
    reproduce in an environment.
  • the most recent ancestral form or species from
    which two different species evolved
  • heritable characteristic that increases an
    organisms ability to survive and reproduce in its
    environment
  • Adaptation
  • Fitness
  • Common ancestor

14
Learning Target Summarize Charles Darwins key
ideas and contributions to the development of the
theory of evolution. (knowledge)  
  • What does each letter stand for?
  • V I S T
  • Variation
  • Inheritance
  • Selection
  • Time

15
Match each of Darwins key ideas with a
description.
  • VARIATION
  • INHERITANCE
  • SELECTION
  • TIME
  • The passing down of genetic traits from one
    generation to another.
  • The different characteristics found in a single
    species.
  • A unit of measurement reflecting generations of
    offspring.
  • More organisms are produced than can survive due
    to limited resources so the most fit survive and
    reproduce.

16
Match each of Darwins key ideas with an example.
  • One frog has a white belly and one frog has a
    yellow belly.
  • After many years, the color of the frog
    population changed from light to dark.
  • The dark colored frogs in the pond were
    camouflaged so they survived and reproduced.
  • The dark colored frogs reproduced and passed
    their genes to their offspring.
  • VARIATION
  • INHERITANCE
  • SELECTION
  • TIME

17
Learning Target Given examples of anatomical
structures, determine the type homologous,
analogous or vestigial. (Reasoning)
  • Fill in the blank with homologous, analogous or
    vestigial.
  • Body parts that share a common function but not
    structure are __________________.
  • Body parts in animals that are reduced in size
    but resemble structures in other organisms are
    _________.
  • Structures that show anatomical similarities and
    are inherited by a common ancestor are
    _____________________.

analogous
vestigial
homologous
18
Match the anatomical structure to the correct
example.
  • There are 7 vertebra in the neck of a giraffe and
    the neck of a human.
  • (similar structures and common ancestor-mammals)
  • The jointed leg of an insect and the jointed leg
    of a cow.
  • (Insects and cows do not share a common ancestor)
  • Pelvis and limb bones in a snake.
  • (structures are not functional)
  • Homologous structure
  • Analogous structure
  • Vestigial structure

19
  • How do anatomical structures provide evidence for
    evolution?
  • They may show evidence of common ancestry.
  • They may explain why a structure that is not
    functional is present in an organism.
  • They show that all structures of all organisms
    are basically the same.
  • Both A and B are correct.
  • D.

20
Learning Target Differentiate between artificial
and natural selection. (reasoning)
  • Circle the word that best completes the sentence.
  • Artificial selection is the process by which
    (humans / nature ) select(s) which traits will be
    passed down to offspring.

21
  • How did artificial selection help Darwin explain
    evolution?
  • If species changed over time through artificial
    selection than species could change over time in
    the natural world.
  • Artificial selection proved that species do not
    change over time.
  • Artificial selection showed that people should
    not interfere with nature.
  • Artificial selection did not help Darwin explain
    evolution.
  • A.

22
Learning Target Determine the conditions under
which natural selection occurs and the results of
natural selection. (reasoning)
  • Circle the word that best completes each
    sentence.
  • In natural selection, ( humans / nature )
    choose(s) which species will survive and
    reproduce.

23
  • Circle the best answer.
  • Natural selection acts on ( acquired / inherited
    ) traits.
  • Natural selection refers to the ability of an
    organism to survive and reproduce- therefore,
    offspring inherit the parents traits.
  • Acquired traits refer to a trait that is not
    dependant upon inheritance but is usually
    affected by the environment. We discussed this
    during genetics. You may inherit the ability to
    speak but you acquire the ability to speak
    English because you live with a family that
    speaks English.

24
  • Which of the following is not an example of
    natural selection?
  • The birds with the beaks that were most suited to
    eating beans survived and reproduced.
  • The beans that were most difficult for the birds
    to eat survived and reproduced.
  • The puppies that were highly trainable and fast
    were bred to produce offspring that would be able
    to retrieve birds for hunting.
  • The dark colored pocket mouse which lives on the
    dark colored lava flow is camouflaged from the
    owl so dark colored pocket mice are more likely
    to survive and reproduce than white colored
    pocket mice.
  • C. This is an example of artificial selection.

25
  • Which of the following is a condition necessary
    for natural selection to occur?
  • More offspring are born than can survive
  • Fitness varies among individuals
  • There is heritable variation among members of the
    population.
  • All of the above
  • D.

26
Learning Target Analyze examples of fossil
evidence that support the theory of evolution by
natural selection. (reasoning)
  • How are fossil records evidence for evolution?
  • Fossils show changes in species over time.
  • Fossils easily tell us if an organism made its
    own food.
  • Fossils tell us how many offspring an
  • organism had.
  • All of the above.
  • A. By creating evolutionary trees from fossils,
    scientists can observe the changes that occur in
    a species over time. Remember- we can determine
    the age of a fossils through radiometric dating.

27
Learning Target Interpret the information
conveyed in a model evolutionary tree. (skill)
  • What letter represent the oldest common ancestor?
  • F
  • What letter represents the most recent common
    ancestor of B and C?
  • E

28
EVOLUTION- CLASSIFICATION
  • Unit Target Biologists classify organisms based
    upon similarities and differences.

29
Learning Target Define the following key terms
associated with classification. (knowledge)
  • Classification is
  • a. the study of living things
  • b. the grouping of organisms based on
    similarities
  • c. the grouping of organisms based on
    differences
  • d. the study of evolution
  • b.

30
  • Organism that does not have a nucleus
  • Organism that cannot make its own food
  • Organism that is made of only one cell
  • Organism that has a true nucleus.
  • Organism that can use energy from the sun to make
    its own food.
  • unicellular
  • prokaryote
  • eukaryote
  • autotroph
  • heterotroph

31
Learning Target Describe the advantage of using
a classification system. (knowledge)
  • Scientists use a classification system to
  • a. identify all organisms before they go
    extinct.
  • b. assign the numerous and diverse amount of
    organisms a name to improve communication.
  • c. show evolutionary relationships between
    organisms.
  • Only b and c are correct
  • d

32
  • True or False? The system used to name organisms
    is called trinomial nomenclature.
  • False- Binomial nomenclature for the two names
    (genus and species)

33
Learning Target Distinguish between an
organisms scientific name and its common
name. (knowledge)
  • Explain why common names like daisy and mountain
    lion can cause problems for scientists.
  • Common names vary among languages and regions

34
Learning Target Know the rules for writing an
organism's scientific name. (knowledge)
  • Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of
    Linnaeuss system of naming organisms?
  • Two-part name
  • Multipart name describing several traits
  • Name that identifies the organisms species
  • Name that identifies the organisms genus
  • B.

35
Learning Target Know the rules for writing an
organism's scientific name. (knowledge)
  • In the scientific system on naming organisms
  • every organism is given a two word name
  • the first word represents the genus
  • the second word represents the species
  • the genus is always capitalized
  • All of the above
  • E

36
Learning Target Describe the advantage of using
a classification system. (knowledge)
  • Today organisms are classified
  • a. using DNA and RNA
  • b. based on their evolutionary history
  • c. based on their structures
  • all of the above
  • d

37
Learning Target Know the rules for writing an
organism's scientific name. (knowledge)
  • In the six-kingdom system of classifying living
    things, which kingdom(s) contain unicellular
    organisms?
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • All of the above
  • E.

38
Learning Target Distinguish between a prokaryote
and a eukaryote. (knowledge)
Label each diagram as prokaryote or eukaryote.
eukaryote
prokaryote
39
Learning Target Distinguish between an autotroph
and a heterotroph. (knowledge)
Label each diagram as autotroph or heterotroph.
autotroph
heterotroph
40
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting a
classification table. (reasoning) USE THE DIAGRAM
FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
  Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN DOMAIN Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya
KINGDOM KINGDOM Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
CELL TYPE CELL TYPE Prokaryote Prokaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote
CELL STRUCTURES CELL STRUCTURES Cell walls Cell walls Cell walls Cell walls Cell walls and chloroplasts No cell walls or chloroplasts
NUMBER OF CELLS NUMBER OF CELLS Unicellular Unicellular Most unicellular Most multicellular some unicellular Multicellular Multicellular
MODE OF NUTRITION MODE OF NUTRITION Autotroph or heterotroph Autotroph or heterotroph Autotroph or heterotroph Heterotroph Autotroph Heterotroph
EXAMPLES EXAMPLES Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Methanogens, halophiles Amoeba, Paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp Mushrooms, yeasts Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Sponges, worms, insects, fishes,
41
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting a
classification table. (reasoning) USE THE DIAGRAM
FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
  • What do all members of the domain Eukarya have in
    common?
  • They are all eukaryotes, meaning that they have a
    true nucleus and membrane bound organelles.

42
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting a
classification table. (reasoning) USE THE DIAGRAM
FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
  • How could you distinguish between a member of the
    kingdom plantae and fungi?
  • Members of both these kingdoms have cell walls,
    but the cell walls are made of different
    chemicals. Fungi are heterotrophs while plants
    are autotrophs.

43
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting a
classification table. (reasoning) USE THE DIAGRAM
FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
  • Bacteria are classified into
  • three kingdoms
  • four families
  • two domains
  • All of the above
  • C.

44
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting a
classification table. (reasoning) USE THE DIAGRAM
FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
  • Which domains contain prokaryotes?
  • Bacteria and Archaea
  • Which domain contains bacteria that live in
    extreme environments?
  • Archaea

45
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting a
classification table. (reasoning) USE THE DIAGRAM
FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
  • In the six-kingdom system of classifying living
    things, which kingdom(s) contain unicellular
    organisms?
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • All of the above
  • E.

46
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting an
evolutionary tree. (reasoning) USE THE
EVOLUTIONARY TREE FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
47
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting an
evolutionary tree. (reasoning) USE THE
EVOLUTIONARY TREE FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
  • The three major branches of this evolutionary
    tree are
  • Families
  • Kingdoms
  • Domains
  • Species
  • C

48
Learning Target Determine the characteristics of
domains and kingdoms by interpreting an
evolutionary tree. (reasoning) USE THE
EVOLUTIONARY TREE FOUND IN SEMESTER REVIEW
  • According to the diagram
  • Animals evolved from slime molds
  • Animals are more closely related to
    Thermotrogales than they are to Thermococcus
  • Animals and slime molds share a common ancestor
  • Fungi and Plants do not share a common ancestor.
  • C

49
Learning Target Use a dichotomous key to
identify the scientific name of organisms.
(skill)
Who am I?
Dichotomous Key on Norns 1. Has pointed ears
.................................... go to 3
....Has rounded ears ............................
........go to 2 2. Has no tail
.............................................
Kentuckyus ....Has tail ....................
.............................. Dakotus 3. Ears
point upward ....................................
go to 5 ....Ears point downward
..............go to 4 4. Ears have no hair tufts
............................. Dallus
....Has hairy tufts on ears ......................
....................Californius 5. Ears have
stripes ............................. WalaWala
....Ears do not have stripes...................
.go to 6 6. Has hair on head ....................
......................... Beverlus ....Has
no hair on head (may have ear tufts) .......go to
7 7. Has a tail .................................
............ Yorkio ....Has no tail,
............................ Rajus
Californius
50
EVOUTION ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • Unit Target Conduct a study on a 21st century
    evolution problem.

51
Learning Target Define the following key terms
associated with antibiotic resistance.
(knowledge)
  • Antibiotic resistant bacteria
  • a disease causing organism
  • A drug that blocks the growth and reproduction of
    bacteria
  • The ability of an organism to defend itself
    against disease
  • Pathogen
  • Antibiotic
  • Superbug
  • Resistance

52
Learning Target Interpret information
pertaining to antibiotic resistance. (reasoning)
  • MRSA is a bacterium that can spread very quickly
    in hospitals and nursing homes. It is difficult
    to treat because it is resistant to methicillin
    and other antibiotics.
  • What is the name of the pathogen?
  • MRSA
  • What antibiotic is MRSA resistant to?
  • Methicillin
  • Is MRSA a superbug?
  • Yes- it is antibiotic resistant

53
Learning Target Evaluate a controlled
experiment. (skill)
  • A student wanted to test the effectiveness of 3
    cleaning solutions in preventing the growth of
    bacteria. The student cleaned a 1 foot square
    with cleaner 1, another square with cleaner 2 and
    so on. The 4th square was washed with water. He
    then wiped each square with a clean swab and
    smeared the swab onto an agar plate. The plates
    were kept at a warm temperature and checked after
    24 hours.

54
  • What is the purpose of this experiment?
  • To study the affects of temperature on bacterial
    growth
  • To determine the effectiveness of various
    cleaning solutions in preventing bacterial growth
  • To test which type of bacteria is more resistant
    to a cleaning solution
  • All of the above
  • b.

55
  • Which of the following was NOT a factor held
    constant?
  • Time
  • Temperature
  • Area
  • Disinfectant
  • d. Disinfectant- this was the independent
    variable.

56
  • What was the control in the experiment?
  • Cleaning one square with plain water.

57
Results of the experiment.
Cleaning Solution 1 2 3 Water
Growth of bacteria (mm) 1mm 0mm 3mm 5mm
Which cleaning solution was best at controlling
bacterial growth? 2 If you were going to plot
this data on a graph, what axis would the growth
of bacteria be plotted on? Y axis- dependant
variable
58
  • True or False? People should be concerned about
    the overuse of antibacterial products.
  • True.
  • Why should people be concerned about the overuse
    of antibacterial products?
  • It can result in an increase in viruses.
  • It can result in superbugs that are resistant to
    antibacterial products.
  • It can make it difficult to treat bacterial
    diseases.
  • Both b and c are correct.
  • d.

59
ECOLOGY- FLOW OF ENERGY
  • Unit Target Research ways in which organisms in
    an ecosystem get the materials and energy they
    need.

60
Define terms related to energy flow in an
ecosystem. (Knowledge)
  • Autotroph is to producer as
  • heterotroph is to ___________________
  • consumer

61
Primary producer Breaks down organic matter
Herbivore Meat eating Omnivore Uses
solar energy to make its
own food Carnivore Plant and
meat eating Detritivore Eats dead
carcasses Scavenger Eats organic matter
Decomposer Plant eating
62
Match components of a desert food web with
specific examples.
  • Primary producer
  • Herbivore
  • Carnivore
  • Scavenger
  • Decomposer
  • Jack Rabbit
  • Bacteria
  • Buzzard
  • Cactus
  • Coyote

63
  • In a chemical equation the products are on the (
    left / right ) side.

64
True or False? The original source of energy for
most living things is water. Baloney Sun Name
the missing parts of the photosynthesis formula
from left to right.
light 6CO2 6H2O --------? 6O2
C6H12O6
65
  • True or False?
  • Heterotrophs can carry out photosynthesis?
  • False- Only autotrophs can convert sunlight into
    usable energy. Heterotrophs carry out cellular
    respiration.
  • Plants and animals carry out cellular
    respiration.
  • True

66
  • Cellular respiration can best be defined as
  • a. The movement of nutrients through a food
    chain.
  • b. Using the suns energy to make chemical
    energy
  • c. The building up of complex molecules.
  • The process that releases energy from food in the
    presence of oxygen.
  • d.

67
  • Aerobic cellular respiration
  • Produces more energy than anaerobic respiration.
  • Uses the products of photosynthesis to make ATP.
  • Requires oxygen to release energy stored in food.
  • All of the above
  • d.

68
  • Which is true regarding energy?
  • is recycled through an ecosystem
  • is produced by all organisms in an ecosystem
  • flows in one direction in an ecosystem
  • an example is carbon
  • c.

69
  • True or false?
  • The levels of energy transfer in a food web are
    called trophic levels.
  • True
  • Organisms store 100 of their energy.
  • False- they use most of their energy for life
    processes and also release energy as heat.

70
Learning Target Use a diagram to predict
changes that occur during photosynthesis
(reasoning)
71
What are the reactants of photosynthesis? Water
and carbon dioxide What are the products? Oxygen
and glucose What form of energy is converted to
glucose? Light energy Can photosynthesis occur
in the dark? No- the light-dependent reactions
require light.
Photosynthesis take place in the ________ of a
cell. Chloroplast
72
Learning Target Use the diagram of the energy
pyramid to answer questions. (reasoning)
  • Which letter represents the 3rd trophic level?
  • C
  • If 1000 energy units are available at Level A how
    many are available at level B?
  • 100 (always reduced by 10)
  • Which level contain organisms that are
    herbivores?
  • B- the rabbits

73

Learning Target Interpret a diagram of a food
web. (skill)
Name the primary producers. Berries, flowers,
grass, seeds Which organisms are the top of this
food chain? Bear and hawk. Is the chipmunk an
omnivore? No- an herbivore A food chain within
this food web would be berries, deer, bear,
decomposers. True
74
Learning Target Interpret data from a simple
data presentation (Skill)
  • What does this graph show?
  • The effect of temperature on the rate of
    photosynthesis.
  • As temperature increase.
  • photosynthesis increases and then decreases.
  • At what temperature is the rate of photosynthesis
    the greatest?
  • 25 degrees Celcius

75
ECOLOGY- INTERACTIONS
  • Unit Target Organisms and populations of
    organisms obtain necessary resources from their
    environment, which includes other organisms and
    physical factors.

76
Learning Target Define key terms. (Knowledge)
  • Is it abiotic or biotic?
  • Water
  • Abiotic
  • Soil
  • Abiotic
  • Parrot
  • Biotic
  • Abiotic is non-living, Biotic is living

77
  • Matter can recycle through the biosphere because
  • Matter is transformed, not used up
  • Matter moves in one direction through an
    ecosystem
  • Matter is a type of energy
  • All of the above
  • a.

78
  • True or False?
  • A nutrient is a substance required by a living
    thing to carry out essential functions.
  • True

79
Learning Target Interpret a diagram of a
nutrient cycle. (Skill)
  • Review the nutrient cycle diagrams on the next
    pages. Be ready to answer questions. Refer to
    homework, scrimmages and tests for practice.

80
(No Transcript)
81
(No Transcript)
82
(No Transcript)
83
Learning Target Define biodiversity.
(knowledge)
  • Biodiversity is
  • The variety of different species living in an
    area.
  • All the members of the same species that live in
    an area.
  • Is the correct answer
  • Is the definition for a population.

84
Learning Target Explain the value of
biodiversity in an ecosystem and how it can
impact species survival. (Reasoning)
  • Which of the following is NOT a value of
    biodiversity?
  • Foods
  • Medicine
  • Leads to a stable environment
  • All are values of biodiversity
  • d.

85
Define population. (knowledge)
  • A population is
  • the variety of different species living in an
    area.
  • all the members of the same species that live in
    an area.
  • b. Is the correct answer
  • Is the definition for biodiversity. Remember?

86
Learning Target Define types of population
growth (K)
Match the type of growth with the correct
definition.
  • Linear growth
  • Exponential growth
  • Logistic growth
  • When a population reproduces at a constant rate
    (ex doubling)
  • Same increase in individuals for each time period
    (ex. 2 per year)
  • A period in which growth slows after a period of
    rapid growth

87
Identify the features of this graph.
88
Learning Target Investigate the effects of
biotic and abiotic factors on population growth.
  • True or False?
  • Populations grow exponentially when resources are
    limited.
  • False, unlimited
  • Limiting factors determine the carrying capacity
    of an environment for a species.
  • True

89
  • Which of the following would NOT be a limiting
    factor for you?
  • Water
  • Carbohydrates
  • Vitamins
  • Tickets to a Brewers game
  • d. You can live without going to the Brewers
    game.

90
Learning Target Interpret a graph of population
growth. (skill)
  • What happens to the moose population as the wolf
    population increases?
  • It decreases.
  • Why?
  • Predation

91
Good Luck on the Final Exam
About PowerShow.com