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Simple Machines

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Simple Machines Chapter 12 Section 3 1. There are six basic kinds of simple machines: a. INCLINED PLANE d. LEVER b. WEDGE e. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Simple Machines


1
Simple Machines
  • Chapter 12 Section 3

2
  • 1. There are six basic kinds of simple machines
  • a. INCLINED PLANE d. LEVER
  • b. WEDGE e. WHEEL AND AXLE
  • c. SCREW f. PULLEY

3
Inclined plane
  • Definition Flat, sloped surface
  • How it works exert your input force over a
    longer distance
  • Mechanical Advantage Ideal MA Length of
    incline/height of incline
  • Example ramp

4
Wedge
  • Definition A DEVICE THAT IS THICK AT ONE END AND
    TAPERS TO A THIN EDGE AT THE OTHER END
  • How it works YOU MOVE THE INCLINED PLANE ITSELF
  • Mechanical Advantage LENGTH OF THE WEDGE/WIDTH
    OF THE WEDGE
  • Example Ax

5
Screws
  • Definition AN INCLINED PLANE WRAPPED AROUND A
    CYLINDER
  • How it works EXERT INPUT FORCE ON THE SCREW AS
    YOU TWIST, THREADS INCREASE THE DISTANCE OF THE
    INPUT FORCE
  • Mechanical Advantage LENGTH AROUND THE
    TREADS/LENGTH OF THE SCREW
  • Example Screw

6
Levers
  • Definition RIGID BAR THAT IS FREE TO PIVOT, OR
    ROTATE, ON A FIXED POINT
  • How it works EXERT INPUT FORCE, PIVOTS ON
    FULCRUM, EXERTS OUTPUT FORCE
  • Mechanical Advantage DISTANCE FROM FUCLCRUM TO
    INPUT FORCE/DISTANCE FROM FULCRUM TO OUTPUT FORCE
  • Example Seesaw

7
Wheel and axle
  • Definition SIMPLE MACHINE MADE OF TWO CIRCULAR
    OR CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS FASTENED TOGETHER THAT
    ROTATE ABOUT A COMMON AXIS
  • How it works APPLY INPUT FORCE TO TURN THE
    WHEEL. AXLE ROTATES AND EXERTS A LARGE OUTPUT
    FORCE INCREASES THE FORCE
  • Mechanical Advantage RADIUS OF WHEEL/RADIUS OF
    AXLE
  • Example screwdriver

8
Pulley
  • Definition A SIMPLE MACHINE MADE OF A GROOVED
    WHEEL WITH A ROPE OR CABLE WRAPPED AROUND IT
  • How it works PULLING ON ONE END OF A ROPE, INPUT
    FORCE- OUTPUT FORCE PULLS ON AN OBJECT ON THE
    OTHER END OF THE ROPE
  • Mechanical Advantage NUMBER OF SECTIONS OF ROPE
    THAT SUPPORT THE OBJECT
  • Example Flagpole

9
  • 3. The three classes of levers differ in the
    positions of the FULCRUM, INPUT FORCE and OUTPUT
    FORCE.
  • 4. First class levers Change the direction of
    the INPUT FORCE.
  • a. Fulcrum is closer to output force, levers
    INCREASE force
  • b. Fulcrum is closer to the INPUT force,
    increase distance
  • c. Examples SCISSORS PLIERS SEESAW
  • d. Draw 1st class lever p. 427. Label fulcrum,
    output force and input force

Output force
Input
Force Fulcrum
10
  • 5. Second class lever Increase force, but do not
    change the DIRECTION of the input force.
  • e. Examples DOORS NUTCRACKERS BOTTLE
    OPENERS
  • f. Draw 2nd class lever p. 427 Label Input
    force, Output force and fulcrum
  • INPUT FORCE OUTPUT FORCE

  • FULCRUM

11
  • 6. Third class levers Increase DISTANCE but
    do not change the DIRECTION of the input
    force.
  • a. examples FISHING POLES SHOVELS
    BASEBALL BATS
  • b. Draw example with fulcrum, input force and
    output force
  • input force
    output force
  • fulcrum

12
  • 7. Types of Pulleys Draw an example of each in
    the margin
  • a. A FIXED pulley does not change the amount
    of force applied. It will change the DIRECTION
    of the force.
  • b. A movable pulley DECREASES the amount of
    input force needed. It does not change the
    DIRECTION of the force.
  • c. A block and TACKLE is a pulley system made
    up of FIXED and MOVABLE pulleys.

13
  • 8. Most of the machines in your BODY are
    levers that consist of bone and muscles.
  • 9. In your body, what is the Lever? TENDONS AND
    MUSCLE PULLING ON BONE Fulcrum? JOINT NEAR THE
    TENDON ATTACHED TO THE BONE Input force? MUCLES
    Output force? USED FOR DOING WORK, EX LIFTING
    HAND
  • 10. Where is the wedge in your body? INCISORS
    (TEETH)

14
  • 11. What is a compound machine? A MACHINE THAT
    UTILIZES TWO OR MORE SIMPLE MACHINES
  • 12. The ideal mechanical advantage of a compound
    machine is the PRODUCT of the individual ideal
    mechanical advantage of the SIMPLE machines
    that make it up.
  • 13. What is an example of a compound machine?
    APPLE PEELER
  • 14. What simple machines make up this machine?
    HANDLE WHEEL AND AXLE AXLE SCREW THAT TURNS
    WEDGE PEELS THE SKIN LEVER HOLDS THE MACHINE
    IN PLACE (ENGAGES A SUCTION CUP)
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